Eminent Domain Law in Virginia

Eminent Domain Law in Virginia
Publication Date: November 2017 
Electronic Forms: 4
Available Formats: Print (475 pages, softcover, 1 volume)
  Electronic (searchable PDF via flash drive, CD, or immediate download)
  Both Print and Electronic formats
Product #: 868

Information

Content Highlights:
  • Condemnation Procedure Under Title 25.1
  • Condemnation Procedure Under Title 33.1 as Exercised by Transportation Commissioner
  • Federal Condemnation Procedure
  • Pretrial Issues
  • Valuation Issues
  • Trial
  • Appeal
  • Relocation Assistance
  • Regulatory Takings
  • Tax Issues of Condemnation

“This is the only book of its kind which collects and updates eminent domain law in Virginia. It belongs on the bookshelf of every person who practices in this area, including state and local government attorneys, public utility counsel, and private practitioners who represent landowners. It is designed to help a general litigator handle the typical condemnation case, but is also essential for those who specialize in this practice area, and handle the most complex cases.”
- Paul B. Terpak, Editor

Eminent Domain Law in Virginia covers every aspect of eminent domain, both state and federal, including regulatory takings and inverse condemnation. It is oriented toward practice requirements, with in-depth treatment of pretrial and trial procedure and the key step of valuation, to ensure that the property owner received just compensation for any taking.

This fifth edition is updated with the first wave of cases interpreting the 2013 constitutional amendment responding to the Kelo decision and clarifying the term "just compensation," new case law on inverse condemnation matters, and guidance on procedural and evidentiary issues that impact all eminent domain cases.


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Real Estate Transactions in Virginia

A Guide to Real Estate in Virginia

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Virginia Law and Practice: A Handbook for Attorneys

The Virginia Lawyer: A Deskbook for Practitioners

 

Table of Contents

CHAPTER LIST

1. General Condemnation Procedure Under Title 25.1

2. Condemnation Procedure Under Title 33.2 as Exercised by the Commissioner of Highways

3. Federal Condemnation Procedure

4. Pretrial Practice and Procedure

5. Valuation

6. Trial

7. Condemnation Appeals in Virginia

8. Relocation Assistance and Real Property Acquisition Policies

9. Regulatory Takings

10. Tax Aspects of Condemnation Awards

CHAPTER 1: GENERAL CONDEMNATION PROCEDURE
UNDER TITLE 25.1


1.1 CONSTITUTIONAL REQUIREMENTS
        1.101 United States Constitution
        1.102 Virginia Constitution

1.2 STATUTORY CONSIDERATIONS
        1.201 Delegation of Eminent Domain Power and Territorial
        Limits
        1.202 Delegation of the Eminent Domain Power to
        Subordinate State Agencies and Units of Local
        Government
        1.203 Property Interests Subject to Condemnation

1.3 SUBSTANTIVE PREREQUISITES TO CONDEMNATION
        1.301 Public Use as a Precondition to Condemnation
        1.302 Judicial Determination of Appropriate Public Use
        1.303 Necessity as a Precondition to Condemnation

1.4 PROCEDURAL CONSIDERATIONS
        1.401 General Procedural Principles
        1.402 Statutory Principles for Eminent Domain Proceedings
        1.403 Other Conditions Precedent to Exercise of Eminent
        Domain Power

1.5 FORM AND CONTENT OF THE PETITION
        1.501 Designation of Property as Defendant
        1.502 Description and Plat of Property
        1.503 Multiple Parcels Permitted
        1.504 Identification of Owners
        1.505 Required Statements
        1.506 Miscellaneous Matters
        1.507 Service of the Petition and Notice
        1.508 Mandatory Dispute Resolution Orientation

1.6 ANSWER AND GROUNDS OF DEFENSE
        1.601 Time Requirements for Response
        1.602 Failure to File Answer and Grounds of Defense
        1.603 Amendments to Pleadings

1.7 DETERMINATION OF JURISDICTIONAL MATTERS
        1.701 Title Issues
        1.702 Burden of Proof
        1.703 Pre-Trial Settlement Conference
        1.704 Order Setting Trial
        1.705 Appeal Prior to Trial

1.8 POSSESSION “PENDENTE LITE”
        1.801 Entry for Survey, Appraisal, and Tests
        1.802 Entry After Filing Petition
        1.803 “Quick-Take” or Use of Certificate to Transfer
        Defeasible Title
        1.804 Inspection Under Rules of Court
        1.805 Special Entry for Counties
        1.806 Deposit of Estimated Compensation & Damages
        Before Entry
        1.807 Entry After Commissioners’ Report Filed

1.9 DETERMINATION OF JUST COMPENSATION
        1.901 Appointment of Commissioners
        1.902 Appointment of Jury
        1.903 Objections to Striking of Jurors or Commissioners
        Based on Discriminatory Motive
        1.904 Conduct of Jurors and Commissioners at Trial
        1.905 Issues Determined by the Jury, Commissioners, or
        Court When Setting Value

1.10 CONDUCT OF JUST COMPENSATION TRIAL
        1.1001 Presentation of Evidence
        1.1002 Expert Witnesses
        1.1003 Instructions
        1.1004 Written Report of the Award
        1.1005 Action by the Court Upon the Report

1.11 POST-AWARD ISSUES AND APPEAL
        1.1101 Procedure for Appeal
        1.1102 New Trial Order Unappealable
        1.1103 Distribution of Award Paid Into Court
        1.1104 Vesting of Title
        1.1105 Withdrawal of Deposit After Award but Prior to
        Additional Proceedings
        1.1106 Interest
        1.1107 Dismissal
        1.1108 Costs

1.12 RIGHT OF OWNER TO REPURCHASE

APPENDIX 1-1: PETITIONER’S INTERROGATORIES TO
DEFENDANT

APPENDIX 1-2: VOIR DIRE

APPENDIX 1-3: REPORT OF COMMISSIONERS

APPENDIX 1-4: LANDOWNER’S EXCEPTIONS TO
COMMISSIONERS’ REPORT

CHAPTER 2: CONDEMNATION PROCEDURE UNDER TITLE
33.2 AS EXERCISED BY THE COMMISSIONER
OF HIGHWAYS


2.1 INTRODUCTION

2.2 NATURE OF THE POWER OF EMINENT DOMAIN
        2.201 Nature and Scope of Power
        2.202 Time and Manner of Exercise and Extent of Power
        2.203 Exercise of Power Strictly Construed
        2.204 Delegation of Power

2.3 LIMITS ON POWER OF EMINENT DOMAIN
        2.301 Just Compensation
        2.302 Taking or Damaging for Public Use

2.4 STATUTORY PROCEDURES UNDER TITLES 25.1 AND 33.2
        2.401 In General
        2.402 Step-by-Step Process Used by Commissioner
        2.403 “Quick Take” Method

2.5 REMEDY OF LANDOWNER IF COMMISSIONER FAILS
TO INSTITUTE PROCEEDINGS
        2.501 Statutory Procedures
        2.502 Commissioner’s Liability for Failure to Act

2.6 CONDEMNATION PROCEEDINGS GENERALLY—
TITLE 25.1 OF THE VIRGINIA CODE
        2.601 In General
        2.602 Jurisdiction
        2.603 Effort to Purchase
        2.604 Petition for Condemnation
        2.605 Notice of Proceedings to Owners
        2.606 Mandatory Dispute Resolution Orientation Session
        2.607 Nonsuit
        2.608 Discovery
        2.609 Determination of Just Compensation
        2.610 Qualification and Empanelment of Commissioners
        2.611 Qualification and Selection of Jurors
        2.612 Voir Dire
        2.613 View of the Property
        2.614 Testimony
        2.615 Closing Argument
        2.616 Report
        2.617 Costs
        2.618 Tenants
        2.619 Suggested Research Materials

2.7 RELOCATION ASSISTANCE AND REAL PROPERTY
ACQUISITION POLICIES
        2.701 Breadth of Policies
        2.702 Moving Expenses and Relocation Payments
        2.703 Housing Payments
        2.704 Lessees’ Eligibility
        2.705 Advisory Assistance
        2.706 Income Tax Considerations
        2.707 Final Accounting
        2.708 Legal Issues

2.8 PROCEDURAL CONSIDERATIONS
        2.801 General Rules Applicable to Real Property
        Acquisitions
        2.802 Reimbursement of Fees and Costs
        2.803 Compensation for Improvements

CHAPTER 3: FEDERAL CONDEMNATION PROCEDURE

3.1 EMINENT DOMAIN INCREASINGLY FINDING A
FEDERAL FORUM

3.2 HOW EMINENT DOMAIN CASES GET TO FEDERAL
COURT
        3.201 Constitutional Basis: Fifth Amendment Takings
        Clause
        3.202 Statutory Basis: Delegation of Power to Federal
        Agencies and Departments
        3.203 Military Acquisitions 160
        3.204 Statutory Basis: Delegation of Power to Nonfederal
        Agencies/Private Companies
        3.205 Diversity of Citizenship
    
3.3 FEDERAL COURT PROCEDURES
        3.301 In General
        3.302 Pre-Filing Requirements
        3.303 Complaint
        3.304 Answer
        3.305 Discovery
        3.306 Right to Trial by Jury
        3.307 Property View
        3.308 Burden of Proof
        3.309 Number of Jurors
        3.310 Verdicts
        3.311 Summary Judgment
        3.312 Motions in Federal Court

3.4 SUBSTANTIVE DIFFERENCES IN EMINENT DOMAIN
LAW—FEDERAL COURT VERSUS VIRGINIA STATE
COURTS
        3.401 Calculation of Just Compensation in Partial Takes
        3.402 Special Versus General Damages and Benefits
        3.403 Temporary Takes
        3.404 Compensation for Damage to Other Parcels
        3.405 Applying Virginia Procedure
        3.406 Quick Take Procedures
        3.407 Evidentiary Issues
        3.408 Conflict Between State and Federal Laws—Which
        Controls?

3.5 LOCAL RULES IN THE EASTERN AND WESTERN
DISTRICTS OF VIRGINIA
        3.501 Eastern District Local Rules
        3.502 Western District Local Rules

3.6 SPECIAL PROBLEMS IN FEDERAL COURT
        3.601 Counterclaims Not Permitted
        3.602 Inverse Condemnation Claims

3.7 CONDEMNATION PROCEDURES IN VIRGINIA CIRCUIT
COURTS VERSUS THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT
COURTS IN VIRGINIA
        3.701 Strict Construction
        3.702 Pre-Condemnation Negotiations
        3.703 Quick Take
        3.704 Objections or Defenses to the Condemnation
        3.705 Procedural Rules
        3.706 Condemnation Jurors
        3.707 Discovery
        3.708 Motion Practice
        3.709 Burden of Proof/Burden of Going Forward
        3.710 Calculation of Just Compensation
        3.711 Testimony of Property Owner
        3.712 State Licensing Requirements for Experts
        3.713 Definition of Nature of Property Being Taken
        3.714 Jury View of the Property

APPENDIX 3-1: FEDERAL RULES OF CIVIL PROCEDURE
RULE 71.1. CONDEMNING REAL OR PERSONAL
PROPERTY

APPENDIX 3-2: FORM 60, FEDERAL RULES OF CIVIL
PROCEDURE—NOTICE OF CONDEMNATION

APPENDIX 3-3: FORM 61, FEDERAL RULES OF CIVIL
PROCEDURE COMPLAINT FOR CONDEMNATION

APPENDIX 3-4: JUDICIAL CONFERENCE OF THE UNITED
STATES GUIDELINES FOR EMINENT DOMAIN CASES

CHAPTER 4: PRETRIAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE

4.1 OVERVIEW OF THE PROCEDURAL ASPECTS OF
EMINENT DOMAIN PROCEEDINGS

4.2 EARLY ENTRY AND POSSESSION
        4.201 Entry for Purposes of Inspection by Condemnors
        Generally
        4.202 Entry for Purposes of Inspection by Natural Gas
        Companies
        4.203 Early Possession by VDOT
        4.204 Early Possession by Localities
        4.205 Early Possession by Other Condemnors
        4.206 Drawdown of Deposit

4.3 RESPONSIVE PLEADINGS
        4.301 In General
        4.302 Electing Trial by Jury or Commissioners
        4.303 Failure to File an Answer

4.4 POSSIBLE OBJECTIONS, DEFENSES, OR GROUNDS
FOR DISMISSAL
        4.401 In General
        4.402 Particular Objections, Defenses and Grounds

4.5 OTHER PRETRIAL ISSUES
        4.501 Alternative Dispute Resolution and Settlement
        Conference
        4.502 Motion for Change of Venue
        4.503 Motion to Separate or Consolidate
        4.504 Motion or Petition to Intervene
        4.505 Motion for a View
        4.506 Motion for Summary Judgment
        4.507 Motion in Limine

4.6 DISCOVERY
        4.601 In General
        4.602 Scope of Discovery and Protective Orders
        4.603 Fee Shifting
        4.604 Freedom of Information Act Requests
        4.605 Production of Landowner’s Appraisal
        4.606 Expert Witnesses

4.7 PREPARING FOR TRIAL
        4.701 In General
        4.702 Preliminary Hearing
        4.703 Pretrial Scheduling Order
        4.704 Qualifying the Jury or Commissioners
        4.705 No Nonsuit
        4.706 Pretrial Memoranda
        4.707 Pretrial Conference

APPENDIX 4-1: ALTERNATE UNIFORM PRETRIAL SCHEDULING
ORDER FOR USE IN EMINENT DOMAIN PROCEEDINGS

CHAPTER 5: VALUATION

5.1 WHAT IS JUST COMPENSATION?
        5.101 Virginia Constitution
        5.102 Components of Just Compensation

5.2 FAIR MARKET VALUE
        5.201 Virginia Model Jury Instructions
        5.202 General Principles of Fair Market Valuation
    
5.3 HOW TO ESTABLISH JUST COMPENSATION
        5.301 Bona Fide Offer Without Appraisal
        5.302 Appraisal

5.4 RETAINING AND WORKING WITH APPRAISER
        5.401 When to Employ an Appraiser
        5.402 Considerations in Hiring an Appraiser
        5.403 Information and Materials to Furnish Appraisers
    
5.5 VALUATION PROCESS
        5.501 In General
        5.502 Identification of Parcel
        5.503 Valuation of Whole in Partial Take Cases
        5.504 Inspection
        5.505 Highest and Best Use Analysis
        5.506 Appraisal of the Residue
        5.507 Three Approaches
        5.508 Development Approach
    
5.6 VALUATION ISSUES
        5.601 Highest and Best Use
        5.602 Fair Market Value Not to Be Affected by Project
        5.603 Property Under Lease
        5.604 Billboards
        5.605 Timber and Minerals Not to Be Separately Valued
        5.606 Landscaping
        5.607 Temporary Takings
        5.608 Valuation Units of Measurement
        5.609 Government Monopoly Properties
        5.610 Properties That Usually Sell as Going Concerns
        5.611 Whether Items Are Fixtures or Personalty
        5.612 Date of Valuation
        5.613 Tax Assessment Principles
    
5.7 DAMAGES TO THE REMAINDER OF THE PROPERTY
        5.701 Virginia Model Jury Instruction No. 46.070
        5.702 Determination of Fair Market Value of Remainder
        After the Take
        5.703 Adjustment Costs
        5.704 Lost Access
        5.705 Landowner’s Duty to Mitigate Damages
        5.706 Enhancement of Value of Remainder as a Result of
        the Project
        5.707 Items That Are Not Compensable
        5.708 Unity of Lands Doctrine
        5.709 Burden of Proof
    
5.8 LOST PROFITS
        5.801 The 2013 Constitutional Amendment
        5.802 Statutory Definitions and Limitations
        5.803 Inverse Condemnation
        5.804 Summary
        5.805 Possible Claims by Tenant
        5.806 Valuation of Common Areas Subject to Virginia
        Property Owners’ Association Act

CHAPTER 6: TRIAL

6.1 INTRODUCTION

6.2 PRE-CONDEMNATION PLANNING
        6.201 In General
        6.202 Landowner Instructions
        6.203 Continuation

6.3 DIMINISHING THE IMPACT OF THE TAKING BY
RE-ENGINEERING THE PROJECT

6.4 INITIAL EVALUATION
        6.401 Offer Packet
        6.402 Assemble a Team
        6.403 Analyze the Offer Packet

6.5 RESEARCHING EMINENT DOMAIN ISSUES
        6.501 In General
        6.502 Title 25.1 of the Virginia Code
        6.503 Sources of Virginia Law
        6.504 Nichols on Eminent Domain
        6.505 Additional Sources

6.6 PRETRIAL
        6.601 Answer
        6.602 Commissioners
        6.603 Intervention
        6.604 Scheduling Order
        6.605 Expert Designations
        6.606 Scope of Discovery
        6.607 Exhibits and Witnesses
        6.608 Jury Instructions
        6.609 Motions in Limine and Trial Briefs
        6.610 Case Notebook
        6.611 Trial Notebook
        6.612 Final Preparations

6.7 TRIAL
        6.701 Order of Trial
        6.702 Selecting Jurors or Commissioners and Voir Dire
        6.703 Opening Statements
        6.704 View
        6.705 Condemnor’s Case in Chief
        6.706 Landowner’s Case
        6.707 Condemnor’s Rebuttal
        6.708 Jury Instructions
        6.709 Closing
        6.710 Deliberations

6.8 POST-TRIAL
        6.801 Exceptions
        6.802 Condemnor’s Right to Dismiss
        6.803 Controversy Over Award
        6.804 Costs

CHAPTER 7: CONDEMNATION APPEALS IN VIRGINIA

7.1 INTRODUCTION

7.2 PRESERVATION OF ISSUES FOR APPEAL
        7.201 In General
        7.202 Ensure That Everything Happens on the Record
        7.203 Beware of the Motion-in-Limine Trap
        7.204 Object Promptly
        7.205 Proffer of Excluded Evidence
        7.206 Learn to Deal With Unwelcome Redactions
        7.207 Be Specific in Describing What You Want
        7.208 Be Very Careful With Jury Instructions
        7.209 Don’t Let the Judge Off the Hook
    
7.3 VIRGINIA’S APPELLATE COURTS

7.4 THE APPELLATE PROCESS IN VIRGINIA
        7.401 Prerequisites to Appeal
        7.402 Perfecting the Appeal
        7.403 The Appeal
        7.404 Petition for Rehearing
        7.405 Appeal to United States Supreme Court
        7.406 Mandate to Trial Court

7.5 PRACTICE TIPS FOR CONDEMNATION APPEALS
        7.501 Remember Your Audience
        7.502 Standard of Review
        7.503 Condemnor’s Right to Dismiss
        7.504 Assigning Cross-Error

CHAPTER 8: RELOCATION ASSISTANCE AND REAL
PROPERTY ACQUISITION POLICIES


8.1 OVERVIEW OF STATE AND FEDERAL RELOCATION
STATUTES AND REGULATIONS
        8.101 Generally
        8.102 The Virginia Act
        8.103 The Federal Act

8.2 CATEGORIES OF RELOCATION ASSISTANCE UNDER
THE VIRGINIA ACT
        8.201 Reimbursement for Actual Moving Costs for
        Personal Property
        8.202 Lump-Sum Payment to Business for Moving
        Expenses
        8.203 Business Reestablishment Expenses
        8.204 Payment to Businesses for Loss of Tangible Personal
        Property
        8.205 Supplemental Payment for Purchase of Comparable
        Replacement Housing
        8.206 Supplemental Payment for Replacement Rental
        Housing
        8.207 Last Resort Housing
    
8.3 PURPOSE AND APPLICABILITY OF THE FEDERAL ACT
        8.301 Purpose of the Uniform Act
        8.302 Constitutional Expression
        8.303 Regulatory Focus
        8.304 Definition of “Displaced Person”
        8.305 Applicability

8.4 VIRGINIA RULES AND REGULATIONS
        8.401 Generally
        8.402 Definitions
        8.403 Civil Rights and Equal Opportunity Requirements
        8.404 Program Administration
        8.405 Appeals
        8.406 Certification of Citizenship or Lawful Presence
        in the United States

8.5 RELOCATION PLANNING AND PUBLIC INFORMATION
        8.501 Conceptual Stage
        8.502 Public Meetings and Hearings
        8.503 Acquisition Stage

8.6 WRITTEN NOTICES TO DISPLACED PERSONS
REGARDING BENEFITS AND SERVICES
        8.601 Notice of Intent to Acquire
        8.602 General Information Notice
        8.603 Notice of Replacement Housing Payment (RHP)
        8.604 90-Day Assurance and Eligibility Notice
        8.605 Final Vacating Notice

8.7 RELOCATION ADVISORY SERVICES
        8.701 Intention
        8.702 How Service Is Provided
        8.703 Who Is Offered Service
        8.704 Minimum Advisory Assistance Service

8.8 MOVING COSTS—RESIDENTIAL
        8.801 In General
        8.802 Claims
        8.803 Actual Reasonable Moving Expenses
        8.804 Moving Expense Schedule
        8.805 Reimbursable Costs
        8.806 Ineligible Moving Costs

8.9 MOVING COSTS—BUSINESSES, FARMS, AND
NONPROFIT ORGANIZATIONS
        8.901 In General
        8.902 Claims
        8.903 Certified Inventory
        8.904 Actual Reasonable Moving Costs
        8.905 Moves by a Commercial Mover
        8.906 Self-Moves
        8.907 Low-Value, High-Bulk Personal Property
        8.908 Actual Direct Loss of Tangible Personal Property
        8.909 Purchase of Replacement Personal Property
        8.910 Search Costs for a Replacement Location
        8.911 Re-establishment Expenses
        8.912 Fixed Payment in Lieu of Actual Costs

8.10 GENERAL PROVISIONS FOR REPLACEMENT HOUSING
PAYMENTS
        8.1001 In General
        8.1002 Fully Eligible Occupants
        8.1003 Partially Eligible Occupants
        8.1004 Requirements to Receive Payment
        8.1005 Inspection for Decent, Safe, and Sanitary Housing
        8.1006 Multiple Occupancy of Same Dwelling
        8.1007 Replacement Housing Payments for
        Owner-Occupants of 90 Days or More
        8.1008 Owner-Occupants of 90 Days or More Who
        Choose to Rent Replacement Housing
        8.1009 Tenant-Occupants of 90 Days or More
        8.1010 Mobile Homes
        8.1011 Last Resort Housing
    
8.11 ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

CHAPTER 9: REGULATORY TAKINGS

9.1 CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISIONS
        9.101 In General
        9.102 United States Constitution
        9.103 Virginia Constitution
    
9.2 EVOLUTION OF THE REGULATORY TAKING CONCEPT
        9.201 Pennsylvania Coal Co. v. Mahon
        9.202 Years 1922 to 1978
        9.203 Years 1978 to 1987
        9.204 Years 1987 to 1992
        9.205 Years 1992 to Present

9.3 VIRGINIA’S APPLICATION OF THE SUPREME COURT’S
REGULATORY TAKINGS LAW
        9.301 Generally
        9.302 Commonwealth v. County Utilities Corp
        9.303 City of Virginia Beach v. Virginia Land Investment
        Ass’n No. 1
        9.304 Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac Railroad
        Co. v. Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority
        9.305 Board of Supervisors v. Omni Homes, Inc
        9.306 City of Virginia Beach v. Bell
        9.307 Board of Supervisors v. Greengael, LLC
        9.308 D.R. Horton Inc. v. Board of Supervisors
        9.309 Byler v. Virginia Electric & Power Co
        9.310 Livingston v. Virginia Department of Transportation

9.4 DEFINING AND ANALYZING REGULATORY TAKINGS
        9.401 Two-Step Analysis
        9.402 Definition of “Property”
        9.403 Definition of “Regulatory Taking”
        9.404 Post-Lucas Categorical Takings
        9.405 Ad Hoc Inquiry
        9.406 Unit of Property

9.5 PARTICULAR ACTIONS CHALLENGED AS TAKINGS
        9.501 Generally
        9.502 Physical Invasion
        9.503 Denial of All Economically Beneficial Use
        9.504 Regulations That Go “Too Far” (“Balancing Test”
        Cases)
    
9.6 PROCEDURE
        9.601 Declaratory Judgment
        9.602 Common Law Actions
        9.603 Limitations of Actions

9.7 DEFENSES
        9.701 Substantive Defenses
        9.702 Procedural Defenses

9.8 REMEDIES
        9.801 Generally
        9.802 Temporary Taking
        9.803 Permanent Takings

CHAPTER 10: TAX ASPECTS OF CONDEMNATION AWARDS

10.1 GENERAL RULES, CONCEPTS, AND CONSEQUENCES
        10.101 General Rule of I.R.C. § 1033
        10.102 History of I.R.C. § 1033
        10.103 Concept of Involuntary Conversions Under I.R.C.
        § 1033
        10.104 Threat or Imminence of Condemnation Under I.R.C.
        § 1033
        10.105 Conversions Into Only Similar Use Property
        10.106 Conversion Into Only Dissimilar Property
        10.107 Conversion Into Both Dissimilar and Similar
        Property
        10.108 Exchange of Assets of a Business

10.2 MECHANICS
        10.201 Making the Section 1033 Elections
        10.202 Making the Section 1033(a)(2) Replacement
    
10.3 SPECIAL MATTERS
        10.301 Particular Considerations Under I.R.C. § 1033
        10.302 Mortgages and Liens
        10.303 Other Expenses and Payments
        10.304 Conversions of Section 1245 and Section 1250
        Properties

10.4 VIRGINIA LAW
        10.401 Income Tax
        10.402 Real Estate Tax

TABLE OF AUTHORITIES

INDEX


Authors

Editor

Paul B. Terpak, Blankingship & Keith, P.C./ Fairfax (Expand/Collapse Bio)

Paul B. Terpak, editor of this handbook and co-author of Chapter 6, is a shareholder and head of the Virginia Eminent Domain Group at Blankingship & Keith, P.C. His firm was ranked No. 1 in Virginia in Eminent Domain by Best Lawyers in America for several years, and Best Lawyers has named him Washington, D.C. Area Eminent Domain and Condemnation Law Lawyer of the Year for 2012, 2016, and 2018. Mr. Terpak has lectured and written about eminent domain on numerous occasions and served on the Virginia Code Commission Advisory Committee on the recodification of eminent domain law. He is a graduate of the University of Virginia and its School of Law and is a past president of the Fairfax Bar Association and past chair of the Virginia State Bar Committee on Lawyer Discipline.

Authors

Nancy C. Auth, Office of the Attorney General of Virginia / Richmond (Expand/Collapse Bio)

Nancy C. Auth, author of Chapter 2, is a Senior Assistant Attorney General in the Transportation Section of the Office of the Attorney General of Virginia. In her 16 years at the office, her practice has encompassed many areas of transportation law. She currently works on a wide variety of matters statewide for Virginia’s transportation agencies. She has considerable experience in eminent domain, in complex contract drafting and negotiation, and in rail and transit. Her work has included a number of high profile transportation projects, among them the Woodrow Wilson Bridge Project, the Dulles Metro-rail Project, I-66 Inside the Beltway, the U.S. Route 121 Public-Private Transportation Act Project (Coalfields Expressway), development of an interstate compact for safety oversight for the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) Metrorail system, the development of high speed and intercity passenger rail, and commercial space flight. She also served as a member of the committee appointed by the Virginia Code Commission for the recodification of Title 33.2 of the Virginia Code. Ms. Auth is a graduate of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Journalism and of the University of South Carolina School of Law. Ms. Auth represented governmental entities in eminent domain proceedings in private practice before joining the Attorney General’s Office. She is a member of Phi Beta Kappa and has been presented the Patrick Henry Award for steadfast devotion to the just and sound government of the Commonwealth of Virginia.

Neil V. Birkhoff, Woods Rogers PLC / Roanoke (Expand/Collapse Bio)

Neil V. Birkhoff, author of Chapter 10, is a principal in the firm of Woods Rogers PLC in Roanoke. He is the chair of the firm’s Tax & Estate Planning Group and is a member of the firm’s Corporate Law Group. Mr. Birkhoff is a Fellow of the American College of Tax Counsel and a member of the adjunct faculty of the Washington & Lee University School of Law, where he teaches courses on estate planning and nonprofit organizations. Before joining Woods Rogers, he was a trial attorney with the Tax Division of the U.S. Department of Justice in Washington, D.C., where he handled a wide variety of civil tax litigation matters. Mr. Birkhoff is a Past Chair of the Virginia State Bar’s Section of Taxation and The Virginia Bar Association’s Section of Taxation. He is active in Roanoke Valley community organizations, including service on the boards of directors of Feeding America–Southwest Virginia and Goodwill Industries of the Valleys, Inc. Mr. Birkhoff is a contributing author to several continuing legal education publications on estate planning and tax topics. He received his B.A., with distinction, from the University of Virginia, his J.D. from the College of William & Mary, and his LL.M. in Taxation from The George Washington University.

John K. Burke, Jr., J.K. Burke Law Firm PLC / Glen Allen (Expand/Collapse Bio)

John K. Burke, Jr., co-author of Chapter 5, is the principal attorney of J.K. Burke Law Firm, PLC, in Glen Allen. In addition to his business litigation practice, Mr. Burke has over 25 years of experience in litigating eminent domain cases on behalf of condemnors and property owners throughout Virginia, and he has often appeared as a presenter at eminent domain seminars. Mr. Burke is listed in the Best Lawyers in America in three categories: business litigation, real estate litigation, and eminent domain. He is also listed in Chambers USA’s America’s Leading Lawyers for Litigation. He graduated from the college and law school at the University of Virginia and is a former Vice President of the Bar Association of the City of Richmond.

Francis A. Cherry, Jr., Randolph, Boyd, Cherry and Vaughan / Richmond (Expand/Collapse Bio)

Francis A. Cherry, Jr., co-author of Chapter 5, is a partner in the law firm of Randolph, Boyd, Cherry and Vaughan. He is listed in Best Lawyers in America for condemnation and eminent domain. He has lectured on eminent domain in Virginia and nationally. In 2003 Mr. Cherry served on the Virginia Code Commission Advisory Committee for the recodification of eminent domain law. He updated the chapter titled “The Trial of Condemnation Cases” for the 1988 edition of Eminent Domain—State and Federal, Virginia Continuing Legal Education Committee. From 1972 to 1976 he served as Assistant Attorney General for the Commonwealth of Virginia representing the Virginia Department of Transportation. Mr. Cherry received his law degree from Vanderbilt University School of Law and his undergraduate degree from Denison University.

Michael J. Coughlin, Walsh Colucci Lubeley & Walsh PC / Prince William (Expand/Collapse Bio)

Michael J. Coughlin, co-author of Chapter 4, is an experienced litigation attorney who leads his firm’s Eminent Domain Practice Group. Mr. Coughlin regularly lectures on eminent domain and land use topics at local and national conferences. He is a member of the Virginia Bar Association’s Real Estate Section Council and an affiliate member of the Appraisal Institute. Mr. Coughlin is admitted to practice in Virginia courts, the U.S. District Courts for the Eastern and Western Districts of Virginia, and the U.S. Bankruptcy Court for the Eastern District of Virginia. He has been recognized as one of Virginia’s “Rising Stars” in Virginia Lawyer magazine, is rated AV Preeminent by Martindale-Hubbell, and has been named to Virginia Business’ Legal Elite in the Real Estate/Land Use category. His experience handling land use, real estate, and eminent domain matters allows him to provide a comprehensive approach to resolving eminent domain cases.

Kevin F. X. DeTurris, Blankingship & Keith, P.C. / Fairfax (Expand/Collapse Bio)

Kevin DeTurris, co-author of Chapter 6, is a principal with the law firm of Blankingship & Keith, P.C. Mr. DeTurris’ practice is concentrated in eminent domain matters and civil litigation. He has been listed in Super Lawyers as a rising star in the years 2013 and 2014. His professional memberships and activities include: Director on the Virginia Bar Association’s Young Lawyers Division Board (2007-2008); a Director of the Fairfax Bar Association’s Board of Directors (2005-2007); and President of the Fairfax Bar Association’s Young Lawyers Section (2005-2006). Mr. DeTurris has spoken at numerous continuing legal education courses on eminent domain and property tax appeals. He received his B.A. from the University of Rhode Island in 1995 and his J.D. from the American University Washington College of Law in 2003.

L. Steven Emmert, Sykes, Bourdon, Ahern & Levy, P.C. / Virginia Beach (Expand/Collapse Bio)

L. Steven Emmert, author of Chapter 7, practices with the Virginia Beach firm of Sykes, Bourdon, Ahern & Levy, P.C. He focuses his practice exclusively on appellate advocacy in the state and federal courts. Mr. Emmert is a frequent lecturer in Virginia and elsewhere on appellate topics and maintains a free website devoted to appellate practice in Virginia at www.virginia-appeals.com. He is a member of the Virginia State Bar (Immediate Past Chair, Appellate Practice Committee), Virginia Beach and Federal Bar Asso-ciations, Virginia Bar Association (Founder and Immediate Past Chair of the Appellate Practice Section), Boyd Graves Conference (Conference Chair 2014-2015), Virginia Trial Lawyers Association (Member, Board of Governors), and American Bar Association (Council of Appellate Lawyers). Mr. Emmert is admitted to practice in Virginia courts, U.S. District Courts for the Eastern and Western Districts of Virginia, and the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit. He received his undergraduate degree from Richmond College in 1979 and his J.D. from the University of Virginia School of Law in 1982.

Gifford R. Hampshire, Blankingship & Keith, P.C. / Fairfax and Manassas (Expand/Collapse Bio)

Gifford R. Hampshire, author of Chapter 9, is a shareholder and member of the Virginia Eminent Domain Group at Blankingship & Keith, P.C., representing both landowners and condemning authorities. Mr. Hampshire represented Prince William County in the important regulatory taking case of Omni Homes v. Board of County Supervisors of Prince William County, 253 Va. 59 (1997), and in the eminent domain case of Board of County Supervisors of Prince William County v. United States, 276 F.3d 1359 (Fed. Cir. 2002). He was co-counsel for the landowner in the regulatory taking case of Board of Supervisors v. Greengael, LLC, 217 Va. 266 (2006). Mr. Hampshire is a graduate of Hampden-Sydney College and George Mason University School of Law. He is a past president of the George Mason American Inn of Court, past member of Virginia State Bar Council, past president of the Prince William County Bar Association, past Chair of the Virginia State Bar Conference of Local Bar Associations, past member of the Professionalism Course faculty of the Virginia State Bar, and past member of the Virginia State Bar Clients’ Protection Fund Board.

Scott D. Helsel, Walton & Adams, P.C. / Reston (Expand/Collapse Bio)

Scott D. Helsel, co-author of Chapter 4, practices with Walton & Adams, P.C., in Reston. His practice focuses on the representation of condemnors in eminent domain proceedings and includes litigation in business, employment, and real estate matters as well as appellate work. Mr. Helsel is a member of the Virginia State Bar and the District of Columbia Bar and is admitted to practice in the state, local, and federal courts in both jurisdictions. He received his undergraduate degree from Elizabethtown College in 1992 and his J.D. from the College of William & Mary, Marshall-Wythe School of Law, in 1995. After law school, he clerked for the Honorable Henry H. Whiting on the Supreme Court of Virginia.

Henry E. Howell, III, The Eminent Domain Litigation Group, PLC / Norfolk (Expand/Collapse Bio)

Henry E. Howell, III, co-author of chapter 3, is the principal member of The Eminent Domain Litigation Group, P.L.C., where he practices in eminent domain and property rights litigation for owners. Mr. Howell has specialized in representing owners in eminent domain proceedings for the past nine years. He is admitted to practice before the Virginia and United States District Courts (Eastern District of Virginia and Western District of Virginia) and the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit. Mr. Howell is a member of the Virginia Beach, Norfolk, and Portsmouth bar associations. He earned his B.A. and J.D. degrees from the University of Virginia.

Brian G. Kunze, Waldo & Lyle, PC / Norfolk (Expand/Collapse Bio)

Brian G. Kunze, co-author of Chapter 3, is a partner in the firm of Waldo & Lyle, PC, in Norfolk. Mr. Kunze’s practice is limited to representing property owners throughout Virginia in eminent domain proceedings and defending property rights. He has tried eminent domain and property rights cases in Virginia’s circuit courts as well as federal district court. Mr. Kunze has spoken around the country at eminent domain and property rights conferences. He received his B.S. from Old Dominion

J. Scott Mersiowsky, Virginia Department of Transportation (Expand/Collapse Bio)

J. Scott Mersiowsky, author of Chapter 8, is the Assistant Relocation Program Manager at the Central Office of the Virginia Department of Transportation in Richmond. His responsibilities include assuring that relocations conducted by VDOT comply with the Uniform Relocation Assistance and Real Property Acquisitions Policies Act of 1970 and regulations of the Federal Highway Administration. Before assuming his duties in the VDOT Central Office, Mr. Mersiowsky was located at VDOT’s Fredericksburg District Right of Way Office, where he worked in its legal department on aspects of negotiations, property management, and relocation matters. His experience at the Fredericksburg District Office also includes the writing and monitoring of contracts for the provision of roadside maintenance services. Mr. Mersiowsky has been awarded the designation of Senior Right of Way Professional by the International Right of Way Association.

Steven L. Micas, County Attorney for Prince George County (Expand/Collapse Bio)

Steven L. Micas, author of Chapter 1, is the County Attorney for Prince George County. He previously served as County Attorney for Chesterfield County and as Assistant City Attorney for Charlottesville. He has participated in the defense of many public officials and has extensive experience in land use and real estate development litigation. Mr. Micas has been a speaker at numerous courses sponsored by the Virginia State Bar and the Local Government Attorneys of Virginia, including Eminent Domain courses in 1988, 1996, 1998, and 2006. He has also been a speaker at a national ALIABA conference in San Francisco on Eminent Domain and for the Virginia Association of Assessing Officers. He is the author of the Eminent Domain chapter in the Handbook of Virginia Local Government Law and is also the editor and an author of the 2009 LGA publication, The Local Government Attorney in Virginia. Mr. Micas is a past president of the Local Government Attorney’s Association. He was awarded the Edward J. Finnegan Award for Distinguished Service in 2004, which is the highest award available to public attorneys in Virginia. Mr. Micas was elected to the Virginia Bar Foundation in 2004 and, in 2008, he was appointed by the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court as an instructor in the State Bar Association’s mandated “Professionalism” course. He has received the “AV” rating by Martindale Hubbell, the national lawyer’s rating service. Mr. Micas received a B.A. from the University of Virginia in 1970 and a J.D. from the University of Virginia School of Law in 1973.

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Eminent Domain Law in Virginia

Format Price
Print $150
Download $150
CD-ROM $150
USB Flash Drive $150
Both Print and Download $175
Both Print and CD-ROM $175
Both Print and USB Flash Drive $175

Individual Chapters (Download only)

Chapter Title Price
1 General Condemnation Procedure Under Title 25.1 (84 pages; 3 electronic forms) $45
2
Condemnation Procedure Under Title 33.2 As Exercised by the Commissioner of Highways (53 pages) $35
3 & 4
Federal Condemnation Procedure (28 pages); Pretrial Practice and Procedure (20 pages; 1 electronic form) $35
5 Valuation (44 pages) $35
6 & 7 Trial (29 pages); Condemnation Appeals in Virginia (11 pages) $35
8 Relocation Assistance and Real Property Acquisition Policies (42 pages) $35
9 Regulatory Takings (58 pages) $35
10 Tax Aspects of Condemnation Awards (27 pages) $25
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