Virginia Law and Practice: A Handbook for Attorneys

Virginia Law and Practice: A Handbook for Attorneys
Publication Date: 2020
Available Formats: Print (1,714 pages, softbound, 2 volumes)
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Product #: 961

Information

Chapter List:
  • Agency in Virginia
  • Appellate Practice in Virginia
  • Business Organizations in Virginia
  • Civil Procedure in Virginia
  • Conflict of Laws in Virginia
  • Contracts in Virginia
  • Creditors’ Rights in Virginia
  • Criminal Law in Virginia
  • Criminal Procedure in Virginia
  • Domestic Relations in Virginia
  • Equity in Virginia
  • Estate Administration in Virginia
  • Evidence in Virginia
  • Local Government Law in Virginia
  • Personal Property in Virginia
  • Post-Conviction Remedies in Virginia
  • Real Property in Virginia
  • Sales Law in Virginia
  • Torts in Virginia
  • Trusts in Virginia
  • Uniform Commercial Code in Virginia
  • Virginia Constitutional Law
  • Virginia Taxation
  • Wills in Virginia

If there is one book that every Virginia practitioner should have, this is it.

Virginia Law and Practice: A Handbook for Attorneys spans across major practice areas, as well as subjects found in almost every practice, such as agency and contracts. Combining quick reference to relevant primary law with practice pointers, it can and should be the first place you go to research a topic, get ready to meet a client, or prepare a case. It provides ongoing value to experienced attorneys, as well as new ones.

This 2020 edition is revised and updated through the 2019 session of the General Assembly, as well as recent state and federal cases.

The materials for this book also serve as the seminar materials for our Rule 1A:1 Reciprocity Course.


You may also be interested in:

Virginia Lawyer
The Virginia Lawyer: A Deskbook for Practitioners
Civil Forms
Virginia Civil Practice Forms
Criminal Forms
Virginia Criminal Practice Forms
Appellate Practice in Virginia
Appellate Practice - Virginia and Federal Courts
Rules of Evidence
A Guide to the Rules of Evidence in Virginia
Defending Criminal Cases in Virginia
Defending Criminal Cases in Virginia
Contract Law in Virginia
Contract Law in Virginia
Choosing a Virginia Business Entity
Choosing a Virginia Business Entity
Estate and Trust Administration in Virginia
Estate and Trust Administration in Virginia
Firginia Family Law
Virginia Family Law: A Systematic Approach

 

Table of Contents

CHAPTER LIST

1. Agency in Virginia

2. Appellate Practice in Virginia

3. Business Organizations in Virginia

4. Civil Procedure in Virginia

5. Conflict of Laws in Virginia

6. Contracts in Virginia

7. Creditors' Rights in Virginia

8. Criminal Law in Virginia

9. Criminal Procedure in Virginia

10. Post-Conviction Remedies in Virginia

11. Domestic Relations in Virginia

12. Equity in Virginia

13. Estate Administration in Virginia

14. Evidence in Virginia

15. Local Government Law in Virginia

16. Personal Property in Virginia

17. Real Property in Virginia

18. Sales Law in Virginia

19. Torts in Virginia

20. Trusts in Virginia

21. Uniform Commercial Code in Virginia

22. Virginia Constitutional Law

23. Virginia Taxation

24. Wills in Virginia


CHAPTER 1: AGENCY IN VIRGINIA

1.1 THE AGENCY RELATIONSHIP
        1.101 Agency Relationship
        1.102 Agent’s Duties to Principal
        1.103 Principal’s Duties to Agent

1.2 LIABILITY OF PRINCIPAL TO THIRD PARTIES FOR
CONTRACTS ENTERED BY AN AGENT
        1.201 Actual Authority
        1.202 Apparent Authority
        1.203 Ratification
        1.204 Liability of Principal
        1.205 Liability of Agent
        1.206 Liability of Third Party

1.3 LIABILITY OF PRINCIPAL TO THIRD PARTIES FOR
TORTS OF AN AGENT
        1.301 Respondeat Superior
        1.302 Employer/Employee Relationship
        1.303 Scope of Employment
        1.304 Negligent Hiring and Retention
        1.305 No Claim for Negligent Supervision
        1.306 Nature of the Plaintiff’s Injury
        1.307 Potential Claims of Immunity

1.4 DUAL AGENCY IN REAL ESTATE TRANSACTIONS
        1.401 Dual Agency
        1.402 Common Law Before the Statute’s Dual-Agency
        Amendment
        1.403 Legislative Action
        1.404 Statutory Framework


CHAPTER 2: APPELLATE PRACTICE IN VIRGINIA
PART ONE—THE VIRGINIA JUDICIAL SYSTEM:
ORGANIZATION AND STRUCTURE


2.1 INTRODUCTION

2.2 SUPREME COURT OF VIRGINIA
        2.201 In General
        2.202 Original Jurisdiction
        2.203 Appellate Jurisdiction

2.3 COURT OF APPEALS OF VIRGINIA
        2.301 In General
        2.302 En Banc Hearings
        2.303 Original Jurisdiction
        2.304 Appellate Jurisdiction

2.4 CIRCUIT COURTS
        2.401 In General
        2.402 Original Jurisdiction
        2.403 Appellate Jurisdiction

2.5 GENERAL DISTRICT COURTS
        2.501 In General
        2.502 General District Courts
        2.503 Juvenile and Domestic Relations District Courts

PART TWO—APPEALS TO THE COURT OF APPEALS AND
SUPREME COURT OF VIRGINIA

2.6 INTRODUCTION

2.7 PROTECTING THE RECORD IN THE TRIAL COURT AND
ASSIGNING ERROR IN THE APPELLATE COURT
        2.701 Objections in the Lower Court and Assignments of
        Error on Appeal
        2.702 Trial Motions and Proffers of Evidence
        2.703 Proffer of Excluded Evidence

2.8 PREREQUISITES TO APPEAL
            2.801 Appellate Jurisdiction
            2.802 Amount in Controversy
            2.803 Final Judgment
            2.804 Interlocutory Orders
            2.805 Orders Sustaining Demurrers
            2.806 Security for Appeal

2.9 MECHANICS OF THE APPEAL
        2.901 Appeal to the Virginia Court of Appeals
        2.902 Appeal to the Supreme Court of Virginia from the
        Court of Appeals
        2.903 Appeal to the Supreme Court of Virginia from
        Circuit Court

2.10 CAPITAL SENTENCE APPEALS
        2.1001 Automatic Review by Supreme Court
        2.1002 Scope of Review

2.11 COMMONWEALTH’S PRETRIAL APPEAL
        2.1101 Pretrial Review by Court of Appeals
        2.1102 Limited Issues
        2.1103 Petitioning for Appeal
        2.1104 Procedure for Awarded Appeal

2.12 RULE 1:5A REGARDING CURING DEFECTS IN
SIGNATURES

2.13 APPELLATE MEDIATION PILOT PROJECT

2.14 CONCLUSION

PART THREE—EXTRAORDINARY WRITS AND UNUSUAL
APPEALS

2.15 BACKGROUND

2.16 MANDAMUS AND PROHIBITION
        2.1601 In General
        2.1602 Discretionary Versus Ministerial Acts
        2.1603 The Virginia Freedom of Information Act (FOIA)
        2.1604 Use of Extraordinary Writs in Lieu of Interlocutory
        Appeals
    
2.17 QUO WARRANTO

2.18 APPEALS OF EXTRAORDINARY WRITS ISSUED BY
LOWER COURTS

2.19 APPEALS OF INTERLOCUTORY DECREES AND
INJUNCTIONS
        2.1901 In General
        2.1902 Injunctions


CHAPTER 3: BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS IN VIRGINIA


3.1 INTRODUCTION

3.2 SOLE PROPRIETORSHIPS
        3.201 Purpose
        3.202 Organization
        3.203 Permitted Ownership
        3.204 Control
        3.205 Duration
        3.206 Owner Liability
        3.207 Classes of Ownership Interest
        3.208 Transfer of Interests and Assets
        3.209 Income Tax Treatment
        3.210 Advantages
        3.211 Disadvantages

3.3 CORPORATIONS
        3.301 Purpose
        3.302 Organization
        3.303 Permitted Ownership
        3.304 Owner Liability
        3.305 Classes of Ownership Interest
        3.306 Transfer of Interests
        3.307 Income Tax Treatment
        3.308 Advantages
        3.309 Disadvantages
        3.310 Benefit Corporations

3.4 GENERAL PARTNERSHIPS
        3.401 Purpose
        3.402 Organization
        3.403 Permitted Ownership
        3.404 Control
        3.405 Duration
        3.406 Owner Liability
        3.407 Classes of Ownership Interest
        3.408 Transfer of Interests
        3.409 Income Tax Treatment
        3.410 Advantages
        3.411 Disadvantages

3.5 LIMITED PARTNERSHIPS
        3.501 Purpose
        3.502 Organization
        3.503 Permitted Ownership
        3.504 Control
        3.505 Duration
        3.506 Owner Liability
        3.507 Classes of Ownership Interest
        3.508 Transfer of Interests
        3.509 Income Tax Treatment
        3.510 Advantages
        3.511 Disadvantages
    
3.6 REGISTERED LIMITED LIABILITY PARTNERSHIPS
        3.601 Purpose
        3.602 Organization
        3.603 Permitted Ownership
        3.604 Control
        3.605 Duration
        3.606 Owner Liability
        3.607 Classes of Ownership Interest
        3.608 Transfer of Interests
        3.609 Income Tax Treatment
        3.610 Advantages
        3.611 Disadvantages

3.7 LIMITED LIABILITY COMPANIES
        3.701 Purpose
        3.702 Organization
        3.703 Permitted Ownership
        3.704 Control
        3.705 Duration
        3.706 Owner and Manager Liability
        3.707 Classes of Ownership Interest
        3.708 Transfer of Interests
        3.709 Income Tax Treatment
        3.710 Advantages
        3.711 Disadvantages

3.8 SERIES LIMITED LIABILITY COMPANIES
        3.801 New Type of LLC in Virginia
        3.802 General Characteristics of an SeLLC
        3.803 Additional Characteristics and Limitations
        3.804 Taxation
        3.805 Observations

3.9 BUSINESS TRUSTS
        3.901 Purpose
        3.902 Organization
        3.903 Permitted Ownership
        3.904 Control
        3.905 Duration
        3.906 Owner Liability
        3.907 Trustee Liability
        3.908 Classes of Ownership Interest
        3.909 Transfer of Interests
        3.910 Income Tax Treatment
        3.911 Advantages
        3.912 Disadvantages

3.10 CONVERSIONS AND MERGERS
        3.1001 Conversion of Limited Partnership into General
        Partnership
        3.1002 Conversion of General or Limited Partnership into
        Registered Limited Liability Partnership
        3.1003 Conversion of General or Limited Partnership into
        Limited Liability Company
        3.1004 Conversion of Corporation into Limited Liability
        Company and Vice Versa
        3.1005 Conversion of Domestic Entity into Business Trust
        3.1006 Merger and Share Exchange of Corporations
        3.1007 Merger of General Partnership with Limited
        Partnership, Limited Liability Company, Business
        Trust, or Corporation
        3.1008 Merger of Limited Partnership, Limited Liability
        Company, or Business Trust with Corporation
        3.1009 Merger of Business Trust with Business Trust or
        Other Entity
        3.1010 Virginia Real Estate Investment Trusts

3.11 DOMESTICATION A ND REGISTRATION OF FOREIGN
ENTITIES
        3.1101 Domestication of Corporations
        3.1102 Domestication of Limited Liability Companies
        3.1103 Domestication of Business Trusts
        3.1104 Certificates of Authority for Foreign Corporations
        3.1105 Registration of Foreign Limited Partnerships
        3.1106 Registration of Foreign Limited Liability Companies
        3.1107 Registration of Foreign Business Trusts

APPENDIX 3-1: CHOICE OF ENTITY CHART


CHAPTER 4: CIVIL PROCEDURE IN VIRGINIA


4.1 COURTS
        4.101 Judicial Department
        4.102 Supreme Court
        4.103 Court of Appeals
        4.104 Circuit Courts
        4.105 Clerk of Circuit Courts
        4.106 Courts Not of Record: In General
        4.107 Courts Not of Record: General District Courts

4.2 PREJUDGMENT REMEDIES
        4.201 Prejudgment Remedy of Detinue
        4.202 Attachment

4.3 PARTIES
        4.301 Plaintiff
        4.302 Defendant
        4.303 Parties in Equitable Claims
        4.304 Doctrine of Parties by Representation in Equity
        4.305 Change of Parties, Names of Parties, Amendment,
        Relation Back
        4.306 Special Rules for Certain Persons and Entities

4.4 VENUE
        4.401 Introduction
        4.402 Preferred and Permissible Venue
        4.403 Multiple Parties
        4.404 Parties Not Expressly Covered
        4.405 Objections to Venue
        4.406 Change of Venue by Court
        4.407 Review
        4.408 Ethical Consideration
        4.409 Sanctions
        4.410 Forum Selection Agreements

4.5 PROCESS
        4.501 Introduction
        4.502 Service of Process Generally
        4.503 Classification of Process (by Phases of a Case)
        4.504 Classification of Service
        4.505 Persons Who May Serve Process
        4.506 Persons Exempt from Service of Process
        4.507 Persons Privileged from “Arrest Under Civil Process”
        4.508 Service of Process on Natural Persons
        4.509 Time of Serving Process
        4.510 Return of Process (Va. Code § 8.01-325.)
        4.511 Service by Order of Publication
        4.512 Service on Particular Types of Defendants
        4.513 Void and Defective Service of Process
        4.514 Acceptance and Waiver of Process
        4.515 Jurisdiction
        4.516 Long-Arm Statute
        4.517 Summary of Methods of Service on Out-of-State
        Defendants

4.6 PLEADING A CAUSE OF ACTION
        4.601 Introductory Note on Rules of Court
        4.602 Classification of Actions
        4.603 Beginning January 1, 2006—One Form of Action
        4.604 Splitting the Cause of Action
        4.605 Joinder of Claims—Whether Praying for Legal and/or
        Equitable Relief Under Part 3 of the Rules
        4.606 Sufficiency and Particularity
        4.607 Variance Between Allegata and Probata
        4.608 Commencement of Action

4.7 DEFENSIVE PLEADING
        4.701 Timing
        4.702 Distinguish Three Types of Defensive Pleading
        4.703 Objections to Venue and Jurisdiction
        4.704 Plea in Suspension (Rare)
        4.705 Demurrer (Challenge to Legal Sufficiency)
        4.706 Motion for Bill of Particulars
        4.707 Pleas in Bar or Special Pleas
        4.708 Pleadings to the Merits
        4.709 Pleadings Which Must Be Sworn
        4.710 Motion for Summary Judgment

4.8 AGGRESSIVE PLEADINGS BY DEFENDANT AND THIRDPARTY
PRACTICE
        4.801 Overview: What We Are Dealing With
        4.802 Defendant Versus Plaintiff: Counterclaims and Cross-
        Claims
        4.803 Defendant Versus Another Defendant: Cross-Claims
        4.804 Bringing in Additional Parties at Law
        4.805 Addition or Dropping of Parties by Court

4.9 LIMITATION OF ACTIONS
        4.901 Introduction
        4.902 Four Fundamentals in Applying the Statute of
        Limitations
        4.903 Determine the Number of Causes of Action
        4.904 Accrual of the Cause of Action
        4.905 Limitation Periods—What Statute of Limitations
        Applies
        4.906 Tolling the Running of Statute of Limitations
        4.907 Estoppel to Plead the Statute of Limitations
        4.908 Who May Plead the Statute of Limitations
        4.909 Limitations and Laches Claims in Equity

4.10 DISCOVERY
        4.1001 Overview
        4.1002 Scope of Discovery
        4.1003 Court Supervision
        4.1004 Supplementation of Responses
        4.1005 Failure to Make Discovery; Sanctions
        4.1006 A Study of Federal And Virginia Rules of Discovery

4.11 TRIAL: PRELIMINARIES AND INCIDENTS
        4.1101 Preliminaries
        4.1102 Jury
        4.1103 Opening Statement of Counsel
        4.1104 The Proof: Law and Equity Claim; Weight in Equity
        4.1105 Withdrawing the Case from the Jury; Motions to
        Strike
        4.1106 Instructions to the Jury—See Model Jury Instruction
        Prepared by a Committee Appointed by the Virginia
        Supreme Court
        4.1107 Argument of Counsel
        4.1108 Verdict of Jury
        4.1109 Motions After Verdict
        4.1110 Bill of Review in Equity
        4.1111 Judgments/Decrees

4.12 VERDICTS IN ACTION AT LAW


CHAPTER 5: CONFLICT OF LAWS IN VIRGINIA


5.1 SOURCES OF LAW
        5.101 Case Law
        5.102 Statutes

5.2 GENERAL RULES
        5.201 Tort Versus Contract Determination
        5.202 Substantive Versus Procedural Determination
        5.203 Restatement Analysis Rejected
        5.204 Public Policy

5.3 DIVERSITY ACTIONS IN FEDERAL COURT

5.4 TORT ACTIONS GENERALLY
        5.401 Lex Loci Delicti Standard
        5.402 Guest Statute
        5.403 Loss of Consortium
        5.404 Attributing Negligence in Use or Operation of
        Vehicle to the Owner
        5.405 Vehicle Accident Involving Rental Car Leased out
        of State
        5.406 Fourth Circuit Opinion

5.5 CONTRACT ACTIONS GENERALLY
        5.501 Nature, Validity, and Interpretation of Contracts
        5.502 Performance of Contracts
        5.503 Intent of Parties

5.6 CIVIL PROCEDURE
        5.601 Capacity to Sue
        5.602 Joinder of Causes of Action
        5.603 Prejudgment Interest

5.7 CORPORATIONS

5.8 CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

5.9 DOMESTIC RELATIONS
        5.901 Premarital Agreements
        5.902 Choice of Law Is a Question of Law on Appeal
        5.903 Uniform Interstate Family Support Act

5.10 REAL ESTATE
        5.1001 Contracts
        5.1002 Lex Loci Applies to Landlord’s Duty

5.11 UNIFORM COMMERCIAL CODE

5.12 UNINSURED MOTORISTS
        5.1201 Insurance Contracts
        5.1202 Uninsured Motorists
        5.1203 “John Doe” Actions

5.13 WILLS AND ESTATES
        5.1301 Testamentary Capacity
        5.1302 Construction and Effect of Will

5.14 WRONGFUL DEATH
        5.1401 Cap on Noneconomic Damages
        5.1402 Limitation on Damages
        5.1403 Noneconomic Damages in Virginia

5.15 MISCELLANEOUS STATUTORY CHOICE-OF-LAW
PROVISIONS
        5.1501 Alcoholic Beverage Control Act
        5.1502 Other Statutes


CHAPTER 6: CONTRACTS IN VIRGINIA


6.1 SOURCES AND DEFINITIONS OF CONTRACT LAW
        6.101 Statutory Law
        6.102 Definitions of Terms

6.2 FORMATION OF CONTRACTS
        6.201 Mechanics of Assent: Offer and Acceptance
        6.202 Consideration
        6.203 Contracts Without Consideration
        6.204 Seal and Other Virginia Formalities

6.3 STATUTE OF FRAUDS
        6.301 Introduction
        6.302 Scope of the Statute
        6.303 Satisfaction of the Statute
        6.304 Effect of Noncompliance
        6.305 Additional Virginia Statutes Requiring Agreements
        to Be in Writing

6.4 POLICING THE BARGAIN
        6.401 Mental Competence
        6.402 Contracts of Minors
        6.403 Mistake
        6.404 Fraud and Misrepresentation
        6.405 Duress and Undue Influence
        6.406 Modification of Contracts
        6.407 Warranties and Disclaimers
        6.408 Public Policy and Illegality
        6.409 Unconscionability
        6.410 Accord and Satisfaction

6.5 NONPERFORMANCE
        6.501 Anticipatory Breach
        6.502 Breach: Types and Effects
        6.503 Substantial Performance
        6.504 Responses to Breach
        6.505 Excuse for Nonperformance: Impossibility
        and Frustration
    
6.6 ASSIGNMENT OF RIGHTS
        6.601 Assignable Rights
        6.602 Requirements for Effective Assignment

6.7 JOINT AND SEVERAL CONTRACTS
        6.701 In General
        6.702 Several Liability
        6.703 Joint Liability
        6.704 Joint and Several Liability
        6.705 Liability of Unnamed Signer
        6.706 Promises of the Same Performance
        6.707 Partnership Obligations
        6.708 Negotiable Instruments
        6.709 Form Provisions

6.8 REMEDIES FOR BREACH OF CONTRACT
        6.801 Introduction
        6.802 Election of Remedies
        6.803 Damages
        6.804 Specific Performance
        6.805 Injunctions
        6.806 Rescission


CHAPTER 7: CREDITORS’ RIGHTS IN VIRGINIA


7.1 INTRODUCTION

7.2 ACCORD AND SATISFACTION
        7.201 Common Law
        7.202 Affirmative Defense
        7.203 Tender of Payment “in Full Satisfaction”
        7.204 Uniform Commercial Code
        7.205 Effect on Co-Debtors

7.3 ARTISANS’ AND SERVICE LIENS
        7.301 Innkeeper’s Lien
        7.302 Garagemen’s Lien (Personal Property Other Than
        Motor Vehicles)
        7.303 Garagemen’s Lien (Motor Vehicles)
        7.304 Mechanics’ Lien (Personal Property Other Than
        Motor Vehicles)
        7.305 Mechanic’s Lien (Motor Vehicles)
        7.306 Warehouseman’s Lien

7.4 ATTORNEY FEES
        7.401 Common Law
        7.402 Consumer Lease Contracts; Unconscionability
        7.403 Usury

7.5 FOREIGN CORPORATIONS’ CAPACITY TO SUE IN
VIRGINIA
        7.501 Qualification to Transact Business
        7.502 Litigation Not “Transacting Business”
    
7.6 CHOICE OF LAW AND FORUM SELECTION
        7.601 In General
        7.602 Venue
        7.603 Limited in Consumer Leases

7.7 HOMESTEAD EXEMPTIONS
        7.701 Federal Homestead Exemption Not Applicable
        in Virginia
        7.702 Virginia Homestead Exemption
        7.703 “Poor Debtor’s Exemption”
        7.704 Additional Exemptions
        7.705 Exemptions From Garnishment
        7.706 Homestead Allowance in Claims Against Estates
        7.707 Waiver of the Homestead Exemption
        7.708 Property Held as Tenants by the Entirety
    
7.8 INTEREST
        7.801 “Legal Rate”
        7.802 Annual Cap of 12 Percent
        7.803 Judgment Rate

7.9 LANDLORDS’ LIENS
        7.901 Procedure
        7.902 Priority and Amount

7.10 LATE CHARGES

7.11 LICENSED LENDERS
        7.1101 Consumer Lenders
        7.1102 Mortgage Lenders

7.12 LIQUIDATED DAMAGES

7.13 PREPAYMENT PENALTIES
        7.1301 Installment Sales Contracts
        7.1302 Real Estate Loans of Less Than $75,000
        7.1303 Real Estate Loans Secured by Owner-Occupied
        Property
        7.1304 Subordinate Real Estate Loans
        7.1305 Limited Applicability of Restrictions on Prepayment
        7.1306 Applicability of Rule of 78

7.14 REPLEVIN (DETINUE); PRETRIAL SEIZURE
        7.1401 Replevin Replaced by Detinue in Virginia
        7.1402 Pretrial Seizure of Property; Grounds

7.15 USURY
        7.1501 Legal Rate of Interest
        7.1502 Rate of Interest Constituting Usury
        7.1503 Judgment Rate of Interest
        7.1504 Borrower’s Right to Claim Usury as Defense to
        Lender’s Suit
        7.1505 Borrower’s Action for Excess Interest Amount
        7.1506 Effect of Waiver of Usury Defense
        7.1507 Limitation on Borrower’s Right of Usury Action or
        Defense
        7.1508 Exception of Certain Lenders from Usury Laws
        7.1509 Certain Loans for Educational Expenses Not Subject
        to Usury Defense
    
7.16 JURY TRIAL
        7.1601 Right to Trial by Jury
        7.1602 Courts of Law and Equity Combined
        7.1603 Actions Sounding in Law
        7.1604 Actions Sounding in Chancery

7.17 WRIT OF ATTACHMENT
        7.1701 Writ of Fieri Facias
        7.1702 Pretrial Seizure of Personal Property


CHAPTER 8: CRIMINAL LAW IN VIRGINIA

8.1 THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM IN VIRGINIA
        8.101 In General
        8.102 The Courts

8.2 CLASSIFICATION O F CRIMES
        8.201 Felonies
        8.202 Misdemeanors
        8.203 Traffic Infractions

8.3 CRIMINAL OFFENSES
        8.301 Definitions
        8.302 Title 18.2—Crimes and Offenses Generally

8.4 STATUTES OF LIMITATIONS
        8.401 Exceptions
        8.402 Limitation Period
        8.403 Commencement Date


CHAPTER 9: CRIMINAL PROCEDURE IN VIRGINIA


9.1 SEQUENCE OF A TYPICAL CRIMINAL CASE

9.2 RIGHT TO COUNSEL
        9.201 General Considerations
        9.202 Determination of Indigence
        9.203 Proceedings in Which the Right to Counsel Applies
        9.204 Court-Appointed Counsel and Public Defenders

9.3 THE LAW OF ARREST
        9.301 General Considerations
        9.302 Full Custodial Arrest
        9.303 When Warrant Is Required
        9.304 Arrest with Warrant or Summons
        9.305 Arrest Without Warrant
        9.306 Procedure After Arrest
        9.307 Consequences of Illegal Arrest

9.4 THE LAW OF SEARCH AND SEIZURE
        9.401 General Considerations
        9.402 Search Warrants
        9.403 Warrantless Searches and Seizures
        9.404 Exclusionary Rule

9.5 DISCOVERY
        9.501 Defendant’s Discovery Generally
        9.502 Defendant’s Discovery Under Rule 3A:11
        9.503 Commonwealth’s Reciprocal Discovery Under Rule
        3A:11
        9.504 Continuing Duty to Disclose
        9.505 Commonwealth’s Duty to Disclose Exculpatory
        Evidence
        9.506 Discovery Under Rule 7C:5 in General District Court
        9.507 Discovery Under Rule 8:15 in Juvenile and Domestic
        Relations District Court

9.6 THE PRELIMINARY HEARING

9.7 THE GRAND JURY
        9.701 Regular Grand Jury
        9.702 Special Grand Jury
        9.703 Secrecy of Proceedings

9.8 THE CHARGE UPON WHICH THE ACCUSED IS TRIED
        9.801 In General
        9.802 Form and Content of the Indictment and the
        Information

9.9 THE FORMAL CHARGE
        9.901 In General
        9.902 Felonies
        9.903 Misdemeanors
        9.904 Amendment to the Formal Charge
        9.905 Bill of Particulars

9.10 THE ARRAIGNMENT
        9.1001 Scope
        9.1002 Procedure

9.11 PLEAS
        9.1101 Permissible Pleas
        9.1102 Procedure for Entering Guilty Plea

9.12 PLEA-BARGAINING

9.13 PRETRIAL MOTIONS

9.14 VENUE AND CHANGE OF VENUE
        9.1401 Venue
        9.1402 Change of Venue
    
9.15 JURY SELECTION
        9.1501 Right to Jury Trial
        9.1502 Waiver
        9.1503 Number of Jurors
        9.1504 Challenges of Jurors

9.16 TRIAL
        9.1601 Opening Statement
        9.1602 Commonwealth’s Case-in-Chief
        9.1603 Motion to Strike the Evidence by Defendant
        9.1604 Defendant’s Case
        9.1605 Renewal of Motion to Strike by Defendant

9.17 INSTRUCTIONS TO THE JURY
        9.1701 Procedure
        9.1702 Submission of Proposed Instructions
        9.1703 Closing Arguments

9.18 VERDICT AND POST-VERDICT MOTIONS
        9.1801 In General
        9.1802 Joint Trial of Multiple Defendants
        9.1803 Multiple Counts
        9.1804 Acquittal by Reason of Insanity
        9.1805 Inconsistent Verdicts
        9.1806 Lesser-Included Offenses
        9.1807 Effect of Acquittal or Partial Acquittal
        9.1808 Deferral of Judgment

9.19 AUTHORITY TO SENTENCE
        9.1901 Jury Trials
        9.1902 Discretionary Sentencing Guidelines

9.20 PRONOUNCEMENT AND ALLOCUTION
        9.2001 Pronouncement
        9.2002 Allocution

9.21 PRESENTENCE INVESTIGATION AND REPORT AND
VICTIM IMPACT STATEMENT

9.22 JUDGMENT
        9.2201 Procedure
        9.2202 Finality


CHAPTER 10: POST-CONVICTION REMEDIES IN VIRGINIA

10.1 INTRODUCTION

10.2 HABEAS CORPUS
        10.201 A Very Brief History
        10.202 Courts with the Authority to Issue a Writ of Habeas
        Corpus
        10.203 The Rules That Apply
        10.204 There Is No Right to Counsel in a Habeas Proceeding
        10.205 Indigent Petitioner Has a Right to a Copy of the Court
        File and Transcripts
        10.206 Calculating the Statute of Limitations
        10.207 Jurisdictional Requirement—Petitioner Must Be in
        Custody
        10.208 Habeas Case Can Be Rendered Moot if the Petitioner
        Is Released from Custody While Petition Is Still
        Pending
        10.209 “Concurrent Sentencing Doctrine” Not Applicable in
        Virginia
        10.210 The Parties to the Petition
        10.211 Contents of Petition for Writ of Habeas Corpus
        10.212 Cognizable Claims
        10.213 Claims That Are Not Cognizable in Habeas Corpus
        Proceedings
        10.214 Pleading Requirement
        10.215 Adding Claims or Amendment of Petition
        10.216 Filing and Service Requirements
        10.217 Show Cause Order
        10.218 Burden of Proof
        10.219 Reply to the Responsive Pleading
        10.220 Argument
        10.221 Discovery, Affidavits, and Evidentiary Hearings
        10.222 There Is No Right to a Jury Trial for an Evidentiary
        Hearing in a Habeas Case
        10.223 Court Reporters
        10.224 The Court Order
        10.225 Appeal
        10.226 Writ Granted

10.3 MOTION FOR A DELAYED APPEAL IN CRIMINAL CASES

10.4 WRIT OF ACTUAL INNOCENCE
        10.401 In General
        10.402 Preservation and Retention of Human Biological
        Evidence in Felony Cases
        10.403 Motion for Scientific Analysis of Previously Untested
        Newly Discovered Evidence

10.5 WRIT OF ACTUAL INNOCENCE BASED ON BIOLOGICAL
EVIDENCE

10.6 WRIT OF ACTUAL INNOCENCE BASED ON
NONBIOLOGICAL EVIDENCE

10.7 EXECUTIVE CLEMENCY

10.8 MOTION TO VACATE A JUDGMENT AS VOID MAY BE
FILED AT ANYTIME

10.9 ANCIENT WRITS—CORAM NOBIS AND AUDITA
QUERELA

10.10 NUNC PRO TUNC

10.11 INDEPENDENT ACTION FOR FAILURE TO RECEIVE
NOTICE OF A FINAL ORDER

10.12 INDEPENDENT ACTION TO SET ASIDE JUDGMENT

10.13 SUSPENSION OR MODIFICATION OF SENTENCE

10.14 CONDITIONAL RELEASE OF GERIATRIC PRISONERS

10.15 EXPUNGEMENTS


CHAPTER 11: DOMESTIC RELATIONS IN VIRGINIA

11.1 INTRODUCTION
        11.101 Advice
        11.102 Statutory Nature of Divorce

11.2 ANNULMENT
        11.201 Grounds on Which Either Party May Institute Suit
        11.202 Grounds on Which Aggrieved Party May Institute Suit
        11.203 Time Limits; Effect of Cohabitation
        11.204 Spousal Support

11.3 DIVORCE
        11.301 Domicile and Residential Requirements
        11.302 Grounds for Divorce

11.4 SAME-SEX MARRIAGE

11.5 SPOUSAL SUPPORT
        11.501 Pendente Lite Support
        11.502 Guidelines for Spousal Support
        11.503 Effect of Adultery
        11.504 Termination or Modification of Support
        11.505 Support of Other Family Members

11.6 CHILD SUPPORT
        11.601 Court’s Authority
        11.602 Guidelines
        11.603 Deviation from the Guidelines
        11.604 Va. Code § 20-108.1(B) Factors
        11.605 Modification
        11.606 Virginia Cases
        11.607 Uniform Interstate Family Support Act (UIFSA)
        11.608 Qualified Medical Child Support Orders (QMCSOs)
    
11.7 CHILD CUSTODY AND VISITATION
        11.701 Different Forms of Custody
        11.702 Best Interests of the Child
        11.703 Modification
        11.704 Parental Kidnapping Prevention Act (PKPA)
        11.705 Uniform Child Custody Jurisdiction and Enforcement
        Act (UCCJEA)
        11.706 Special Provisions for the Military: The Virginia
        Military Parents Equal Protection Act

11.8 EQUITABLE DISTRIBUTION
        11.801 Court’s Authority
        11.802 Marital Versus Separate Property
        11.803 Va. Code § 20-107.3(E) Factors
        11.804 Debts
        11.805 Valuation Date
        11.806 Stock Options
        11.807 Licenses and Degrees
        11.808 Professional Practices and Goodwill

11.9 EQUITABLE DISTRIBUTION O F RETIREMENT PLANS
        11.901 Court’s Authority
        11.902 Employer-Sponsored Retirement Plans
        11.903 Retirement for Federal Employees
        11.904 Retirement for State Employees
        11.905 Retirement for the Military
        11.906 Retirement for Railroad Employees
        11.907 Waivers of Retirement Benefits

11.10 MARITAL AGREEMENTS
        11.1001 Types of Marital Contracts
        11.1002 Requirements for a Valid Marital Contract
        11.1003 Subject Matter
        11.1004 Helpful Drafting Tips
    
11.11 OTHER IMPORTANT ISSUES
        11.1101 Bankruptcy
        11.1102 Federal Taxation
        11.1103 Federal Taxation Changes Made by the Tax Cuts
        and Jobs Act of 2017

11.12 ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS
        11.1201 Competence
        11.1202 Contingency Fees
        11.1203 Attorney-Client Privilege
        11.1204 Conflicts of Interest
        11.1205 Professional Judgment and Advice
        11.1206 Meritorious Claims and Contentions
        11.1207 Presenting or Threatening Criminal Charges
        11.1208 Communication with Persons Represented by Counsel
        11.1209 Respect for Rights of Third Persons
        11.1210 Computer Information, Wiretaps, Tape Recordings,
        and Videos
        11.1211 GPS Devices
        11.1212 Notary (LEO 392)
        11.1213 Servicemembers Civil Relief Act (LEO 689)
    

CHAPTER 12: EQUITY IN VIRGINIA


12.1 IMPORTANCE OF EQUITY TO VIRGINIA LAWYERS

12.2 DEVELOPMENT OF EQUITY COURT

12.3 VIRGINIA ADOPTED ONE FORM OF ACTION IN 2006

12.4 JOINDER OF CLAIMS—LEGAL AND EQUITABLE

12.5 JURY TRIALS
        12.501 No Constitutional Right
        12.502 Trial by Jury of Plea in Equity
        12.503 Suit on an Equitable Claim
        12.504 Cases Seeking Only Legal Relief
        12.505 Cases with Both Jury and Nonjury Issues

12.6 EQUITABLE REMEDIES
        12.601 Injunctions
        12.602 Specific Performance
        12.603 Rescission and Cancellation of Contracts
        12.604 Reformation of Contracts
        12.605 Appointment of Receivers
        12.606 Accounting
        12.607 Partition Suit
        12.608 Restitution
        12.609 Constructive Trust
        12.610 Equitable Contribution

12.7 NECESSARY PARTIES

12.8 RELIEF FROM DEFAULT

12.9 ATTORNEY FEES

12.10 COMMISSIONERS IN CHANCERY


CHAPTER 13: ESTATE ADMINISTRATION IN VIRGINIA

13.1 BEGINNING AN ESTATE ADMINISTRATION
        13.101 Understanding the Attorney’s Role After Death
        13.102 Interacting with Court Officials
        13.103 Resources for Attorneys in Estate Administration

13.2 ACTIONS PRIOR TO AND IN ANTICIPATION O F PROBATE
        13.201 Location of Will
        13.202 Securing Assets Before Qualification
        13.203 Payment of Expenses
        13.204 Preliminary Review of Assets
        13.205 List of Heirs and Beneficiaries
        13.206 List of Liabilities of Decedent
        13.207 Determining Whether Decedent Died Testate
        13.208 The Decision to Probate

13.3 PROBATE AND QUALIFICATION
        13.301 Jurisdiction for Probate of Will or Qualification
        13.302 Qualification as Personal Representative
        13.303 Methods of Probate
        13.304 Practical Aspects of Ex Parte Probate and
        Qualification Before the Clerk
        13.305 Probate and Qualification Order
        13.306 Probate of Lost or Destroyed Will
        13.307 Probate of a Later Will

13.4 ADMINISTRATION OF ESTATE AFTER QUALIFICATION
        13.401 Duties of Executor Generally
        13.402 Powers of Executor
        13.403 Role of Co-Personal Representatives
        13.404 Initial Filing Requirements of Personal
        Representative
        13.405 Practical Steps in Administration
        13.406 Managing and Administering Assets
        13.407 Litigation Issues in Administration
        13.408 Disclaimers

13.5 CREDITOR CLAIMS, FAMILY CLAIMS, AND TAXES
        13.501 Creditor Issues
        13.502 Claims of Surviving Spouses and Minor Children
        13.503 Tax Obligations

13.6 WINDING UP THE ESTATE
        13.601 Distribution of Assets
        13.602 Payment of Final Administration Fees and Fiduciary
        Compensation
        13.603 Filing of Accountings


CHAPTER 14: EVIDENCE IN VIRGINIA

14.1 WHERE DID THE RULES COME FROM

14.2 WHERE ARE THE RULES

14.3 WHAT DO THE RULES SAY

14.4 ARTICLE I—GENERAL PROVISIONS
        14.401 Index
        14.402 Comments

14.5 ARTICLE II—JUDICIAL NOTICE
        14.501 Index
        14.502 Comments

14.6 ARTICLE III—PRESUMPTIONS
        14.601 Index
        14.602 Comment

14.7 ARTICLE IV—RELEVANCY, POLICY, AND CHARACTER
TRAIT PROOF
        14.701 Index
        14.702 Comments

14.8 ARTICLE V—PRIVILEGES
        14.801 Index
        14.802 Comments

14.9 ARTICLE VI—WITNESS EXAMINATION
        14.901 Index
        14.902 Comments

14.10 ARTICLE VII—OPINIONS AND EXPERT TESTIMONY
        14.1001 Index
        14.1002 Comments

14.11 ARTICLE VIII—HEARSAY
        14.1101 Index
        14.1102 Comments

14.12 ARTICLE IX—AUTHENTICATION
        14.1201 Index
        14.1202 Comments
    
14.13 ARTICLE X—BEST EVIDENCE
        14.1301 Index
        14.1302 Comments
    
14.14 ARTICLE XI—APPLICABILITY
        14.1401 Index
        14.1402 Comment


CHAPTER 15: LOCAL GOVERNMENT LAW IN VIRGINIA

15.1 STRUCTURE OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN VIRGINIA
        15.101 Background
        15.102 Sub-Units of Government in Virginia
        15.103 Boundary Changes and City and Town Annexation
    
15.2 PRIMARY SOURCES OF LAW AFFECTING LOCAL
GOVERNMENT
        15.201 Case Law and Statutory Law
        15.202 Other Sources Of Guidance
    
15.3 WHO ARE THE LOCAL GOVERNMENT DECISIONMAKERS?
        15.301 Elected Governing Bodies
        15.302 Appointed Governing Bodies
        15.303 Constitutional Officers
        15.304 Executive Branch of Local Government
        15.305 Citizen Referenda and Recall of Elected Officials
        15.306 Adoption of Laws

15.4 LEGAL PRINCIPLES OF SPECIAL IMPORTANCE TO
VIRGINIA LOCAL GOVERNMENTS
        15.401 Constitutional Provisions
        15.402 Government Powers as Limited by “Dillon’s” Rule
        15.403 Rules of Interpretation for Statutes That Govern Any
        Grant of Governmental Power
        15.404 Ultra Vires Doctrine
        15.405 State Preemption of Local Government Authority
        15.406 Immunity From Tort Liability
        15.407 Notice of Tort Claims and Pre-Lawsuit Claims
        Procedures

15.5 STATUTES OF SPECIAL IMPORTANCE TO LOCAL
GOVERNMENT
        15.501 Virginia Freedom of Information Act
        15.502 Virginia Conflict of Interest Act
        15.503 Public Procurement Act
        15.504 State Employment Issues
        15.505 Eminent Domain


CHAPTER 16: PERSONAL PROPERTY IN VIRGINIA

16.1 INTRODUCTION
        16.101 In General
        16.102 Forms of Holding Title
        16.103 Applicable Uniform Commercial Code Provisions

16.2 COMMERCIAL REAL ESTATE TRANSACTIONS TO WHICH
THE UCC APPLIES
        16.201 Sales Transactions: Things Attached to Realty
        16.202 Lease Transactions: Fixtures
        16.203 Financing Transactions

16.3 COMPLIANCE
        16.301 Sales Transactions
        16.302 Lease Transactions
        16.303 Financing Transactions

16.4 DAMAGES TO PERSONAL PROPERTY
        16.401 Destroyed or Damaged Property
        16.402 Crops and Natural Resources
        16.403 Pets
        16.404 Converted Property
        16.405 Loss of Use
        16.406 Statutory Causes of Action


CHAPTER 17: REAL PROPERTY IN VIRGINIA

17.1 RESIDENTIAL REAL ESTATE CONTRACTS
        17.101 Introduction
        17.102 Parties
        17.103 Property Description
        17.104 Personal Property
        17.105 Consideration
        17.106 Contract Conditions
        17.107 Prorations
        17.108 Settlement and Possession
        17.109 Risk of Loss and Condition of Property
        17.110 Real Estate Agent’s Commission
        17.111 Assignment
        17.112 Representations and Warranties
        17.113 Arbitration
        17.114 Default
        17.115 Miscellaneous Provisions
        17.116 Signatures, Notarization, and Recordation of
        Contract
        17.117 Special Considerations for Purchasers

17.2 MECHANICS’ LIENS
        17.201 In General
        17.202 Who May Claim the Lien
        17.203 Property Subject to the Lien
        17.204 Perfecting the Lien
        17.205 Affidavit Verifying Payment for Labor and Materials
        17.206 The 150-Day Rule
        17.207 Statutory Forms for the Memorandum of Lien
        17.208 Enforcement of the Lien

17.3 TITLE EXAMINATIONS
        17.301 Introduction
        17.302 Type Of Title Evidence Required
        17.303 Creating the Chain of Title
        17.304 Objections, Exceptions, and Defects in Title
        17.305 Abstract of Title and Title Reports

17.4 FORMS OF HOLDING TITLE
        17.401 Introduction
        17.402 Tenancy in Common
        17.403 Joint Tenancy
        17.404 Tenancy by the Entirety
        17.405 The Augmented Estate

17.5 THE DEED
        17.501 Parties to the Deed
        17.502 The Premises
        17.503 Warranties
        17.504 Implied Warranties on New Homes
        17.505 Conveyances to Joint Owners
        17.506 Correction of Errors in Deeds

17.6 RESIDENTIAL FINANCING
        17.601 Introduction
        17.602 Institutional Financing
        17.603 Assuming Versus Taking Subject to a Deed of Trust
        17.604 Purchase Money Financing
        17.605 Installment Sales Contracts
        17.606 Ground Rent
        17.607 Security Agreements and Financing Statements
        17.608 Usury

17.7 RESIDENTIAL SETTLEMENTS
        17.701 Introduction
        17.702 Legislation Affecting Closings
        17.703 The Transaction
        17.704 Post-Closing Matters
    
17.8 CONDOMINIUMS AND PROPERTY OWNERS’
ASSOCIATIONS
        17.801 Introduction to Condominiums
        17.802 Introduction to Property Owners’ Associations
        17.803 Types of Condominiums and Property Owners’
        Associations
        17.804 Allocations in Condominiums
        17.805 Condominium Instruments
        17.806 Governance of Associations
        17.807 Maintenance Responsibilities of Association and
        Owners
        17.808 Restrictions on Use in Property Owners’
        Associations
        17.809 Meetings
        17.810 Contract Provisions Concerning Lots in Property
        Owners’ Associations
        17.811 Contract Provisions Concerning Condominium Units

APPENDIX 17-1: CYBERCRIME AND REAL ESTATE
SETTLEMENTS


CHAPTER 18: SALES LAW IN VIRGINIA

18.1 INTRODUCTION
        18.101 The Uniform Commercial Code
        18.102 Definitions

18.2 CREATING THE CONTRACT
        18.201 In General
        18.202 Offer and Acceptance
        18.203 The Statute of Frauds

18.3 THE PAROL EVIDENCE RULE
        18.301 In General
        18.302 Explanation or Supplementation of Terms

18.4 PERFORMANCE
        18.401 Seller’s Obligation to Deliver
        18.402 Buyer’s Obligation to Pay and Right to Inspect
        18.403 Buyer’s Rejection, Acceptance, and Revocation of
        Acceptance
        18.404 Impracticability

18.5 WARRANTIES
        18.501 In General
        18.502 Warranty of Title and Warranty Against Infringement
        18.503 Implied Warranty of Merchantability
        18.504 Implied Warranty of Fitness for a Particular Purpose
        18.505 Express Warranties
        18.506 Disclaimer of Warranties
        18.507 Limitation of Damages for Breach of Warranty


CHAPTER 19: TORTS IN VIRGINIA

19.1 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
        19.101 Statutes of Limitation and Notice Requirements
        19.102 Correct Party
        19.103 Venue
        19.104 Investigation
        19.105 Assessing Insurance and Its Interplay
        19.106 Relationships Between the Attorney, the Insured, and
        the Insurer
        19.107 Coverage
        19.108 Uninsured Motorist/Underinsured Motorist Coverage
        19.109 Disbursements

19.2 STATUTES OF LIMITATIONS
        19.201 Personal Injury
        19.202 Wrongful Death
        19.203 Fraud

19.3 VIRGINIA TORT CLAIMS ACT
        19.301 Exclusions
        19.302 Jurisdiction
        19.303 Right to Jury Trial
        19.304 Notice of Claim
        19.305 Statute of Limitations
        19.306 Medical Malpractice Act
        19.307 Damages

19.4 TORT LIABILITY AND RELATED ISSUES
        19.401 Contributory Negligence
        19.402 Contribution and Indemnity
        19.403 Assignment of Tort Actions
        19.404 Persons Exempt from Liability for Medical Negligence
        19.405 Immunity for Health Care Providers

19.5 DISCOVERY ISSUES
        19.501 Obtaining and Using Medical Records for Personal
        Injury Actions
        19.502 Expert Testimony and Medical Records
        19.503 Physical and Mental Examination of Persons
        Under Rule 4:10

19.6 SPECIFIC CAUSES OF ACTION
        19.601 Personal Injury Generally
        19.602 Infliction of Emotional Distress
        19.603 Medical Malpractice
        19.604 Wrongful Death
        19.605 Assault and Battery—Damages
        19.606 False Imprisonment—Damages
        19.607 Malicious Prosecution/Abuse of Process

19.7 FRAUD
        19.701 In General
        19.702 Consumer Protection Act
        19.703 Virginia Computer Crimes Act
        19.704 Oppression of Minority Shareholders

19.8 DAMAGES
        19.801 Presentation of Damages at Trial
        19.802 Punitive Damages


CHAPTER 20: TRUSTS IN VIRGINIA

20.1 OVERVIEW OF ESTATE PLANNING TRUSTS
        20.101 Introduction
        20.102 Revocable Living Trust
        20.103 Irrevocable Trusts
        20.104 Testamentary Trusts
        20.105 Land Trusts

20.2 VIRGINIA’S UNIFORM TRUST CODE
        20.201 Enactment
        20.202 Effective Date
        20.203 Reasons for Enactment
        20.204 Structure
        20.205 Applicability
        20.206 General Provisions
        20.207 Representation of Others
        20.208 Revocable Trusts
        20.209 Acceptance, Declination, Resignation, Substitution, or
        Removal of Trustee
        20.210 Modification and Termination of Trusts
        20.211 Principal Place of Administration
        20.212 Trustee’s Duties
        20.213 Trustee Powers
        20.214 Co-Trustees
        20.215 Breach of Trust
        20.216 Nonjudicial Settlement Agreements, Consents,
        Releases, and Ratifications
        20.217 Statute of Limitations
        20.218 Creditor’s Claims
        20.219 Virginia Domestic Asset Protection Trusts
        20.220 Trustee’s Special Power to Appoint to a Second Trust
        (Decanting)
        20.221 No Contest Provisions in Trusts

20.3 IMPORTANT STATUTORY DIFFERENCES BETWEEN
TRUSTS AND WILLS
        20.301 Introduction
        20.302 Date of Interpretation
        20.303 Capacity
        20.304 Revocation
        20.305 Revocation by Divorce
        20.306 Effect of Distributions to Descendants of Deceased
        Children
        20.307 Omitted Family Members
        20.308 Determination of Children and Descendants

20.4 TRANSFERS OF REAL ESTATE TO AND FROM TRUSTS
        20.401 Conveyances of Real Estate to Trusts
        20.402 Spousal Consideration in Transfers to Trustee
        20.403 Cautionary Issues on Transfers to RLT
        20.404 Distributions of Real Estate from Trust to
        Beneficiaries

20.5 IRREVOCABLE TRUSTS
        20.501 Overview
        20.502 Qualified Personal Residence Trust (“QPRT”)
        20.503 Grantor Retained Annuity Trust (“GRAT”)
        20.504 Charitable Remainder Trusts (“CRT”)
        20.505 Special Needs Trusts


CHAPTER 21: UNIFORM COMMERCIAL CODE IN VIRGINIA

21.1 INTRODUCTION

21.2 SALES

21.3 LEASES

21.4 NEGOTIABLE INSTRUMENTS
        21.401 In General
        21.402 Lending Agreements as Negotiable Instruments
        21.403 Damage Claims

21.5 BANK DEPOSITS AND COLLECTIONS
        21.501 In General
        21.502 Damage Claims

21.6 WAREHOUSE R ECEIPTS, BILLS OF LADING, AND
OTHER DOCUMENTS OF TITLE

21.7 SECURED TRANSACTIONS
        21.701 In General
        21.702 New Types of Collateral Under Title 8.9A
        21.703 Security Agreement
        21.704 Priority over an Unperfected Security Interest
        21.705 Method of Perfection
        21.706 Continuation of a Security Interest Following
        Disposition
        21.707 Proceeds
        21.708 Time of Perfection
        21.709 Priority
        21.710 Governing Law
        21.711 Place of Filing
        21.712 Contents of the Financing Statement
        21.713 Continuation Statements
        21.714 Amendment, Termination, and Assignment
        21.715 Transition Rules
        21.716 Rights and Duties After Default
        21.717 Guarantors and Co-Obligors
        21.718 Seals
        21.719 Transition Provisions for 2013 Amendments to
        Title 8.9A


CHAPTER 22: VIRGINIA CONSTITUTIONAL LAW


22.1 INTRODUCTION
        22.101 Effective Date
        22.102 Structure
        22.103 Amendments

22.2 BILL OF RIGHTS
        22.201 Co-extensive with United States Constitution
        22.202 Speedy Trial
        22.203 Right to Counsel
        22.204 Jury Trials in Criminal Cases
        22.205 Pretrial Criminal Defense Motions and Objections on
        Constitutional Grounds Under Va. Code § 19.2-266.2
        22.206 Pretrial Appeals by the Commonwealth from Rulings
        Based on Constitutional Grounds
        22.207 Rights of Victims of Crime
        22.208 Equal Protection

22.3 COMMON LAW

22.4 CIVIL PROCEDURE AND REMEDIES
        22.401 Jury Trial
        22.402 Compensation for Wrongful Incarceration

22.5 EFFECTIVE DATE OF LEGISLATION

22.6 JUDICIARY
        22.601 Original Jurisdiction of Appellate Courts
        22.602 Appellate Jurisdiction

22.7 EMINENT DOMAIN

22.8 DOMESTIC RELATIONS

22.9 RELIGIOUS FREEDOM

22.10 VOTING

22.11 TAXATION AND FINANCE


CHAPTER 23: VIRGINIA TAXATION

23.1 VIRGINIA DEPARTMENT OF TAXATION
        23.101 Tax Commissioner
        23.102 Documents Issued by the Virginia Department of
        Taxation

23.2 INCOME TAXES
        23.201 Conformity to the Internal Revenue Code
        23.202 Corporation Income Tax
        23.203 Employer Income Tax Withholding
        23.204 Fiduciary Income Tax
        23.205 Individual Income Tax
        23.206 Pass-Through Entity Returns
        23.207 Registration of Nonresident Property Owners

23.3 TRANSACTIONAL TAXES AND FEES
        23.301 Retail Sales Tax
        23.302 Use Tax
        23.303 Miscellaneous Sales and Use Taxes
        23.304 Motor Vehicle Rental Tax
        23.305 Digital Media Fee

23.4 TRANSFER TAXES
        23.401 Recordation Tax
        23.402 Estate Tax
        23.403 Probate Tax

23.5 FUELS TAX
        23.501 Administration
        23.502 Levy

23.6 TOBACCO TAXES
        23.601 Cigarette Tax
        23.602 Other Tobacco Products Tax

23.7 BANK FRANCHISE TAX
        23.701 Levy
        23.702 Tax Basis
        23.703 Tax Rate
        23.704 Local Credit

23.8 COMMODITY TAXES
        23.801 Levy
        23.802 Taxes

23.9 MISCELLANEOUS STATE TAXES ADMINISTERED BY
THE VIRGINIA DEPARTMENT OF TAXATION
        23.901 Forest Products Tax
        23.902 Litter Tax
        23.903 Prepaid Wireless E-911 Fee
        23.904 Rolling Stock Tax on Railroads and Freight Car
        Companies
        23.905 Soft Drink Excise Tax
        23.906 Tire Recycling Fee
        23.907 Writ Taxes

23.10 ENFORCEMENT AND APPEAL OF TAXES ADMINISTERED
BY THE VIRGINIA DEPARTMENT OF TAXATION
        23.1001 Assessments
        23.1002 Transferred Liability
        23.1003 Collections
        23.1004 Administrative Appeal
        23.1005 Judicial Appeal

23.11 TAXES ADMINISTERED BY THE VIRGINIA STATE
CORPORATION COMMISSION
        23.1101 Gross Receipts Tax
        23.1102 License Tax on Insurance Companies
        23.1103 Utility Consumption Taxes

23.12 LOCAL TAXES
        23.1201 Imposition of Local Taxes
        23.1202 Real Property Tax
        23.1203 Tangible Personal Property Tax
        23.1204 Machinery and Tools Tax
        23.1205 Business, Professional, and Occupational License Tax
        23.1206 Merchants’ Capital Tax
        23.1207 Miscellaneous Taxes

23.13 ENFORCEMENT AND APPEAL OF TAXES ADMINISTERED
BY VIRGINIA LOCAL GOVERNMENTS
        23.1301 Assessment
        23.1302 Collections
        23.1303 Real Property Tax Administrative Appeals
        23.1304 License Tax Administrative Appeals
        23.1305 Local Business Tax and Local Mobile Property Tax
        Administrative Appeals
        23.1306 General Administrative Appeal Procedures
        23.1307 Judicial Appeal


CHAPTER 24: WILLS IN VIRGINIA


24.1 COMMUNICATIONS WITH AN ESTATE PLANNING
CLIENT
        24.101 Initial Communications with the Client
        24.102 Communicating with the Client in Writing
        24.103 Disclosure of Conflict of Interest
        24.104 Dealing with a Client with Diminished Faculties
        24.105 Review of Assets and Importance of Non-Probate
        Assets
        24.106 Mirror Image Wills as Contracts

24.2 DRAFTING THE WILL
        24.201 What Constitutes a Will?
        24.202 Reasons for Having a Will
        24.203 Fundamental Will Provisions
        24.204 Prerequisites for a Valid Will
        24.205 Matching the Estate Planning Documents with
        the Client
        24.206 Selected Problem Areas
        24.207 Statutory Provisions Affecting Wills
    
24.3 CONCLUDING THE REPRESENTATION
        24.301 Location of Documents
        24.302 Memorializing the Termination of Representation

TABLE OF AUTHORITIES

INDEX


Authors

Authors

Edward D. Barnes, Barnes & Diehl, P.C. / Richmond (Expand/Collapse Bio)

Edward D. Barnes, author of Chapter 11, is the founder and CEO of Barnes & Diehl, P.C. In 2018 he was ranked number one lawyer out of all lawyers in Virginia by Super Lawyer magazine. He has also been inducted into the Inaugural Class of the Virginia Hall of Fame by Virginia Lawyers Weekly. He has been ranked as one of the Top 10 lawyers in Virginia by Super Lawyer magazine and by Richmond magazine for many years. Mr. Barnes has served as President of the American Academy of Matrimonial Lawyers, Virginia Chapter. He is a Fellow of the American Academy of Matrimonial Lawyers (Chicago). He is on the faculty at the University of Richmond School of Law, teaching Ethics in Family Law. He has been named Family Lawyer of the Year for Richmond for 2009 and 2015 by The Best Lawyers in America. Mr. Barnes is the recipient of the 2008 Lifetime Achievement Award from the Virginia State Bar, Family Law Section (2004-2005); he is a Fellow of the Virginia Law Foundation; he has been listed in The Best Lawyers in America for over 20 years; and he has been listed in Virginia Business magazine’s “Legal Elite” every year since its inception. He has been named the Dis-tinguished Alumnus of the University of Richmond School of Law. He has served as President of the Chesterfield-Colonial Heights Bar Association as well as the Metro Richmond Family Law Bar Association and has been selected “Legal Eagle” by Virginia Living magazine. He is a frequent MCLE speaker and contributor to publications regarding family law matters. He has been a member of the MENSA Society and is an instrument-rated airplane pilot. He served as an officer in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in Europe.

Jon W. Brodegard, Old Republic National Title Company/ Manassas/Hampton Roads (Expand/Collapse Bio)

Jon W. Brodegard, co-author of Chapter 16, is Counsel for Old Republic National Title Company. He received his J.D. from the George Mason Uni-versity School of Law, now George Mason University Antonin Scalia Law School, and a B.A. from Brigham Young University. Following graduation from law school, he completed a judicial clerkship in the Office of Hearings and Appeals for the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. Subsequently, Mr. Brodegard focused on real estate and title insurance matters, first in Northern Virginia, Maryland, and the District of Columbia. and then in the Hampton Roads area. He has been admitted to practice law in Virginia and Maryland and is licensed as a title agent in Virginia, Mary-land, and the District of Columbia.

James P. Cox, III, MichieHamlett, PLLC / Charlottesville (Expand/Collapse Bio)

James P. Cox, III, author of Chapters 13, 20, and 24, is a member of the firm of MichieHamlett, PLLC, in Charlottesville where he has practiced since 1983. His areas of practice include estate planning and administration, real estate, and litigation and court proceedings relating to estate matters.

Mr. Cox received a B.A., summa cum laude, from Duke University in 1980 and a J.D. from the University of Virginia in 1983. He is fellow of the American College of Trust and Estate Counsel, a Virginia Law Fellow, and a Committee member of both Virginia CLE and the Virginia Law Foundation. He is a member of The Virginia Bar Association, the Virginia State Bar, the Charlottesville-Albemarle Bar Association, the Duke University Estate Plan-ning Council, the Central Virginia Estate Planning Council, and Phi Beta Kappa.

Mr. Cox is a former member of the Board of Governors of the Virginia Bar Association, a past Chairman of the Wills, Trusts, and Estates Section of The Virginia Bar Association, and is a member of the Legislative Committee of the Wills, Trusts, and Estates Section of the Virginia Bar Association. He is also a past President of the Charlottesville-Albemarle Bar Association and the current Chairman of the Real Estate Committee of that organization.

Mr. Cox is a frequent lecturer in continuing legal education programs and, since 1993, has been the author of the annual supplements to the treatise, Harrison on Wills and Administration in Virginia and West Virginia (LexisNexis). He is named in the current edition of The Best Lawyers in America in both Trusts and Estates and Real Estate Law and has been designated as a “Super Lawyer.” He is also the editor and a contributing author to the Virginia CLE publication, Estate and Trust Administration in Virginia since it was first published in 1997, through its Sixth Edition, published spring, 2019.

Kay M. Creasman, Old Republic Title Company / Chesterfield (Expand/Collapse Bio)

Kay M. Creasman, co-author of Chapter 16 and author of Chapter 17, is Virginia Counsel and Assistant Vice President for Old Republic National Title Company and has been with Old Republic since March 2008, solving prob-lems with practical solutions for title and settlement agents throughout Virginia.

Ms. Creasman received a J.D. from the University of Richmond, an M.Ed. from Tulane University, and a B.S. from Athens College. Since 1976 when she moved to Virginia, she has, at various times, maintained a private law practice in the Richmond area focusing on real estate, small business matters, and wills; owned and operated a high-volume title insurance and non-attorney settlement agency; been employed by national underwriters as counsel in Virginia and West Virginia; searched title in the record rooms; and taught both undergraduate and graduate students in the business schools at Virginia Commonwealth University and the University of Richmond. Ms. Creasman is a frequent speaker for Virginia CLE, Virginia Land Title Association, Old Republic National Title Insurance Company, and others on real estate and title insurance matters.

Ms. Creasman has been active as an Area Representative for the Real Prop-erty Section of the Virginia State Bar since 2010 and involved with multiple committees, has been on the Board of Governors since 2013, and was Chair of the Board of Governors (2018-2019). She is a member of the Board of Governors of the Real Estate Section of The Virginia Bar Association. She is the recipient of the 2017 Traver Scholar Award presented by the Real Prop-erty Section of the Virginia State Bar and Virginia Continuing Legal Educa-tion to honor men and women who embody the highest ideals and expertise in the practice of real estate law. Traver Scholars are Real Property Section members who have made significant contributions to the practice of real property law generally and the Section specifically and have generously shared their knowledge with others.

Ms. Creasman is an active member and a past president (2003-2004) of the Virginia Land Title Association (VLTA) and the 2010 recipient of the VLTA Distinguished Service Award, which honors individual members of VLTA who have made significant contributions to and an impact on the success of the Association. Within VLTA she focuses on legislative matters affecting real estate in Virginia and continuing education of title and settlement agents.

Peter L. Henderer, McCandlish Holton, P.C. / Richmond (Expand/Collapse Bio)

Peter L. Henderer, author of Chapter 18, is a director with McCandlish Holton, P.C. in Richmond. He earned an A.B. in 1993 from Bowdoin College and a J.D. in 1996 from the George Washington University Law School. Mr. Henderer’s practice focuses on commercial real estate development and finance.

Richard H. Howard-Smith, Flora Pettit PC / Charlottesville (Expand/Collapse Bio)

Richard H. Howard-Smith, author of Chapter 3, is a tax attorney with the Charlottesville law firm of Flora Pettit PC, practicing primarily in the areas of estate planning and administration, business organizations and transactions, charitable planned giving, taxation, tax-exempt organizations, and general business work. He graduated from the University of Virginia (B.A. 1981), and the Marshall-Wythe School of Law, College of William and Mary (J.D. 1984; Master of Law and Taxation 1985). He is a member of the Virginia State Bar (Taxation; Trust & Estates Sections); the American Bar Association (Taxation; Real Property, Probate and Trust Law Sections); The Virginia Bar Association; and the Charlottesville-Albemarle Bar Association. Mr. Howard-Smith is also a Fellow in the American College of Trust and Estate Counsel.

He has been a lecturer for Virginia CLE seminars on Choice of Entity, Estate Planning and Administration, Trusts, Negotiating the Purchase and Sale of a Business, Limited Liability Companies, The 2001 Tax Act, and Bridge the Gap.

Mr. Howard-Smith has been listed in The Best Lawyers in America (Tax; Wills, Trusts and Estates), Virginia Business magazine’s “Legal Elite,” Virginia Super Lawyers, Who’s Who Among American Lawyers, and Who’s Who in American Law.

Steven L. Higgs, Steven L. Higgs, P.C. / Roanoke (Expand/Collapse Bio)

Steven L. Higgs, author of Chapter 7, is a Fellow of the Virginia Law Foundation (Class of 2008). He is the principal of Steven L. Higgs, P.C., in Roanoke. He is certified in Creditors’ Rights and in Consumer Bankruptcy Law by the American Board of Certification. His areas of practice include representing creditors in bankruptcy cases, creditors’ rights, civil litigation, and commercial real estate. Mr. Higgs earned a B.A. from Washington and Lee University in 1980 and a J.D. in 1983 from the T.C. Williams School of Law, University of Richmond. He is a frequent speaker for Virginia CLE and is a contributing author of four Virginia Lawyers Practice Handbooks: Bankruptcy Practice in Virginia (4th ed. 2017), Debt Collection for Virginia Lawyers—A Systematic Approach (7th ed. 2018), Enforcement of Liens and Judgments in Virginia (8th ed. 2019), and The Virginia Lawyer—A Deskbook for Practitioners (6th ed. 2018). Mr. Higgs is the author or co-author of more than 100 articles, seminar outlines, and book chapters on bankruptcy law, creditors’ rights law, legal ethics, and real estate foreclosures. He is a past president of the Roanoke Bar Association and a member of the American Bar Association, the Virginia State Bar, and the American Bankruptcy Institute. He is a Fellow of the American Bar Association, the Virginia Law Foundation, the Roanoke Law Foundation, the Litigation Counsel of America, and the National Conference of Bar Presidents.

Michael HuYoung, Barnes & Diehl, P.C. / Richmond (Expand/Collapse Bio)

Michael HuYoung, author of Chapters 8 and 9, is a shareholder at Barnes and Diehl, P.C. His areas of practice are criminal defense and family law. He began his law practice in 1982 after graduating from the University of Richmond Law School. He obtained his undergraduate degree with distinction from the University of Virginia. He is admitted to the United States Supreme Court, United States Court of Appeals (Fourth Circuit), United States District Court (Eastern and Western Districts of Virginia), Virginia Supreme Court, Virginia Court of Appeals, and the Circuit, General District, and Juvenile and Domestic Relations District Courts in the Commonwealth of Virginia. He is a Substitute Judge appointed from the 14th Judicial Cir-cuit, and he is appointed by the Governor to serve on the Criminal Justice Services Board for the Commonwealth of Virginia.

Mr. HuYoung is listed in The Best Lawyers in America and was its “Lawyer of the Year in White Collar Criminal Defense” in 2012. He is a Senior Fellow of the Litigation Counsel of America, an invitation-only trial lawyer honorary society. In 2010, Mr. HuYoung was selected as a “Leader in the Law” by Virginia Lawyers Weekly. He is a Virginia Super Lawyer and a Virginia Legal Elite. He is also AV rated by Martindale-Hubbell. Mr. HuYoung is a former Adjunct Professor at the University of Richmond Law School and still coaches its Trial Advocacy Board’s Mock Trial Competition teams as well as its Moot Court teams. He is a frequent lecturer at continuing legal education seminars for attorneys and judges.

Mr. HuYoung is a member of the Virginia State Bar’s Diversity Conference after serving as a Former Chair, Past Board Member, and a Founder of the Conference. In 2019, he was awarded the Clarence M. Dunnaville, Jr. Award, named after the notable civil rights lawyer, by the Virginia State Bar for his work in promoting diversity and inclusion in the legal profession. He also served on the Virginia State Bar’s Executive Committee and Bar Council. He is a Fellow of the Virginia Law Foundation and sits on its Board. He is a member of The Virginia Bar Association and serves on its Governance Committee, after serving on its Board and as a former Chair of its Criminal Law Section. He is also a member of the Virginia Trial Lawyers Association and a former Board member and chaired its Criminal Law Section. He serves on the Virginia Criminal Justice Conference after being a Past Chair and a Founder of the Conference. He is also a member and Director of the Asian Pacific American Bar Association of Virginia and was the recipient of its Award of Excellence in 2008.

Mark D. Loftis, WoodsRogers PLC / Roanoke (Expand/Collapse Bio)

Mark D. Loftis, author of Chapter 21, is a Fellow of the Virginia Law Foundation (Class of 2008). As chairman of WoodsRogers’ Litigation Section, Mr. Loftis practices primarily in the areas of product liability, commercial litigation, and insurance coverage litigation. He has extensive experience representing product manufacturers, product retailers and utility companies in litigation matters in both state and federal courts. He frequently writes and lectures on warranty, contract, and technology law issues. Mr. Loftis has served as president of the Virginia Association of Defense Attorneys, the leading statewide bar organization for attorneys dedicated to the defense of civil actions, and has been inducted in the Virginia Law Foundation. An experienced trial lawyer who has tried numerous cases to verdict, Mr. Loftis also is listed in The Best Lawyers in America and by Chambers & Partners as one of Virginia’s leading commercial litigators. He is a graduate of Georgetown University and received his law degree from the University of Virginia School of Law. His pro bono work includes serving as the chancellor of the Episcopal Diocese of Southwestern Virginia.

Benjamin V. Madison, III, Regent University School of Law / Virginia Beach (Expand/Collapse Bio)

Benjamin V. Madison, III, co-author of Chapter 2, is a professor at Regent University School of Law, where he has since joining the full-time faculty in 2003 taught Appellate Advocacy, Virginia Procedure, Federal Civil Procedure, and a variety of other courses. Previously, Professor Madison was a partner in the law firm of Hunton & Williams and practiced on its Litigation, Intellectual Property, and Antitrust Team. Professor Madison received his B.A. degree from Randolph-Macon College in 1981, his M.A. degree from the College of William and Mary in 1982, and his J.D. degree from the Marshall-Wythe School of Law at the College of William and Mary in 1985. He served as a law clerk to the Honorable Walter E. Hoffman, Senior United States District Court Judge, from 1985 to 1986. Professor Madison is a past-president of the Tidewater Chapter of the Federal Bar Association. He also has been and continues to be a master of the James Kent American Inn of Court. Before and after becoming a full-time law professor, Professor Madison participated in over fifty Continuing Legal Education courses on a range of subjects, including Appellate Practice, Trial Practice, Federal Procedure, and Ethics. Professor Madison has recently published a casebook, Civil Procedure for All States, which breaks from the traditional legal textbook by following the recommendations of the 2007 Carnegie Institute Report on needed reforms in law school education. Professor Madison has been honored as a fellow of the Educating Tomorrow’s Lawyers initiative, founded by Mr. William Sullivan, lead author of the 2007 Carnegie Report (http://iaals.du.edu/educating-tomorrows-lawyers/projects/resources/course-syllabusABOUTstate-civil-procedure). Regent University has awarded him the Faculty Award for Excellence in Teaching and the Faculty Award for Excellence in Scholarship. In several years, students voted Professor Madison professor of the year.

C. Kailani (Kai) Memmer, Glenn Robinson Cathey Memmer & Skaff PLC / Roanoke (Expand/Collapse Bio)

Kai Memmer, co-author of Chapter 19, is a litigator whose practice concentrates on civil litigation including tort, contract, and other matters. Ms. Memmer has a wide range of experience in representing individuals and corporate, self-insured, and insurance clients in complex product liability, premises liability, local government, tort, transportation, contract, and insurance coverage matters. She has a state-wide practice and has tried cases and handled appeals in both state and federal courts throughout the Commonwealth of Virginia. Ms. Memmer is admitted in Virginia and North Carolina. She is a graduate of Wellesley College and The University of Richmond School of Law. She currently serves on the Virginia Board of Bar Examiners, the Board of the Virginia State Bar’s Section on the Education of Lawyers, and the Boyd-Graves Conference. She is a Fellow of the Virginia Law Foundation and has served on the Board of the Virginia State Bar’s Diversity Conference and as a faculty member on the Virginia State Bar Professionalism Course.

Steven L. Micas, Prince George County / Prince George (Expand/Collapse Bio)

Steven L. Micas, author of Chapter 15, is a Fellow of the Virginia Law Foundation (Class of 2004). He has served in various leadership positions in the Virginia Local Government Attorney’s Association, including President, and received the organization’s highest award for distinguished service. In 2008 he was appointed by the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court as an instructor in the State Bar Association’s mandated “Professionalism” course. From 2010 to 2019, he served as chief counsel for Prince George County for all civilly related legal matters. Prior to working for Prince George County, he served as the County Attorney for Chesterfield for 34 years. The County Attorney defends all boards, commissions, departments, and employees of the county in federal and state courts. Major areas of civil litigation have included constitutional law, civil rights, and Title VII actions, eminent domain, real estate development, employment disputes, land use, and personal injury defense. He has successfully defended Virginia localities and their employees in claims involving such matters as freedom of religion, excessive use of force, wrongful death, false imprisonment, false arrest, and unlawful searches and seizures. Mr. Micas has appeared in various state courts including the Virginia Supreme Court and federal trial and appellate courts. Mr. Micas received his undergraduate and law degrees from the University of Virginia.

Carrie H. O’Malley, Hirschler Fleischer, P.C. / Fredericksburg (Expand/Collapse Bio)

Carrie H. O’Malley, author of Chapter 6, is a shareholder in Hirschler’s Fredericksburg office. Ms. O’Malley co-chairs the firm’s Commercial Real Estate Finance and Investment Practice Group. With over 23 years of legal and business experience in commercial real estate transactions, Ms. O’Malley concentrates her practice on complex real estate acquisitions, sales, financings, and securitizations; loan portfolio acquisitions, sales, and servicing transactions; commercial leasing matters, § 1031 like-kind exchanges; and loan workouts and alternative financing transactions. Ms. O’Malley also maintains a niche focus in the rapidly evolving impact investment arena of Property Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) financing.

Ms. O’Malley received her B.S.B.A. with concentrations in finance and mar-keting from the E. Claiborne Robins School of Business at the University of Richmond in 1991. In 1996, Ms. O’Malley received her law degree from the T.C. Williams School of Law and her Master of Business Administration from the Richard S. Reynolds Graduate School of Business at the University of Richmond (a four-year joint degree program), which Ms. O’Malley completed after only three years of study.

Ms. O’Malley has been recognized among the “Legal Elite” by Virginia Business magazine (2006-2011, 2013-2014, 2016-2018) and has been named a “Legal Rising Star” by Law & Politics (2007 and 2009). In 2009, she received the Women of Distinction Award in Law from the Girl Scout Commonwealth Council of Virginia, and in 2010 Ms. O’Malley was selected by Virginia Law-yers Media as one of the “Influential Women of Virginia.” In 2019, Ms. O’Malley was selected to be a member of the Inaugural Class of Virginia’s “Influential Women in the Law” by Virginia Lawyers Weekly.

Jonathan P. Sheldon, Sheldon & Flood PLC / Fairfax (Expand/Collapse Bio)

Jonathan P. Sheldon, author of Chapter 10, is a founding partner of Sheldon & Flood, PLC. and focuses his work on appeals and post-conviction in the state and federal courts. Mr. Sheldon served as Chair of the Virginia State Bar’s annual conference on how to defend a capital murder case from 2012-2015. Mr. Sheldon is a co-author of Trial of Capital Murder Cases in Virginia (Virginia Law Foundation 2019). His other publications include “How To Deal With A Judge’s Interference At Trial,” The Champion 2016; “Ethical Implications of Modifying LI Protocols,” PLoS Medicine 2008; “Chemical Asphyxiation?” PLoS Medicine 2007; “Can Lethal Injection Be ‘Fixed’?” The Lancet 2007; and “Inadequate Anesthesia for Lethal Injection” The Lancet 2005. Mr. Sheldon received a B.S. in Mathematics in 1987 from University of Massachusetts and a J.D. in 1995 from William & Mary Law School.

George A. Somerville, Harman Claytor Corrigan Wellman / Glen Allen (Expand/Collapse Bio)

George A. Somerville, co-author of Chapter 2, is Senior Counsel to Harman Claytor Corrigan Wellman. His practice focuses on appellate litigation in state and federal courts. He also represents clients at trial in general civil litigation and in water use permitting and litigation in state and federal administrative agencies and courts. He has represented clients on appeal in cases with issues ranging from state and federal constitutional law to church property law, commercial, business, and corporate governance law, NEPA and the Clean Water Act, the Coastal Zone Management Act, the National Historic Preservation Act, maritime salvage, and criminal defense. Mr. Somerville is a frequent lecturer in continuing legal and other professional education programs in the areas of appellate litigation, water resource devel-opment, and related issues of environmental law. He has been recognized in The Best Lawyers in America in Appellate Practice (2010-2020) (Richmond Area “Lawyer of the Year” in 2017 & 2019); Virginia Business magazine’s “Legal Elite” in Legislative/Regulatory/Administrative Law (2007, 2009-2010) and Appellate Law (2011-2018); as a “Virginia Super Lawyer” in Environ-mental Litigation (2007), Business Litigation (2014), State, Local & Munici-pal Law (2014), Appellate Litigation (2013-2019), and among the Top 50 Lawyers in Richmond (2018 & 2019) and Top 100 Lawyers in Virginia (2018 & 2019); and Virginia Living magazine’s “Best Lawyers in Virginia” in Administrative/Appellate Practice (2012). He is a member of the Boyd-Graves Conference and a Fellow of the Virginia Law Foundation, and he has served as a member of the Faculty of the Virginia State Bar’s Harry L. Carrico Professionalism Course (2009-2012). He is a graduate of West Virginia University (A.B., 1973) and the University of Virginia School of Law (J.D., 1980) and served as a law clerk for the late Ruggero J. Aldisert, United States Circuit Judge, from 1980 to 1982.

J. Christian Tennant, Richmond (Expand/Collapse Bio)

J. Christian Tennant, author of Chapter 23, focuses his practice on state and local tax. Mr. Tennant routinely handles appeals of state and local taxes, business tax planning, and lobbying efforts in the Virginia General Assembly. Mr. Tennant worked in the Virginia Department of Taxation’s Policy Development office. During his tenure there, he evaluated audit protests received by the department, and drafted responses to these protests on behalf of the Virginia Tax Commissioner. He also represented the Department of Taxation before various committees and subcommittees of the Virginia General Assembly, oversaw changes to Virginia’s income tax laws, and monitored how changes to the Internal Revenue Code affected Virginia. In addition, he was often charged with drafting new tax legislation for the governor of Virginia, members of the General Assembly, and various agencies of the Commonwealth. Many of the provisions Mr. Tennant drafted are now codified in the Code of Virginia. Mr. Tennant has authored a variety of articles involving all aspects of state and local tax issues for the Multistate Report, published by BNA’s Tax Management, Inc. and for State Tax Notes, published by Tax Analysts, Inc.
 
Mr. Tennant received a BBA, Accounting, in 1995 from James Madison University and a JD in 1998 from University of Richmond School of Law. He is admitted to practice in Virginia.

Johneal M. White, Glenn Robinson Cathey Memmer & Skaff PLC / Roanoke (Expand/Collapse Bio)

Johneal M. White, co-author of Chapter 19, is a litigator whose practice concentrates on civil litigation including tort, contract, and other matters. She has handled complex litigation in the areas of products liability, premises liability, contract, and personal injury. She has tried numerous cases in both state and federal courts throughout the Commonwealth of Virginia. Ms. White is admitted in Virginia and Massachusetts.

Robert C. (Robin) Wood, III, Woods Rogers PLC / Lynchburg (Expand/Collapse Bio)

Robin Wood, author of Chapters 4, 5, and 12, is a Fellow of the Virginia Law Foundation (Class of 1992). He was admitted to the Virginia bar in 1965 and joined Edmunds & Williams in 1967, which merged with Woods Rogers in 2016. Since 1980, Mr. Wood has taught Virginia Law and Procedure as an Adjunct Professor of Law at the Washington & Lee University School of Law. Mr. Wood is a member of the Lynchburg (President, 1985-1986), Virginia (Executive Committee, 1986-1988, 2007-2010), and American Bar Associa-tions. He is also a member of the Virginia State Bar (Editor, Litigation Newsletter, 1984-1990; Chairman, Litigation Section, 1988-1989) and the Virginia Association of Defense Attorneys and was a member of the Virginia Model Jury Instruction Committee (1998-2007). He is also a participant in and former chairman of the Boyd-Graves Conference on Virginia Procedure. Mr. Wood was the recipient of the Virginia State Bar General Practice Sec-tion’s 2015 Tradition of Excellence Award and is an honorary member of the Order of the Coif at Washington and Lee School of Law. He is listed in The Best Lawyers in America, Commercial Litigation. He was born in Lynchburg, Virginia and continues to reside there. He has served as an ACC football referee and is an avid handball player.

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