Virginia Law and Practice: A Handbook for Attorneys

Virginia Law and Practice: A Handbook for Attorneys
Publication Date: 2017 (December 2016)
Available Formats: Print (1,569 pages, softbound, 2 volumes)
  Electronic (searchable PDF via immediate download, CD, or USB)
  Both Print and Electronic formats
Product #: 961

Information

Chapter List:
  • Agency in Virginia
  • Appellate Practice in Virginia
  • Business Organizations in Virginia
  • Civil Procedure in Virginia
  • Conflict of Laws in Virginia
  • Contracts in Virginia
  • Creditors’ Rights in Virginia
  • Criminal Law in Virginia
  • Criminal Procedure in Virginia
  • Domestic Relations in Virginia
  • Equity in Virginia
  • Estate Administration in Virginia
  • Evidence in Virginia
  • Local Government Law in Virginia
  • Personal Property in Virginia
  • Post-Conviction Remedies in Virginia
  • Real Property in Virginia
  • Sales Law in Virginia
  • Torts in Virginia
  • Trusts in Virginia
  • Uniform Commercial Code in Virginia
  • Virginia Constitutional Law
  • Virginia Taxation
  • Wills in Virginia

2017 Edition At The Printer

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If there is one book that every Virginia practitioner should have, this is it.

Virginia Law and Practice: A Handbook for Attorneys spans across major practice areas, as well as subjects found in almost every practice, such as agency and contracts. Combining quick reference to relevant primary law with practice pointers, it can and should be the first place you go to research a topic, get ready to meet a client, or prepare a case. It provides ongoing value to experienced attorneys, as well as new ones.

This second, 2017 edition is revised and updated through the 2016 session of the General Assembly. It has been expanded to two volumes to accommodate new coverage including a new chapter on Post-Conviction Remedies, as well as a concise timeline and checklist of appellate deadlines and requirements, a chart comparing pros and cons of different business entities, a table of cited authorities, and a subject matter index.

The materials for this book also serve as the seminar materials for our Rule 1A:1 Reciprocity Course.

Published in cooperation with the Fellows of the Virginia Law Foundation


You may also be interested in:


The Virginia Lawyer: A Deskbook for Practitioners

Virginia Civil Practice Forms

Appellate Practice - Virginia and Federal Courts

Virginia Criminal Practice Forms

Defending Criminal Cases in Virginia

A Guide to the Rules of Evidence in Virginia

Contract Law in Virginia

Choosing a Virginia Business Entity

Estate and Trust Administration in Virginia

Virginia Family Law: A Systematic Approach

Fee Agreements for Virginia Lawyers

 

Table of Contents


CHAPTER LIST

1. Agency in Virginia

2. Appellate Practice in Virginia

3. Business Organizations in Virginia

4. Civil Procedure in Virginia

5. Conflict of Laws in Virginia

6. Contracts in Virginia

7. Creditors' Rights in Virginia

8. Criminal Law in Virginia

9. Criminal Procedure in Virginia

10. Post-Conviction Remedies in Virginia

11. Domestic Relations in Virginia

12. Equity in Virginia

13. Estate Administration in Virginia

14. Evidence in Virginia

15. Local Government Law in Virginia

16. Personal Property in Virginia

17. Real Property in Virginia

18. Sales Law in Virginia

19. Torts in Virginia

20. Trusts in Virginia

21. Uniform Commercial Code in Virginia

22. Virginia Constitutional Law

23. Virginia Taxation

24. Wills in Virginia


CHAPTER 1: AGENCY IN VIRGINIA

1.1 THE AGENCY RELATIONSHIP
    1.101 Agency Relationship
    1.102 Agent’s Duties to Principal
    1.103 Principal’s Duties to Agent
    
1.2 LIABILITY OF PRINCIPAL TO THIRD PARTIES FOR
CONTRACTS ENTERED BY AN AGENT
    1.201 Actual Authority
    1.202 Apparent Authority
    1.203 Ratification
    1.204 Liability of Principal
    1.205 Liability of Agent
    1.206 Liability of Third Party
    
1.3 LIABILITY OF PRINCIPAL TO THIRD PARTIES FOR
TORTS OF AN AGENT
    1.301 Respondeat Superior
    1.302 Employer/Employee Relationship
    1.303 Scope of Employment
    1.304 Negligent Hiring and Retention
    1.305 No Claim for Negligent Supervision
    1.306 Nature of the Plaintiff’s Injury
    1.307 Potential Claims of Immunity

1.4 DUAL AGENCY IN REAL ESTATE TRANSACTIONS
    1.401 Dual Agency
    1.402 Common Law Before the Statute’s Dual-Agency
    Amendment
    1.403 Legislative Action
    1.404 Statutory Framework
    
CHAPTER 2: APPELLATE PRACTICE IN VIRGINIA

PART ONE—THE VIRGINIA JUDICIAL SYSTEM:
ORGANIZATION AND STRUCTURE


2.1 INTRODUCTION

2.2 SUPREME COURT OF VIRGINIA
    2.201 In General
    2.202 Original Jurisdiction
    2.203 Appellate Jurisdiction
    
2.3 COURT OF APPEALS OF VIRGINIA
    2.301 In General
    2.302 En Banc Hearings
    2.303 Original Jurisdiction
    2.304 Appellate Jurisdiction

2.4 CIRCUIT COURTS
    2.401 In General
    2.402 Original Jurisdiction
    2.403 Appellate Jurisdiction

2.5 DISTRICT COURTS
    2.501 In General
    2.502 General District Courts
    2.503 Juvenile and Domestic Relations District Courts
    
PART TWO—APPEALS TO THE COURT OF APPEALS AND
SUPREME COURT OF VIRGINIA


2.6 INTRODUCTION

2.7 PROTECTING THE RECORD IN THE TRIAL COURT AND
ASSIGNING ERROR IN THE APPELLATE COURT
    2.701 Objections in the Lower Court and Assignments of
    Error on Appeal
    2.702 Trial Motions and Proffers of Evidence
    2.703 Proffer of Excluded Evidence

2.8 PREREQUISITES TO APPEAL
    2.801 Appellate Jurisdiction
    2.802 Amount in Controversy
    2.803 Final Judgment
    2.804 Interlocutory Orders
    2.805 Orders Sustaining Demurrers
    2.806 Security for Appeal

2.9 MECHANICS OF THE APPEAL
    2.901 Appeal to the Virginia Court of Appeals
    2.902 Appeal to the Supreme Court of Virginia from the
    Court of Appeals
    2.903 Appeal to the Supreme Court of Virginia from
    Circuit Court

2.10 CAPITAL SENTENCE APPEALS
    2.1001 Automatic Review by Supreme Court
    2.1002 Scope of Review
    
2.11 COMMONWEALTH’S PRETRIAL APPEAL
    2.1101 Pretrial Review by Court of Appeals
    2.1102 Limited Issues
    2.1103 Petitioning for Appeal
    2.1104 Procedure for Awarded Appeal

2.12 CONCLUSION

PART THREE—EXTRAORDINARY WRITS AND UNUSUAL
APPEALS


2.13 BACKGROUND

2.14 MANDAMUS AND PROHIBITION
    2.1401 In General
    2.1402 Discretionary Versus Ministerial Acts
    2.1403 The Virginia Freedom of Information Act (FOIA)
    2.1404 Use of Extraordinary Writs in Lieu of Interlocutory
    Appeals

2.15 QUO WARRANTO

2.16 APPEALS OF EXTRAORDINARY WRITS ISSUED BY
LOWER COURTS
    2.1601 Right of Appeal
    2.1602 Jurisdiction
    
2.17 APPEALS OF INTERLOCUTORY DECREES AND
INJUNCTIONS
    2.1701 In General
    2.1702 Injunctions
    
CHAPTER 3: BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS IN VIRGINIA

3.1 INTRODUCTION

3.2 SOLE PROPRIETORSHIPS
    3.201 Purpose
    3.202 Organization
    3.203 Permitted Ownership
    3.204 Control
    3.205 Duration
    3.206 Owner Liability
    3.207 Classes of Ownership Interest
    3.208 Transfer of Interests and Assets
    3.209 Income Tax Treatment
    3.210 Advantages
    3.211 Disadvantages

3.3 CORPORATIONS
    3.301 Purpose
    3.302 Organization
    3.303 Permitted Ownership
    3.304 Owner Liability
    3.305 Classes of Ownership Interest
    3.306 Transfer of Interests
    3.307 Income Tax Treatment
    3.308 Advantages
    3.309 Disadvantages
    3.310 Benefit Corporations

3.4 GENERAL PARTNERSHIPS
    3.401 Purpose
    3.402 Organization
    3.403 Permitted Ownership
    3.404 Control
    3.405 Duration
    3.406 Owner Liability
    3.407 Classes of Ownership Interest
    3.408 Transfer of Interests
    3.409 Income Tax Treatment
    3.410 Advantages
    3.411 Disadvantages
    
3.5 LIMITED PARTNERSHIPS
    3.501 Purpose
    3.502 Organization
    3.503 Permitted Ownership
    3.504 Control
    3.505 Duration
    3.506 Owner Liability
    3.507 Classes of Ownership Interest
    3.508 Transfer of Interests
    3.509 Income Tax Treatment
    3.510 Advantages
    3.511 Disadvantages
    
3.6 REGISTERED LIMITED LIABILITY PARTNERSHIPS
    3.601 Purpose
    3.602 Organization
    3.603 Permitted Ownership
    3.604 Control
    3.605 Duration
    3.606 Owner Liability
    3.607 Classes of Ownership Interest
    3.608 Transfer of Interests
    3.609 Income Tax Treatment
    3.610 Advantages
    3.611 Disadvantages

3.7 LIMITED LIABILITY COMPANIES
    3.701 Purpose
    3.702 Organization
    3.703 Permitted Ownership
    3.704 Control
    3.705 Duration
    3.706 Owner and Manager Liability
    3.707 Classes of Ownership Interest
    3.708 Transfer of Interests
    3.709 Income Tax Treatment
    3.710 Advantages
    3.711 Disadvantages
    
3.8 BUSINESS TRUSTS
    3.801 Purpose
    3.802 Organization
    3.803 Permitted Ownership
    3.804 Control
    3.805 Duration
    3.806 Owner Liability
    3.807 Trustee Liability
    3.808 Classes of Ownership Interest
    3.809 Transfer of Interests
    3.810 Income Tax Treatment
    3.811 Advantages
    3.812 Disadvantages
    3.813 Virginia Real Estate Investment Trusts
    
3.9 CONVERSIONS AND MERGERS
    3.901 Conversion of Limited Partnership into General
    Partnership
    3.902 Conversion of General or Limited Partnership into
    Registered Limited Liability Partnership
    3.903 Conversion of General or Limited Partnership into
    Limited Liability Company
    3.904 Conversion of Corporation into Limited Liability
    Company and Vice Versa
    3.905 Conversion of Domestic Entity into Business Trust
    3.906 Merger and Share Exchange of Corporations
    3.907 Merger of General Partnership with Limited
    Partnership, Limited Liability Company, Business
    Trust, or Corporation
    3.908 Merger of Limited Partnership, Limited Liability
    Company, or Business Trust with Corporation
    3.909 Merger of Business Trust with Business Trust or
    Other Entity
    
3.10 DOMESTICATION AND REGISTRATION OF FOREIGN
ENTITIES
    3.1001 Domestication of Corporations
    3.1002 Domestication of Limited Liability Companies
    3.1003 Domestication of Business Trusts
    3.1004 Certificates of Authority for Foreign Corporations
    3.1005 Registration of Foreign Limited Partnerships
    3.1006 Registration of Foreign Limited Liability Companies
    3.1007 Registration of Foreign Business Trusts
    
COMPARISON OF BUSINESS ENTITIES CHART

CHAPTER 4: CIVIL PROCEDURE IN VIRGINIA

4.1 COURTS
    4.101 Judicial Department
    4.102 Supreme Court
    4.103 Court of Appeals
    4.104 Circuit Courts
    4.105 Clerk of Circuit Courts
    4.106 Courts Not of Record: In General
    4.107 Courts Not of Record: General District Courts
    
4.2 PREJUDGMENT REMEDIES
    4.201 Prejudgment Remedy of Detinue
    4.202 Attachment
    
4.3 PARTIES
    4.301 Plaintiff
    4.302 Defendant
    4.303 Parties in Equitable Claims
    4.304 Change of Parties, Names of Parties, Amendment,
    Relation Back
    4.305 Special Rules for Certain Persons and Entities

4.4 VENUE
    4.401 Introduction
    4.402 Preferred and Permissible Venue
    4.403 Multiple Parties
    4.404 Parties Not Expressly Covered
    4.405 Objections to Venue
    4.406 Change of Venue by Court
    4.407 Review
    4.408 Ethical Consideration
    4.409 Sanctions
    4.410 Forum Selection Agreements
    
4.5 PROCESS
    4.501 Introduction
    4.502 Service of Process Generally
    4.503 Classification of Process (by Phases of a Case)
    4.504 Classification of Service
    4.505 Persons Who May Serve Process
    4.506 Persons Exempt from Service of Process
    4.507 Persons Privileged from “Arrest Under Civil Process”
    4.508 Service of Process on Natural Persons
    4.509 Time of Serving Process
    4.510 Return of Process (Va. Code § 8.01-325.)
    4.511 Service by Order of Publication
    4.512 Service on Particular Types of Defendants
    4.513 Void and Defective Service of Process
    4.514 Acceptance and Waiver of Process
    4.515 Jurisdiction
    4.516 Long-Arm Statute
    4.517 Summary of Methods of Service on Out-of-State
    Defendants
    
4.6 PLEADING A CAUSE OF ACTION
    4.601 Introductory Note on Rules of Court
    4.602 Classification of Actions
    4.603 Beginning January 1, 2006—One Form of Action
    4.604 Splitting the Cause of Action
    4.605 Joinder of Claims—Whether Praying for Legal and/or
    Equitable Relief Under Part 3 of the Rules
    4.606 Sufficiency and Particularity
    4.607 Variance Between Allegata and Probata
    4.608 Commencement of Action
    
4.7 DEFENSIVE PLEADING
    4.701 Timing
    4.702 Distinguish Three Types of Defensive Pleading
    4.703 Objections to Venue and Jurisdiction
    4.704 Plea in Suspension (Rare)
    4.705 Demurrer (Challenge to Legal Sufficiency)
    4.706 Motion for Bill of Particulars
    4.707 Pleas in Bar or Special Pleas
    4.708 Pleadings to the Merits
    4.709 Pleadings Which Must Be Sworn
    4.710 Motion for Summary Judgment
    
4.8 AGGRESSIVE PLEADINGS BY DEFENDANT AND THIRD
PARTY PRACTICE
    4.801 Overview: What We Are Dealing With
    4.802 Defendant Versus Plaintiff: Counterclaims and Cross-
    Claims
    4.803 Defendant Versus Another Defendant: Cross-Claims
    4.804 Bringing in Additional Parties at Law
    4.805 Addition or Dropping of Parties by Court

4.9 LIMITATION OF ACTIONS
    4.901 Introduction
    4.902 Four Fundamentals in Applying the Statute of
    Limitations
    4.903 Determine the Number of Causes of Action
    4.904 Accrual of the Cause of Action
    4.905 Limitation Periods—What Statute of Limitations
    Applies
    4.906 Tolling the Running of Statute of Limitations
    4.907 Estoppel to Plead the Statute of Limitations
    4.908 Who May Plead the Statute of Limitations
    4.909 Limitations and Laches Claims in Equity
    
4.10 DISCOVERY
    4.1001 Overview
    4.1002 Scope of Discovery
    4.1003 Court Supervision
    4.1004 Supplementation of Responses
    4.1005 Failure to Make Discovery; Sanctions
    4.1006 A Study of Federal And Virginia Rules Of Discovery

4.11 TRIAL: PRELIMINARIES AND INCIDENTS
    4.1101 Preliminaries
    4.1102 Jury
    4.1103 Opening Statement of Counsel
    4.1104 The Proof: Manner and Time of Taking; Weight in
    Equity
    4.1105 Withdrawing the Case from the Jury; Motions to
    Strike
    4.1106 Instructions to the Jury—See Model Jury Instruction
    Prepared by a Committee Appointed by the Virginia
    Supreme Court
    4.1107 Argument of Counsel
    4.1108 Verdict of Jury
    4.1109 Motions After Verdict
    4.1110 Bill of Review in Equity
    4.1111 Judgments/Decrees

4.12 VERDICTS IN ACTION AT LAW

CHAPTER 5: CONFLICT OF LAWS IN VIRGINIA

5.1 SOURCES OF LAW
    5.101 Case Law
    5.102 Statutes
    
5.2 GENERAL RULES
    5.201 Tort Versus Contract Determination
    5.202 Substantive Versus Procedural Determination
    5.203 Restatement Analysis Rejected
    5.204 Public Policy

5.3 TORT ACTIONS GENERALLY
    5.301 Lex Loci Delicti Standard
    5.302 Guest Statute
    5.303 Loss of Consortium
    5.304 Attributing Negligence in Use or Operation of
    Vehicle to the Owner
    5.305 Vehicle Accident Involving Rental Car Leased out
    of State
    5.306 Fourth Circuit Opinion

5.4 CONTRACT ACTIONS GENERALLY
    5.401 Nature, Validity, and Interpretation of Contracts
    5.402 Performance of Contracts
    5.403 Intent of Parties

5.5 CIVIL PROCEDURE
    5.501 Capacity to Sue
    5.502 Joinder of Causes of Action
    5.503 Prejudgment Interest

5.6 CORPORATIONS

5.7 CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

5.8 DOMESTIC RELATIONS
    5.801 Premarital Agreements
    5.802 Choice of Law Is a Question of Law on Appeal
    5.803 Uniform Interstate Family Support Act

5.9 REAL ESTATE
    5.901 Contracts
    5.902 Lex Loci Applies to Landlord’s Duty

5.10 UNIFORM COMMERCIAL CODE

5.11 UNINSURED MOTORISTS
    5.1101 Insurance Contracts
    5.1102 Uninsured Motorists
    5.1103 “John Doe” Actions
    
5.12 WILLS AND ESTATES
    5.1201 Testamentary Capacity
    5.1202 Construction and Effect of Will

5.13 WRONGFUL DEATH
    5.1301 Cap on Noneconomic Damages
    5.1302 Limitation on Damages
    5.1303 Noneconomic Damages in Virginia

5.14 MISCELLANEOUS STATUTORY CHOICE OF LAW
PROVISIONS
    5.1401 Alcoholic Beverage Control Act
    5.1402 Other Statutes
    
CHAPTER 6: CONTRACTS IN VIRGINIA

6.1 SOURCES AND ORGANIZATION OF CONTRACT LAW
    6.101 Virginia Statutes
    6.102 Definitions of Terms
    
6.2 FORMATION OF CONTRACTS
    6.201 Mechanics of Assent: Offer and Acceptance
    6.202 Consideration
    6.203 Contracts Without Consideration
    6.204 Seal and Other Virginia Formalities

6.3 STATUTE OF FRAUDS
    6.301 Introduction
    6.302 Scope of the Statute
    6.303 Satisfaction of the Statute
    6.304 Effect of Noncompliance
    6.305 Additional Virginia Statutes Requiring Agreements
    to Be in Writing

6.4 POLICING THE BARGAIN
    6.401 Mental Competence
    6.402 Contracts of Minors
    6.403 Mistake
    6.404 Fraud and Misrepresentation
    6.405 Duress and Undue Influence
    6.406 Modification of Contracts
    6.407 Warranties and Disclaimers
    6.408 Public Policy and Illegality
    6.409 Unconscionability
    6.410 Accord and Satisfaction
    
6.5 NONPERFORMANCE
    6.501 Anticipatory Breach
    6.502 Breach: Types and Effects
    6.503 Substantial Performance
    6.504 Responses to Breach
    6.505 Excuse for Nonperformance: Impossibility and
    Frustration

6.6 ASSIGNMENT OF RIGHTS
    6.601 Assignable Rights
    6.602 Requirements for Effective Assignment

6.7 JOINT AND SEVERAL CONTRACTS
    6.701 In General
    6.702 Several Liability
    6.703 Joint Liability
    6.704 Joint and Several Liability
    6.705 Liability of Unnamed Signer
    6.706 Promises of the Same Performance
    6.707 Partnership Obligations
    6.708 Negotiable Instruments
    6.709 Form Provisions

6.8 REMEDIES FOR BREACH OF CONTRACT
    6.801 Introduction
    6.802 Election of Remedies
    6.803 Damages
    6.804 Specific Performance
    6.805 Injunctions
    6.806 Rescission
    
CHAPTER 7: CREDITORS’ RIGHTS IN VIRGINIA

7.1 INTRODUCTION

7.2 ACCORD AND SATISFACTION
    7.201 Common Law
    7.202 Affirmative Defense
    7.203 Tender of Payment “in Full Satisfaction”
    7.204 Uniform Commercial Code
    7.205 Effect on Co-Debtors

7.3 ARTISANS’ AND SERVICE LIENS
    7.301 Innkeeper’s Lien
    7.302 Garagemen’s Lien (Personal Property Other Than
    Motor Vehicles)
    7.303 Garagemen’s Lien (Motor Vehicles)
    7.304 Mechanics’ Lien (Personal Property Other Than
    Motor Vehicles).
    7.305 Mechanic’s Lien (Motor Vehicles)
    7.306 Warehouseman’s Lien

7.4 ATTORNEY FEES
    7.401 Common Law
    7.402 Consumer Lease Contracts; Unconscionability
    7.403 Usury
    
7.5 FOREIGN CORPORATIONS’ CAPACITY TO SUE IN
VIRGINIA
    7.501 Qualification to Transact Business
    7.502 Litigation Not “Transacting Business”

7.6 CHOICE OF LAW AND FORUM SELECTION
    7.601 In General
    7.602 Venue
    7.603 Limited in Consumer Leases

7.7 HOMESTEAD EXEMPTIONS
    7.701 Federal Homestead Exemption Not Applicable in
    Virginia
    7.702 Virginia Homestead Exemption
    7.703 “Poor Debtor’s Exemption”
    7.704 Additional Exemptions
    7.705 Exemptions From Garnishment
    7.706 Homestead Allowance in Claims Against Estates
    7.707 Waiver of the Homestead Exemption
    7.708 Property Held as Tenants by the Entireties
    
7.8 INTEREST
    7.801 “Legal Rate”
    7.802 Annual Cap of 12 Percent
    7.803 Judgment Rate

7.9 LANDLORDS’ LIENS
    7.901 Procedure
    7.902 Priority and Amount

7.10 LATE CHARGES

7.11 LICENSED LENDERS
    7.1101 Consumer Lenders
    7.1102 Mortgage Lenders
    
7.12 LIQUIDATED DAMAGES

7.13 PREPAYMENT PENALTIES
    7.1301 Installment Sales Contracts
    7.1302 Real Estate Loans of Less Than $75,000
    7.1303 Real Estate Loans on Owner-Occupied Property
    7.1304 Subordinate Real Estate Loans
    7.1305 Limited Applicability of Restrictions on Prepayment
    7.1306 Applicability of Rule of 78
    
7.14 REPLEVIN (DETINUE); PRETRIAL SEIZURE
    7.1401 Replevin Replaced by Detinue in Virginia
    7.1402 Pretrial Seizure of Property; Grounds

7.15 USURY
    7.1501 Legal Rate of Interest
    7.1502 Rate of Interest Constituting Usury
    7.1503 Judgment Rate of Interest
    7.1504 Borrower’s Right to Claim Usury as Defense to
    Lender’s Suit
    7.1505 Borrower’s Action for Excess Interest Amount
    7.1506 Effect of Waiver of Usury Defense
    7.1507 Limitation on Borrower’s Right of Usury Action or
    Defense
    7.1508 Exception of Certain Lenders from Usury Laws
    7.1509 Certain Loans for Educational Expenses Not Subject
    to Usury Defense

7.16 JURY TRIAL
    7.1601 Right to Trial by Jury
    7.1602 Courts of Law and Equity Combined
    7.1603 Actions Sounding in Law
    7.1604 Actions Sounding in Chancery

7.17 WRIT OF ATTACHMENT
    7.1701 Writ of Fieri Facias
    7.1702 Pretrial Seizure of Personal Property
    
CHAPTER 8: CRIMINAL LAW IN VIRGINIA

8.1 THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM IN VIRGINIA
    8.101 In General
    8.102 The Courts

8.2 CLASSIFICATION OF CRIMES
    8.201 Felonies
    8.202 Misdemeanors
    8.203 Traffic Infractions

8.3 CRIMINAL OFFENSES
    8.301 Definitions
    8.302 Title 18.2—Crimes and Offenses Generally

8.4 STATUTES OF LIMITATIONS
    8.401 Exceptions
    8.402 Limitation Period
    8.403 Commencement Date

CHAPTER 9: CRIMINAL PROCEDURE IN VIRGINIA

9.1 SEQUENCE OF A TYPICAL CRIMINAL CASE

9.2 RIGHT TO COUNSEL
    9.201 General Considerations
    9.202 Determination of Indigence
    9.203 Proceedings in Which the Right to Counsel Applies
    9.204 Court-Appointed Counsel and Public Defenders
    
9.3 THE LAW OF ARREST
    9.301 General Considerations
    9.302 Full Custodial Arrest
    9.303 When Warrant Is Required
    9.304 Arrest with Warrant or Summons
    9.305 Arrest Without Warrant
    9.306 Procedure After Arrest
    9.307 Consequences of Illegal Arrest
    
9.4 THE LAW OF SEARCH AND SEIZURE
    9.401 General Considerations
    9.402 Search Warrants
    9.403 Warrantless Searches and Seizures
    9.404 The Exclusionary Rule
    
9.5 DISCOVERY
    9.501 Defendant’s Discovery Generally
    9.502 Defendant’s Discovery Under Rule 3A:11
    9.503 Commonwealth’s Reciprocal Discovery Under
    Rule 3A:11
    9.504 Continuing Duty to Disclose
    9.505 Commonwealth’s Duty to Disclose Exculpatory
    Evidence
    9.506 Discovery Under Rule 7C:5 in General District Court
    9.507 Discovery Under Rule 8:15 in Juvenile and Domestic
    Relations District Court
    
9.6 THE PRELIMINARY HEARING

9.7 THE GRAND JURY
    9.701 General Functions

9.8 THE CHARGE UPON WHICH THE ACCUSED IS TRIED
    9.801 In General
    9.802 Form and Content of the Indictment and the
    Information

9.9 THE FORMAL CHARGE
    9.901 In General
    9.902 Felonies
    9.903 Misdemeanors
    9.904 Amendment to the Formal Charge
    9.905 Bill of Particulars

9.10 THE ARRAIGNMENT
    9.1001 Scope
    9.1002 Procedure

9.11 PLEAS
    9.1101 Permissible Pleas
    9.1102 Procedure for Entering Guilty Plea
    
9.12 PLEA-BARGAINING

9.13 PRETRIAL MOTIONS

9.14 VENUE AND CHANGE OF VENUE
    9.1401 Venue
    9.1402 Change of Venue
    
9.15 JURY SELECTION
    9.1501 Right to Jury Trial
    9.1502 Waiver
    9.1503 Number of Jurors
    9.1504 Challenges of Jurors
    
9.16 TRIAL
    9.1601 Opening Statement
    9.1602 Commonwealth’s Case-in-Chief
    9.1603 Motion to Strike the Evidence by Defendant
    9.1604 Defendant’s Case
    9.1605 Renewal of Motion to Strike by Defendant
    
9.17 INSTRUCTIONS TO THE JURY
    9.1701 Procedure
    9.1702 Submission of Proposed Instructions
    9.1703 Closing Arguments
    
9.18 VERDICT AND POST-VERDICT MOTIONS
    9.1801 In General
    9.1802 Joint Trial of Multiple Defendants
    9.1803 Multiple Counts
    9.1804 Acquittal by Reason of Insanity
    9.1805 Inconsistent Verdicts
    9.1806 Lesser-Included Offenses
    9.1807 Effect of Acquittal or Partial Acquittal
    9.1808 Deferral of Judgment

9.19 AUTHORITY TO SENTENCE
    9.1901 Jury Trials
    9.1902 Discretionary Sentencing Guidelines
    
9.20 PRONOUNCEMENT AND ALLOCUTION
    9.2001 Pronouncement
    9.2002 Allocution

9.21 PRESENTENCE INVESTIGATION AND REPORT AND
VICTIM IMPACT STATEMENT

9.22 JUDGMENT
    9.2201 Procedure
    9.2202 Finality

CHAPTER 10: POST-CONVICTION REMEDIES IN VIRGINIA

10.1 INTRODUCTION

10.2 HABEAS CORPUS
    10.201 A Very Brief History
    10.202 Courts with the Authority to Issue a Writ of
    Habeas Corpus
    10.203 The Rules That Apply
    10.204 There Is No Right to Counsel in a Habeas Proceeding
    10.205 Indigent Petitioner Has a Right to a Copy of the
    Court File and Transcripts
    10.206 Calculating the Statute of Limitations
    10.207 Jurisdictional Requirement—Petitioner Must Be in
    Custody
    10.208 Habeas Case Can Be Rendered Moot if the Petitioner
    Is Released from Custody While Petition Is Still
    Pending
    10.209 “Concurrent Sentencing Doctrine” Not Applicable in
    Virginia
    10.210 The Parties to the Petition
    10.211 Contents of Petition for Writ of Habeas Corpus
    10.212 Cognizable Claims
    10.213 Claims That Are Not Cognizable in Habeas Corpus
    Proceedings
    10.214 Filing and Service Requirements
    10.215 Show Cause Order
    10.216 Burden of Proof
    10.217 Reply to the Responsive Pleading
    10.218 Argument
    10.219 Discovery, Affidavits, and Evidentiary Hearings
    10.220 There Is No Right to a Jury Trial for an Evidentiary
    Hearing in a Habeas Case
    10.221 Court Reporters
    10.222 The Court Order
    10.223 Appeal
    10.224 Writ Granted
    
10.3 MOTION FOR A DELAYED APPEAL IN CRIMINAL CASES

10.4 WRIT OF ACTUAL INNOCENCE
    10.401 Preservation and Retention of Human Biological
    Evidence in Felony Cases
    10.402 Motion for Scientific Analysis of Previously Untested
    Newly Discovered Evidence

10.5 WRIT OF ACTUAL INNOCENCE BASED ON BIOLOGICAL
EVIDENCE

10.6 WRIT OF ACTUAL INNOCENCE BASED ON
NONBIOLOGICAL EVIDENCE

10.7 EXECUTIVE CLEMENCY

10.8 A MOTION TO VACATE A JUDGMENT AS VOID MAY BE
FILED AT ANYTIME

10.9 ANCIENT WRITS—CORAM NOBIS AND AUDITA
QUERELA

10.10 NUNC PRO TUNC

10.11 INDEPENDENT ACTION FOR FAILURE TO RECEIVE
NOTICE OF A FINAL ORDER

10.12 SUSPENSION OR MODIFICATION OF SENTENCE

10.13 CONDITIONAL RELEASE OF GERIATRIC PRISONERS

10.14 EXPUNGEMENTS

CHAPTER 11: DOMESTIC RELATIONS IN VIRGINIA

11.1 INTRODUCTION
    11.101 Advice
    11.102 Statutory Nature of Divorce

11.2 ANNULMENT
    11.201 Grounds on Which Either Party May Institute Suit
    11.202 Grounds on Which Aggrieved Party May Institute
    Suit
    11.203 Time Limits; Effect of Cohabitation
    11.204 Spousal Support

11.3 DIVORCE
    11.301 Domicile and Residential Requirements
    11.302 Grounds for Divorce
    
11.4 SAME-SEX MARRIAGE

11.5 SPOUSAL SUPPORT
    11.501 Pendente Lite Support
    11.502 Guidelines for Spousal Support
    11.503 Effect of Adultery
    11.504 Termination or Modification of Support
    11.505 Support of Other Family Members

11.6 CHILD SUPPORT
    11.601 Court’s Authority
    11.602 Guidelines
    11.603 Deviation from the Guidelines
    11.604 Va. Code § 20-108.1(B) Factors
    11.605 Modification
    11.606 Virginia Cases
    11.607 Uniform Interstate Family Support Act (UIFSA)
    11.608 Qualified Medical Child Support Orders (QMCSOs)
    
11.7 CHILD CUSTODY AND VISITATION
    11.701 Different Forms of Custody
    11.702 Best Interests of the Child
    11.703 Modification
    11.704 Parental Kidnapping Prevention Act (PKPA)
    11.705 Uniform Child Custody Jurisdiction and Enforcement
    Act (UCCJEA)
    11.706 Special Provisions for the Military: The Virginia
    Military Parents Equal Protection Act

11.8 EQUITABLE DISTRIBUTION
    11.801 Court’s Authority
    11.802 Marital Versus Separate Property
    11.803 Va. Code § 20-107.3(E) Factors
    11.804 Debts
    11.805 Valuation Date
    11.806 Stock Options
    11.807 Licenses and Degrees
    11.808 Professional Practices and Goodwill
    
11.9 EQUITABLE DISTRIBUTION OF RETIREMENT PLANS
    11.901 Court’s Authority
    11.902 Employer-Sponsored Retirement Plans
    11.903 Retirement for Federal Employees
    11.904 Retirement for State Employees
    11.905 Retirement for the Military
    11.906 Retirement for Railroad Employees
    11.907 Waivers of Retirement Benefits
    
11.10 MARITAL AGREEMENTS
    11.1001 Types of Marital Contracts
    11.1002 Requirements for a Valid Marital Contract
    11.1003 Subject Matter
    11.1004 Helpful Drafting Tips
    
11.11 OTHER IMPORTANT ISSUES
    11.1101 Bankruptcy
    11.1102 Federal Taxation
    
11.12 ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS
    11.1201 Competence
    11.1202 Contingency Fees
    11.1203 Attorney-Client Privilege
    11.1204 Conflicts of Interest
    11.1205 Professional Judgment and Advice
    11.1206 Meritorious Claims and Contentions
    11.1207 Presenting or Threatening Criminal Charges
    11.1208 Communication with Persons Represented by Counsel
    11.1209 Respect for Rights of Third Persons
    11.1210 Computer Information, Wiretaps, Tape Recordings,
    and Videos
    11.1211 GPS Devices
    11.1212 Notary
    11.1213 Servicemembers Civil Relief Act (LEO 689)

CHAPTER 12: EQUITY IN VIRGINIA

12.1 IMPORTANCE OF EQUITY TO VIRGINIA LAWYERS

12.2 DEVELOPMENT OF EQUITY COURT

12.3 VIRGINIA ADOPTED ONE FORM OF ACTION IN 2006

12.4 JOINDER OF CLAIMS—LEGAL AND EQUITABLE

12.5 JURY TRIALS
    12.501 No Constitutional Right
    12.502 Trial by Jury of Plea in Equity
    12.503 Suit on an Equitable Claim
    12.504 Cases Seeking Only Legal Relief
    12.505 Cases with Both Jury and Nonjury Issues
    
12.6 EQUITABLE REMEDIES
    12.601 Injunctions
    12.602 Specific Performance
    12.603 Rescission and Cancellation of Contracts
    12.604 Reformation of Contracts
    12.605 Appointment of Receivers
    12.606 Accounting
    12.607 Partition Suit
    12.608 Restitution
    12.609 Constructive Trust
    
12.7 NECESSARY PARTIES

12.8 RELIEF FROM DEFAULT

12.9 ATTORNEY FEES

12.10 COMMISSIONERS IN CHANCERY

CHAPTER 13: ESTATE ADMINISTRATION IN VIRGINIA

13.1 BEGINNING AN ESTATE ADMINISTRATION
    13.101 Understanding the Attorney’s Role After Death
    13.102 Interacting with Court Officials
    13.103 Resources for Attorneys in Estate Administration
    13.104 Initial Contact with Client

13.2 ACTIONS PRIOR TO AND IN ANTICIPATION OF PROBATE
    13.201 Location of Will
    13.202 Securing Assets Before Qualification
    13.203 Payment of Expenses
    13.204 Preliminary Review of Assets
    13.205 List of Heirs and Beneficiaries
    13.206 List of Liabilities of Decedent
    13.207 Determining Whether Decedent Died Testate
    13.208 The Decision to Probate
    
13.3 PROBATE AND QUALIFICATION
    13.301 Jurisdiction for Probate of Will or Qualification
    13.302 Qualification as Personal Representative
    13.303 Methods of Probate
    13.304 Practical Aspects of Ex Parte Probate and
    Qualification Before the Clerk
    13.305 Probate and Qualification Order
    
13.4 ADMINISTRATION OF ESTATE AFTER QUALIFICATION
    13.401 Duties of Executor Generally
    13.402 Powers of Executor
    13.403 Role of Co-Personal Representatives
    13.404 Initial Filing Requirements of Personal
    Representative
    13.405 Practical Steps in Administration
    13.406 Managing and Administering Assets
    13.407 Litigation Issues in Administration
    13.408 Disclaimers

13.5 CREDITOR CLAIMS, FAMILY CLAIMS, AND TAXES
    13.501 Creditor Issues
    13.502 Claims of Surviving Spouses and Minor Children
    13.503 Tax Obligations

13.6 WINDING UP THE ESTATE
    13.601 Distribution of Assets
    13.602 Payment of Final Administration Fees and Fiduciary
    Compensation
    13.603 Filing of Accountings
    
CHAPTER 14: EVIDENCE IN VIRGINIA

14.1 WHERE DID THE RULES COME FROM

14.2 WHERE ARE THE RULES

14.3 WHAT DO THE RULES SAY

14.4 ARTICLE I—GENERAL PROVISIONS
    14.401 Index
    14.402 Comments
    
14.5 ARTICLE II—JUDICIAL NOTICE
    14.501 Index
    14.502 Comments
    
14.6 ARTICLE III—PRESUMPTIONS
    14.601 Index
    14.602 Comment
    
14.7 ARTICLE IV—RELEVANCY, POLICY, AND CHARACTER
TRAIT PROOF
    14.701 Index
    14.702 Comments
    
14.8 ARTICLE V—PRIVILEGES
    14.801 Index
    14.802 Comments
    
14.9 ARTICLE VI—WITNESS EXAMINATION
    14.901 Index
    14.902 Comments
    
14.10 ARTICLE VII—OPINIONS AND EXPERT TESTIMONY
    14.1001 Index
    14.1002 Comments
    
14.11 ARTICLE VIII—HEARSAY
    14.1101 Index
    14.1102 Comments
    
14.12 ARTICLE IX—AUTHENTICATION
    14.1201 Index
    14.1202 Comments
    
14.13 ARTICLE X—BEST EVIDENCE
    14.1301 Index
    14.1302 Comments
    
14.14 ARTICLE XI—APPLICABILITY
    14.1401 Index
    14.1402 Comment
    
CHAPTER 15: LOCAL GOVERNMENT LAW IN VIRGINIA

15.1 STRUCTURE OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN VIRGINIA
    15.101 Background
    15.102 Sub-Units of Government in Virginia
    15.103 Boundary Changes and City and Town Annexation
    
15.2 PRIMARY SOURCES OF LAW AFFECTING LOCAL
GOVERNMENT
    15.201 Case Law and Statutory Law
    15.202 Other Sources Of Guidance

15.3 WHO ARE THE LOCAL GOVERNMENT DECISIONMAKERS?
    15.301 Elected Governing Bodies
    15.302 Appointed Governing Bodies
    15.303 Constitutional Officers
    15.304 Executive Branch of Local Government
    15.305 Citizen Referenda and Recall of Elected Officials
    15.306 Adoption of Laws

15.4 LEGAL PRINCIPLES OF SPECIAL IMPORTANCE TO
VIRGINIA LOCAL GOVERNMENTS
    15.401 Constitutional Provisions
    15.402 Government Powers as Limited by “Dillon’s” Rule
    15.403 Rules of Interpretation for Statutes That Govern Any
    Grant of Governmental Power
    15.404 Ultra vires Doctrine
    15.405 State Preemption of Local Government Authority
    15.406 Immunity From Tort Liability
    15.407 Notice of Tort Claims and Pre-Lawsuit Claims
    Procedures

15.5 STATUTES OF SPECIAL IMPORTANCE TO LOCAL
GOVERNMENT
    15.501 Virginia Freedom of Information Act
    15.502 Virginia Conflict of Interest Act
    15.503 Public Procurement Act
    15.504 State Employment Issues
    15.505 Eminent Domain
    
CHAPTER 16: PERSONAL PROPERTY IN VIRGINIA

16.1 INTRODUCTION
    16.101 In General
    16.102 Forms of Holding Title
    16.103 Applicable Uniform Commercial Code Provisions
    
16.2 COMMERCIAL REAL ESTATE TRANSACTIONS TO WHICH
THE UCC APPLIES
    16.201 Sales Transactions: Things Attached to Realty
    16.202 Lease Transactions: Fixtures
    16.203 Financing Transactions

16.3 COMPLIANCE
    16.301 Sales Transactions
    16.302 Lease Transactions
    16.303 Financing Transactions
    
16.4 DAMAGES TO PERSONAL PROPERTY
    16.401 Destroyed or Damaged Property
    16.402 Crops and Natural Resources
    16.403 Pets
    16.404 Converted Property
    16.405 Loss of Use
    16.406 Statutory Causes of Action
    
CHAPTER 17: REAL PROPERTY IN VIRGINIA

17.1 RESIDENTIAL REAL ESTATE CONTRACTS
    17.101 Introduction
    17.102 Parties
    17.103 Property Description
    17.104 Personal Property
    17.105 Consideration
    17.106 Contract Conditions
    17.107 Prorations
    17.108 Settlement and Possession
    17.109 Risk of Loss and Condition of Property
    17.110 Real Estate Agent’s Commission
    17.111 Assignment
    17.112 Representations and Warranties
    17.113 Arbitration
    17.114 Default
    17.115 Miscellaneous Provisions
    17.116 Signatures, Notarization, and Recordation of Contract
    17.117 Special Considerations for Purchasers

17.2 MECHANICS’ LIENS
    17.201 In General
    17.202 Who May Claim the Lien
    17.203 Property Subject to the Lien
    17.204 Perfecting the Lien
    17.205 Affidavit Verifying Payment for Labor and Materials
    17.206 The 150-Day Rule
    17.207 Statutory Forms for the Memorandum of Lien
    17.208 Enforcement of the Lien

17.3 TITLE EXAMINATIONS
    17.301 Introduction
    17.302 Type Of Title Evidence Required
    17.303 Creating the Chain of Title
    17.304 Objections, Exceptions, and Defects in Title
    17.305 Abstract of Title

17.4 FORMS OF HOLDING TITLE
    17.401 Introduction
    17.402 Tenancy in Common
    17.403 Joint Tenancy
    17.404 Tenancy by the Entirety
    17.405 The Augmented Estate
    
17.5 THE DEED
    17.501 Parties to the Deed
    17.502 The Premises
    17.503 Warranties
    17.504 Implied Warranties on New Homes
    17.505 Conveyances to Joint Owners
    17.506 Correction of Errors in Property Description
    
17.6 RESIDENTIAL FINANCING
    17.601 Introduction
    17.602 Institutional Financing
    17.603 Assuming Versus Taking Subject to a Deed of Trust
    17.604 Purchase Money Financing
    17.605 Installment Sales Contracts
    17.606 Ground Rent
    17.607 Security Agreements and Financing Statements
    17.608 Usury
    
17.7 RESIDENTIAL SETTLEMENTS
    17.701 Introduction
    17.702 Legislation Affecting Closings
    17.703 The Transaction
    17.704 Post-Closing Matters
    
17.8 CONDOMINIUMS AND PROPERTY OWNERS’
ASSOCIATIONS
    17.801 Introduction to Condominiums
    17.802 Introduction to Property Owners’ Associations
    17.803 Types of Condominiums and Property Owners’
    Associations
    17.804 Allocations in Condominiums
    17.805 Condominium Instruments
    17.806 Governance of Associations
    17.807 Maintenance Responsibilities of Association and
    Owners
    17.808 Restrictions on Use in Property Owners’ Associations
    17.809 Meetings
    17.810 Contract Provisions Concerning Lots in Property
    Owners’ Associations
    17.811 Contract Provisions Concerning Condominium Units

CHAPTER 18: SALES LAW IN VIRGINIA

18.1 INTRODUCTION
    18.101 The Uniform Commercial Code
    18.102 Definitions
    
18.2 CREATING THE CONTRACT
    18.201 In General
    18.202 Offer and Acceptance
    18.203 The Statute of Frauds

18.3 THE PAROL EVIDENCE RULE
    18.301 In General
    18.302 Explanation or Supplementation of Terms
    
18.4 PERFORMANCE
    18.401 Seller’s Obligation to Deliver
    18.402 Buyer’s Obligation to Pay and Right to Inspect
    18.403 Buyer’s Rejection, Acceptance, and Revocation of
    Acceptance
    18.404 Impracticability
    
18.5 WARRANTIES
    18.501 In General
    18.502 Warranty of Title and Warranty Against
    Infringement
    18.503 Implied Warranty of Merchantability
    18.504 Implied Warranty of Fitness for a Particular Purpose
    18.505 Express Warranties
    18.506 Disclaimer of Warranties
    18.507 Limitation of Damages for Breach of Warranty
    
CHAPTER 19: TORTS IN VIRGINIA

19.1 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
    19.101 Statute of Limitations and Notice Requirements
    19.102 Correct Party
    19.103 Venue
    19.104 Investigation
    19.105 Assessing Insurance and Its Interplay
    19.106 Relationships Between the Attorney, the Insured, and
    the Insurer
    19.107 Coverage
    19.108 Uninsured Motorist/Underinsured Motorist Coverage
    19.109 Disbursements

19.2 STATUTES OF LIMITATIONS
    19.201 Personal Injury
    19.202 Wrongful Death
    19.203 Fraud

19.3 VIRGINIA TORT CLAIMS ACT
    19.301 Exclusions
    19.302 Jurisdiction
    19.303 Right to Jury Trial
    19.304 Notice of Claim
    19.305 Statute of Limitations
    19.306 Medical Malpractice Act
    19.307 Damages

19.4 TORT LIABILITY AND RELATED ISSUES
    19.401 Contributory Negligence
    19.402 Contribution and Indemnity
    19.403 Assignment of Tort Actions
    19.404 Persons Exempt from Liability for Medical Negligence
    19.405 Immunity for Health Care Providers
    
19.5 DISCOVERY ISSUES
    19.501 Obtaining and Using Medical Records for Personal
    Injury Actions
    19.502 Expert Testimony and Medical Records
    19.503 Physical and Mental Examination of Persons Under
    Rule 4:10

19.6 SPECIFIC CAUSES OF ACTION
    19.601 Personal Injury Generally
    19.602 Infliction of Emotional Distress
    19.603 Medical Malpractice
    19.604 Wrongful Death
    19.605 Assault and Battery—Damages
    19.606 False Imprisonment—Damages
    19.607 Malicious Prosecution/Abuse of Process

19.7 FRAUD
    19.701 In General
    19.702 Consumer Protection Act
    19.703 Virginia Computer Crimes Act
    19.704 Oppression of Minority Shareholders

19.8 DAMAGES
    19.801 Presentation of Damages at Trial
    19.802 Punitive Damages

CHAPTER 20: TRUSTS IN VIRGINIA

20.1 OVERVIEW OF ESTATE PLANNING TRUSTS
    20.101 Introduction
    20.102 Revocable Living Trust
    20.103 Irrevocable Trusts
    20.104 Testamentary Trusts
    20.105 Land Trusts
    
20.2 VIRGINIA’S UNIFORM TRUST CODE
    20.201 Enactment
    20.202 Effective Date
    20.203 Reasons for Enactment
    20.204 Structure
    20.205 Applicability
    20.206 General Provisions
    20.207 Representation of Others
    20.208 Revocable Trusts
    20.209 Acceptance, Declination, Resignation, Substitution,
    or Removal of Trustee
    20.210 Modification and Termination of Trusts
    20.211 Principal Place of Administration
    20.212 Trustee’s Duties
    20.213 Trustee Powers
    20.214 Co-Trustees
    20.215 Breach of Trust
    20.216 Nonjudicial Settlement Agreements, Consents,
    Releases, and Ratifications
    20.217 Statute of Limitations
    20.218 Creditor’s Claims
    20.219 Virginia Domestic Asset Protection Trusts
    20.220 Trustee’s Special Power to Appoint to a Second Trust
    (Decanting)
    20.221 No Contest Provisions in Trusts

20.3 IMPORTANT STATUTORY DIFFERENCES BETWEEN
TRUSTS AND WILLS
    20.301 Introduction
    20.302 Date of Interpretation
    20.303 Capacity
    20.304 Revocation
    20.305 Revocation by Divorce
    20.306 Effect of Distributions to Descendants of Deceased
    Children
    20.307 Omitted Family Members
    20.308 Determination of Children and Descendants
    
20.4 TRANSFERS OF REAL ESTATE TO AND FROM TRUSTS
    20.401 Conveyances of Real Estate to Trusts
    20.402 Spousal Consideration in Transfers to Trustee
    20.403 Cautionary Issues on Transfers to RLT
    20.404 Distributions of Real Estate from Trust to
    Beneficiaries

20.5 IRREVOCABLE TRUSTS
    20.501 Overview
    20.502 Qualified Personal Residence Trust (“QPRT”)
    20.503 Grantor Retained Annuity Trust (“GRAT”)
    20.504 Charitable Remainder Trusts (“CRT”)
    20.505 Special Needs Trusts

CHAPTER 21: UNIFORM COMMERCIAL CODE IN VIRGINIA

21.1 INTRODUCTION

21.2 SALES

21.3 LEASES

21.4 NEGOTIABLE INSTRUMENTS
    21.401 In General
    21.402 Lending Agreements as Negotiable Instruments
    21.403 Damage Claims

21.5 BANK DEPOSITS AND COLLECTIONS
    21.501 In General
    21.502 Damage Claims

21.6 WAREHOUSE RECEIPTS, BILLS OF LADING, AND
OTHER DOCUMENTS OF TITLE

21.7 SECURED TRANSACTIONS
    21.701 In General
    21.702 New Types of Collateral Under Title 8.9A
    21.703 Security Agreement
    21.704 Priority over an Unperfected Security Interest
    21.705 Method of Perfection
    21.706 Continuation of a Security Interest Following
    Disposition
    21.707 Proceeds
    21.708 Time of Perfection
    21.709 Priority
    21.710 Governing Law
    21.711 Place of Filing
    21.712 Contents of the Financing Statement
    21.713 Continuation Statements
    21.714 Amendment, Termination, and Assignment
    21.715 Transition Rules
    21.716 Rights and Duties After Default
    21.717 Guarantors and Co-Obligors
    21.718 Seals
    21.719 Transition Provisions for 2013 Amendments to
    Title 8.9A
    
CHAPTER 22: VIRGINIA CONSTITUTIONAL LAW

22.1 INTRODUCTION
    22.101 Effective Date
    22.102 Structure
    22.103 Amendments
    
22.2 BILL OF RIGHTS
    22.201 Co-extensive with United States Constitution
    22.202 Speedy Trial
    22.203 Right to Counsel
    22.204 Jury Trials in Criminal Cases
    22.205 Pretrial Criminal Defense Motions and Objections on
    Constitutional Grounds Under Va. Code § 19.2-266.2
    22.206 Pretrial Appeals by the Commonwealth from
    Rulings Based on Constitutional Grounds
    22.207 Rights of Victims of Crime
    22.208 Equal Protection

22.3 COMMON LAW

22.4 CIVIL PROCEDURE AND REMEDIES
    22.401 Jury Trial
    22.402 Compensation for Wrongful Incarceration
    
22.5 EFFECTIVE DATE OF LEGISLATION

22.6 JUDICIARY
    22.601 Original Jurisdiction of Appellate Courts
    22.602 Appellate Jurisdiction

22.7 EMINENT DOMAIN

22.8 DOMESTIC RELATIONS

22.9 RELIGIOUS FREEDOM

22.10 VOTING

22.11 TAXATION AND FINANCE

CHAPTER 23: VIRGINIA TAXATION

23.1 VIRGINIA DEPARTMENT OF TAXATION
    23.101 Tax Commissioner
    23.102 Documents Issued by the Virginia Department of
    Taxation
    
23.2 INCOME TAXES
    23.201 Conformity to the Internal Revenue Code
    23.202 Corporation Income Tax
    23.203 Employer Income Tax Withholding
    23.204 Fiduciary Income Tax
    23.205 Individual Income Tax
    23.206 Pass-Through Entity Returns
    23.207 Registration of Nonresident Property Owners
    
23.3 TRANSACTIONAL TAXES AND FEES
    23.301 Retail Sales Tax
    23.302 Use Tax
    23.303 Miscellaneous Sales and Use Taxes
    23.304 Motor Vehicle Rental Tax
    23.305 Digital Media Fee
    
23.4 TRANSFER TAXES
    23.401 Recordation Tax
    23.402 Estate Tax
    23.403 Probate Tax
    
23.5 FUELS TAX
    23.501 Administration
    23.502 Levy

23.6 TOBACCO TAXES
    23.601 Cigarette Tax
    23.602 Other Tobacco Products Tax
    
23.7 BANK FRANCHISE TAX
    23.701 Levy
    23.702 Tax Basis
    23.703 Tax Rate
    23.704 Local Credit
    
23.8 COMMODITY TAXES
    23.801 Levy
    23.802 Taxes
    
23.9 MISCELLANEOUS STATE TAXES ADMINISTERED BY
THE VIRGINIA DEPARTMENT OF TAXATION
    23.901 Forest Products Tax
    23.902 Litter Tax
    23.903 Prepaid Wireless E-911 Fee
    23.904 Rolling Stock Tax on Railroads and Freight Car
    Companies
    23.905 Soft Drink Excise Tax
    23.906 Tire Recycling Fee
    23.907 Writ Taxes

23.10 ENFORCEMENT AND APPEAL OF TAXES ADMINISTERED
BY THE VIRGINIA DEPARTMENT OF TAXATION
    23.1001 Assessments
    23.1002 Transferred Liability
    23.1003 Collections
    23.1004 Administrative Appeal
    23.1005 Judicial Appeal

23.11 TAXES ADMINISTERED BY THE VIRGINIA STATE
CORPORATION COMMISSION
    23.1101 Gross Receipts Tax
    23.1102 License Tax on Insurance Companies
    23.1103 Utility Consumption Taxes

23.12 LOCAL TAXES
    23.1201 Imposition of Local Taxes
    23.1202 Real Property Tax
    23.1203 Tangible Personal Property Tax
    23.1204 Machinery and Tools Tax
    23.1205 Business, Professional, and Occupational License Tax
    23.1206 Merchants’ Capital Tax
    23.1207 Miscellaneous Taxes

23.13 ENFORCEMENT AND APPEAL OF TAXES ADMINISTERED
BY VIRGINIA LOCAL GOVERNMENTS
    23.1301 Assessment
    23.1302 Collections
    23.1303 Real Property Tax Administrative Appeals
    23.1304 License Tax Administrative Appeals
    23.1305 Local Business Tax and Local Mobile Property Tax
    Administrative Appeals
    23.1306 General Administrative Appeal Procedures
    23.1307 Judicial Appeal
    
CHAPTER 24: WILLS IN VIRGINIA

24.1 COMMUNICATIONS WITH AN ESTATE PLANNING
CLIENT
    24.101 Initial Communications with the Client
    24.102 Communicating With the Client in Writing
    24.103 Disclosure of Conflict of Interest
    24.104 Dealing with a Client with Diminished Faculties
    24.105 Review of Assets and Importance of Non-Probate
    Assets
    24.106 Mirror Image Wills as Contracts
    
24.2 DRAFTING THE WILL
    24.201 What Constitutes a Will?
    24.202 Reasons for Having a Will
    24.203 Fundamental Will Provisions
    24.204 Prerequisites for a Valid Will
    24.205 Matching the Estate Planning Documents with the
    Client
    24.206 Selected Problem Areas
    24.207 Statutory Provisions Affecting Wills

24.3 CONCLUDING THE REPRESENTATION
    24.301 Location of Documents
    24.302 Memorializing the Termination of Representation
    
TABLE OF AUTHORITIES

INDEX


 

Authors

Authors

Charles M. (Chuck) Allen

Edward D. Barnes

James P. Cox, III

Kay M. Creasman

John D. Eure

Peter L. Henderer

Sean D. Hicks

Richard H. Howard-Smith

Steven L. Higgs

Michael HuYoung

Mark D. Loftis

Benjamin V. Madison, III

C. Kailani (Kai) Memmer

Steven L. Micas

Ashley E. Mullen

Carrie H. O’Malley

Jonathan P. Sheldon

George A. Somerville

J. Christian Tennant

Hon. Clifford R. Weckstein

Johneal M. White

Robert C. (Robin) Wood, III

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