Education Law and Advocacy

Virginia Construction Law Deskbook
Publication Date: 2018 Edition
Available Formats: Print (539 pages, softcover, 1 volume)
  Electronic (searchable PDF via flash drive, CD, or immediate download)
  Both Print and Electronic formats
Product #: 962

Information

Content Highlights:

  • Student and Parental Rights Under the SOLS and ESEA
  • Enrollment in and Access to School
  • School Attendance and Truancy
  • School Discipline and Student Rights
  • Special Education
  • School Discipline and Students with Disabilities
  • Immigration, ESL, and Language Access
  • Section 504 and ADA Basics
  • Taking an Education Case to Court
  • Education of Incarcerated Youth

"We wrote this book because we know firsthand how hard it is to navigate the complex maze of law and regulations governing Virginia’s public schools. It covers a wide variety of topics in education law from the perspective of student's advocates. If you are a guardian ad litem, regularly handle cases in juvenile court, a special education attorney, or see yourself as a child advocate, this book will introduce you to and help demystify the world of education law, from enrollment to graduation." - Angela Ciolfi, author and Director of Litigation and Advocacy at the Legal Aid Justice Center

Advocacy for students should ensure that each child receives a fair and appropriate public education. In 2017, the U.S. Supreme Court stated that the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) demands an educational program to enable a child to make progress that is appropriate in light of the child’s circumstances, not merely de minimus progress from year to year.

Education Law and Advocacy will guide practitioners who represent children and families in this complex area. New coverage in the 2018 edition includes the 2017 Virginia Standards of Accreditation with changes to graduation requirements, the federal requirements for the immediate enrollment of homeless children, the special challenges facing children in foster care, and coverage of what must be done for the education of immigrant children.


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Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION TO EDUCATION LAW
AND GENERAL PRACTICE TIPS


1.1 SOURCES OF LAW
        1.101 Statutes and Regulations
        1.102 Case Law

1.2 OBTAINING EDUCATION RECORDS
        1.201 Importance of School Records
        1.202 Privacy and Releases of Information

1.3 WHO IS THE CLIENT? RETAINERS/LEGAL
REPRESENTATION AGREEMENTS

1.4 ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS: REPRESENTED AND
UNREPRESENTED PERSONS AND ORGANIZATIONS

APPENDIX 1-1: SAMPLE FORM AUTHORIZATION FOR
RELEASE OF INFORMATION

APPENDIX 1-2: SAMPLE REQUEST FOR EDUCATION RECORDS

APPENDIX 1-3: LEGAL ETHICS OPINION NO. 1537

CHAPTER 2: STUDENT AND PARENTAL RIGHTS UNDER
THE STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOL) AND THE
ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION
ACT (ESEA)


2.1 INTRODUCTION
        2.101 In General
        2.102 Accreditation

2.2 THE STANDARDS OF LEARNING (SOL)
        2.201 SOL Tests
        2.202 SOL Tests and Students with Disabilities
        2.203 SOL Tests and Graduation

CHAPTER 3: ENROLLMENT IN AND ACCESS TO SCHOOL

3.1 INTRODUCTION

3.2 GENERAL ENROLLMENT PRINCIPLES

3.3 DOCUMENTS AND CERTIFICATIONS REQUIRED
FOR ENROLLMENT

3.4 ENROLLMENT FOR SPECIAL POPULATIONS
        3.401 Students Living with Non-Parent Relatives
        3.402 Homeless Students (McKinney-Vento Rights)
        3.403 Youth in Foster Care
        3.404 Suspended, Expelled, or Court-Involved Students
        3.405 Incarcerated Youth
        3.406 Immigrant Students

APPENDIX 3-1: BEST INTEREST DETERMINATION FOR
FOSTER CARE SCHOOL PLACEMENT FORM
(VDOE AND VDSS)

APPENDIX 3-2: IMMEDIATE ENROLLMENT OF CHILD
IN FOSTER CARE FORM (VDOE AND VDSS)

APPENDIX 3-3: BEST INTEREST DETERMINATION FOR
HOMELESS STUDENTS AND SCHOOL PLACEMENT
FORM (PROJECT HOPE)

APPENDIX 3-4: HOMELESS STUDENT KNOW YOUR
RIGHTS FLYER

APPENDIX 3-5: SAMPLE ENROLLMENT COVER SHEET

APPENDIX 3-6: SAMPLE SWORN PARENTAL STATEMENT

APPENDIX 3-7: SAMPLE POWER OF ATTORNEY

APPENDIX 3-8: DREAM BIG: EDUCATION FOR IMMIGRANT
STUDENTS AND CHILDREN OF IMMIGRANTS

CHAPTER 4: SCHOOL ATTENDANCE AND TRUANCY

4.1 INTRODUCTION

4.2 COMPULSORY ATTENDANCE REQUIREMENTS
        4.201 In General
        4.202 Home Schooling

4.3 TRUANCY AND THE “CHILD IN NEED OF SUPERVISION”
(CHINSUP) PETITIONS
        4.301 School-Based Prevention and Intervention
        4.302 Diversion (Proceeding Informally)
        4.303 Adjudication
        4.304 Disposition
        4.305 Violation of Court Order to Go to School
        (Pre- or Post-Disposition)
        4.306 Dispositional Alternatives

CHAPTER 5: SCHOOL DISCIPLINE AND STUDENT RIGHTS

5.1 INTRODUCTION

5.2 SUSPENSION AND EXPULSION GENERALLY
        5.201 Sources of Law
        5.202 Definitions and Disciplinary Authority

5.3 ZERO TOLERANCE
        5.301 In General
        5.302 In Virginia

5.4 ALTERNATIVE SCHOOLS AND PROGRAMS
        5.401 Program v. School
        5.402 Placement
        5.403 Students with Disabilities
    
5.5 PROCEDURAL DUE PROCESS
        5.501 Fourteenth Amendment
        5.502 Statutory Procedures
        5.503 School Board Policies
        5.504 Contents of Written Notice
        5.505 Timelines for Notice, Hearings, and Appeals
        5.506 Hearing Officers and Decision Makers

5.6 ADVOCACY STRATEGIES
        5.601 Goals of the Representation
        5.602 Requesting Discipline Records
        5.603 Preparing for the Hearings

5.7 APPEALS

5.8 CRIMINALIZATION OF SCHOOL MISCONDUCT
        5.801 School-Court Communications
        5.802 Investigation by School and Law Enforcement Officials
    
5.9 OTHER ISSUES IN STUDENT DISCIPLINE
        5.901 Punishment of Off-Campus Conduct
        5.902 Allegations of Gang Activity and the First Amendment
        5.903 Corporal Punishment Prohibited; Reasonable
        Force Permitted
        5.904 Restraint and Seclusion
        5.905 Bullying
        5.906 Threat Assessments

APPENDIX 5-1: SAMPLE REQUEST FOR A
SUPERINTENDENT’S HEARING

APPENDIX 5-2: SAMPLE REQUEST FOR A SCHOOL
BOARD HEARING

APPENDIX 5-3: DEAR COLLEAGUE LETTER:
HARASSMENT AND BULLYING

APPENDIX 5-4: FIFTEEN PRINCIPLES OF RESTRAINT
AND SECLUSION

CHAPTER 6: SPECIAL EDUCATION

6.1 HISTORY AND OVERVIEW OF SPECIAL EDUCATION LAW
        6.101 History of Special Education Law
        6.102 Overview of Special Education: Law, Eligibility
        and Timelines

6.2 WHO QUALIFIES FOR SPECIAL EDUCATION
AND RELATED SERVICES UNDER IDEA?

6.3 FREE APPROPRIATE PUBLIC EDUCATION (FAPE)

6.4 PARENTAL RIGHTS AND THE DEFINITION OF “PARENT”

6.5 FROM CHILD FIND TO ELIGIBILITY
        6.501 Child Find
        6.502 Early Intervening Services and Response to
        Intervention
        6.503 Referral for Initial Evaluation (Child Study Process)
        6.504 Evaluations and Reevaluations
        6.505 Independent Educational Evaluations (IEE)
        6.506 Eligibility Determinations

6.6 THE IEP TEAM
        6.601 Parental Consent for Services
        6.602 IEP Development and IEP Team

6.7 CONTENT OF THE IEP
        6.701 Present Levels of Performance
        6.702 Annual Goals
        6.703 Related Services
        6.704 Transition Services

6.8 PLACEMENT
        6.801 Placements and Locations of Services Generally
        6.802 Least Restrictive Environment

6.9 DISPUTES
        6.901 In General
        6.902 Informal Resolution
        6.903 Complaint to the Virginia Department of
        Education (VDOE)
        6.904 Mediation
        6.905 Due Process Hearings
        6.906 Available Remedies
        6.907 Due Process Litigation Tips

APPENDIX 6-1: SAMPLE DUE PROCESS HEARING REQUEST

APPENDIX 6-2: PARENTAL REQUEST FOR
RESEARCH-BASED INTERVENTIONS AND
SPECIAL EDUCATION EVALUATION

CHAPTER 7: SCHOOL DISCIPLINE AND STUDENTS WITH
DISABILITIES


7.1 OVERVIEW OF THE PROCESS

7.2 DISCIPLINARY CHANGES IN PLACEMENT

7.3 MANIFESTATION DETERMINATION REVIEW

7.4 WEAPONS, DRUGS, AND SERIOUS BODILY INJURIES

7.5 SERVICES DURING REMOVAL

7.6 DISCIPLINING STUDENTS NOT YET FOUND
ELIGIBLE FOR SPECIAL EDUCATION

7.7 DISPUTE RESOLUTION/CHALLENGING THE
MDR DECISION

APPENDIX 7-1: BEST PRACTICES GUIDE FOR
MANIFESTATION DETERMINATION REVIEW
HEARINGS

CHAPTER 8: IMMIGRATION, ENGLISH AS A SECOND
LANGUAGE, AND LANGUAGE ACCESS—EQUAL
ACCESS FOR IMMIGRANT CHILDREN AND
STUDENTS WITH LIMITED ENGLISH
PROFICIENCY


8.1 PLYLER V. DOE AND THE “RIGHT” TO EDUCATION

8.2 ENROLLMENT ISSUES FOR IMMIGRANT STUDENTS

8.3 LEGAL FOUNDATIONS OF TITLE VI AND THE EQUAL
EDUCATION OPPORTUNITY ACT
        8.301 Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964
        8.302 The Equal Education Opportunity Act (EEOA)

8.4 ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE (ESL) AND
BILINGUAL EDUCATION IN VIRGINIA
        8.401 In General
        8.402 Segregation by National Origin
        8.403 Identification and Eligibility
        8.404 Instructional Qualifications
        8.405 Termination of ESL Services
        8.406 Special Opportunity Programs

8.5 STUDENTS WITH LIMITED ENGLISH PROFICIENCY
AND THE SOL

8.6 SPECIAL EDUCATION AND STUDENTS WITH
LIMITED ENGLISH PROFICIENCY

8.7 ENFORCEMENT OF RIGHTS AND REMEDIES
        8.701 Informal Dispute Resolution
        8.702 Title VI
        8.703 EEOA

8.8 DEFERRED ACTION FOR CHILDHOOD ARRIVALS
(DACA)

CHAPTER 9: SECTION 504 AND ADA BASICS


9.1 OVERVIEW

9.2 SECTION 504 OF THE REHABILITATION ACT

9.3 TITLE II OF THE AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT

CHAPTER 10: TAKING AN EDUCATION CASE TO COURT

10.1 FEDERAL COURT

10.2 CIRCUIT COURT REVIEW

10.3 PRELIMINARY INJUNCTION

10.4 JUVENILE COURT: PETITIONS OR MOTIONS TO
ORDER EDUCATIONAL SERVICES

APPENDIX 10-1: SAMPLE PETITION TO REVIEW SCHOOL
BOARD DECISION

APPENDIX 10-2: SAMPLE MEMORANDUM OF LAW
SUPPORTING MOTION TO ORDER
EDUCATIONAL SERVICES

CHAPTER 11: EDUCATION OF INCARCERATED YOUTH

11.1 TERMINOLOGY: “DETENTION” V. “COMMITMENT”
        11.101 Commitment
        11.102 Detention
        11.103 The Court Services Unit (“Probation” or
        “Community Supervision”)
        11.104 DJJ Length of Stay Guidelines

11.2 EDUCATIONAL RIGHTS DURING CONFINEMENT
        11.201 Children with Disabilities
        11.202 Educational Records
        11.203 Sixty-Day Review

11.3 EDUCATIONAL RIGHTS UPON RELEASE:
REENROLLMENT REGULATIONS
        11.301 Eligibility
        11.302 Entering DJJ or Detention Home Custody
        11.303 Planning for Reenrollment Upon Release from Custody

APPENDIX 11-1: SAMPLE DEPARTMENT OF JUVENILE
JUSTICE RECORDS REQUEST

Authors

Primary Authors

Emily Suski

Angela Ciolfi

Additional Authors

Jeree Thomas

Crystal Shin

Mario Salas

Jason Langberg

Rachael Deane

Lisa Bennett

Amy Walters

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Education Law and Advocacy

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