Virginia Business Torts

Virginia Business Torts
Publication Date: 2019
Available Formats: Print (667 pages, softbound 1 volume)
  Electronic (searchable PDF via flash drive, CD, or immediate download)
  Both Print and Electronic formats
Product #: 906

Information

Content Highlights:

  • Common Law Torts
  • Breach of Duty of Loyalty
  • Conversion
  • Tortious Interference
  • Breach of Covenants Not to Compete
  • Wrongful Discharge
  • Conspiracy to Injure a Business
  • Virginia Uniform Trade Secrets Act
  • Civil Actions under the Virginia Computer Crimes Act
  • Virginia Consumer Protection Act Claims

The field of business torts is broad, and any work on the subject is ambitious. This book will be of great interest to business lawyers, but also to employment lawyers or those with a general practice. It explores the most frequently encountered areas: common law torts, duty of loyalty, conversion, tortious interference, covenants not to compete, wrongful discharge, conspiracy to injure a business, the Virginia Uniform Trade Secrets Act, the Virginia Computer Crimes Act, the Virginia Consumer Protection Act, and Virginia and federal antitrust laws. The objectives of this book are to present a useful discussion of the law and provide creative insights and suggestions as to how to effectively pursue litigation in these areas.

Covered in the new edition:

  • New case law and statutory amendments through January 2019
  • A new checklist is provided for the employee who is contemplating leaving a job and setting up a competing business
  • The statute of limitations for statements made by an anonymous poster on the internet can now be tolled until the identity of the author of defamatory statements is discovered
  • The Virginia Supreme Court has further defined what actions will subject a corporate defendant to punitive damages
  • The immunity provided by Virginia’s Anti-SLAPP statute has been enlarged to cover statements made at public hearings before a governing body or its agencies

Get this book FREE with a 12-Credit Online Bundle!


You may also be interested in:


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Choosing a Virginia Business Entity

Corporations and Partnerships in Virginia

Limited Liability Companies in Virginia

Virginia Civil Practice Forms

Virginia Law and Practice: A Handbook for Attorneys

 

Table of Contents

CHAPTER LIST

1. Introduction

2. Common Law Torts

3. Breach of Duty of Loyalty

4. Conversion

5. Tortious Interference with Contractual Relations and Economic Advantage

6. Breach of Covenants not to Compete

7. Wrongful Discharge

8. Conspiracy to Injure a Business

9. Misappropriation of Trade Secrets: Virginia Uniform Trade Secrets Act

10. Civil Actions Under the Virginia Computer Crimes Act

11. Virginia Consumer Protection Act Claims

12. Antitrust Violations

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

1.1 OVERVIEW

1.2 DEVELOPMENT OF THE LAW OF BUSINESS TORTS
        1.201 In General
        1.202 Unfair Competition
        1.203 Tortious Interference
        1.204 Conspiracy
        1.205 The Nexus Between Tortious Interference and Conspiracy
        1.206 Covenants Not to Compete
        1.207 Sanctions
        1.208 Virginia Antitrust Act
        1.209 Trade Secrets and Computer Crimes
    
1.3 CONCLUSION

CHAPTER 2: COMMON LAW TORTS

2.1 INTRODUCTION

2.2 FRAUD
        2.201 In General
        2.202 Actual Fraud
        2.203 Standard of Proof and Pleading Requirements
        2.204 Statute of Limitations
        2.205 Sea-Land Service, Inc. v. O’Neal
        2.206 Economic Loss Doctrine
        2.207 Source of Duty Rule
        2.208 Fraud Cannot Be Based on Contract
    
2.3 DEFAMATION
        2.301 Introduction
        2.302 General Principles
        2.303 Defamation Per Se
        2.304 Product Disparagement
        2.305 Privilege
        2.306 Damages
        2.307 Procedural Issues

2.4 INFLICTION OF EMOTIONAL DISTRESS
        2.401 In General
        2.402 Negligent Infliction of Emotional Distress
        2.403 Intentional Infliction of Emotional Distress
        2.404 Statute of Limitations
        2.405 Workers’ Compensation Act as Bar

2.5 EMPLOYER LIABILITY FOR EMPLOYEES’ ACTIONS
        2.501 Overview
        2.502 Respondeat Superior
        2.503 Negligent Hiring or Retention
        2.504 No Cause of Action for Negligent Supervision
        2.505 Basis of Liability
        2.506 Nature of Plaintiff’s Injury
        2.507 Potential Claims of Immunity

2.6 ASSAULT AND BATTERY
        2.601 In General
        2.602 Elements
        2.603 Sexual Assault
        2.604 Workers’ Compensation Act as Bar
        2.605 Effect on Respondeat Superior Claims
        2.606 Common Carriers
        2.607 Statute of Limitations
        2.608 Damages
        2.609 Business Owner’s Limited Duty to Protect Invitees from
        Assault and Battery on Premises

2.7 OPPRESSION OF MINORITY SHAREHOLDERS
        2.701 In General
        2.702 Elements
        2.703 Burden of Proof
        2.704 Parties
        2.705 Remedies

CHAPTER 3: BREACH OF DUTY OF LOYALTY

3.1 OVERVIEW

3.2 EMPLOYEE’S DUTY OF LOYALTY
        3.201 General Duty of Loyalty
        3.202 Cases Finding Breach of Duty of Loyalty
        3.203 Cases Finding No Breach of Duty of Loyalty
        3.204 Employees in Positions of Trust or Confidence
        3.205 Directors and Officers
        3.206 Third Party Liability for Aiding and Abetting

3.3 INDEPENDENT CONTRACTORS/AGENTS AND THE
DUTY OF LOYALTY

3.4 BREACH OF FIDUCIARY DUTY CLAIM MUST STATE
TORT CLAIM INDEPENDENT FROM BREACH OF
CONTRACT CLAIM

3.5 STATUTE OF LIMITATIONS

3.6 PRACTICAL GUIDANCE FOR EMPLOYEES PLANNING
TO SET UP A COMPETING ENTERPRISE

3.7 CONCLUSION

CHAPTER 4: CONVERSION

4.1 INTRODUCTION

4.2 ELEMENTS OF A CAUSE OF ACTION
        4.201 In General
        4.202 Persons Entitled to Bring Action
        4.203 Conduct Constituting Conversion
        4.204 Knowledge, Intent, and Motive
        4.205 Property Subject to Conversion
        4.206 Persons Subject to Liability

4.3 UNIFORM COMMERCIAL CODE, NEGOTIABLE
INSTRUMENTS, AND CONVERSION

4.4 DAMAGES
        4.401 In General
        4.402 Special Damages
        4.403 Conversion of Commercial Paper
        4.404 Conversion of Stock by Pledgee
        4.405 Conversion by Common Carrier
        4.406 Conversion of Timber
        4.407 Punitive Damages
        4.408 Mitigation of Damages

4.5 DEFENSES
        4.501 Authority of Law
        4.502 Consent or Approval of Owner
        4.503 Statute of Limitations

APPENDIX 4-1: COMPLAINT—SHAREHOLDER DERIVATIVE
SUIT—CONVERSION

APPENDIX 4-2: INTERROGATORIES AND REQUESTS—
SHAREHOLDER DERIVATIVE SUIT—CONVERSION

CHAPTER 5: TORTIOUS INTERFERENCE WITH CONTRACTUAL
RELATIONS AND ECONOMIC ADVANTAGE


5.1 INTRODUCTION

5.2 INTENTIONAL INTERFERENCE WITH EXISTING
CONTRACTS NOT TERMINABLE AT WILL
        5.201 In General
        5.202 Analysis of Elements of Claim

5.3 INTENTIONAL INTERFERENCE WITH CONTRACTS
TERMINABLE AT-WILL—THE REQUIREMENT OF
INTERFERENCE BY IMPROPER METHODS

5.4 INTENTIONAL INTERFERENCE WITH PROSPECTIVE
CONTRACT

5.5 INTENTIONAL INTERFERENCE WITH PROSPECTIVE
BUSINESS OR ECONOMIC ADVANTAGE
        5.501 Elements of Cause of Action
        5.502 Alleging and Proving the Expectancy

5.6 INTERFERENCE WITH ONE’S OWN CONTRACT
        5.601 Third-Party or “Three-Actor” Requirement
        5.602 Principal-Agent
        5.603 Defendant’s Interference with Own Contract

5.7 DAMAGES
        5.701 Compensatory Damages
        5.702 Punitive Damages
    
5.8 DEFENSES
        5.801 Affirmative Defense of Justification or Privilege
        5.802 Legitimate Business Competition
        5.803 Financial Interest
        5.804 Responsibility for Welfare of Another
        5.805 Noerr-Pennington Immunity
        5.806 Statute of Limitations
        5.807 Anti-SLAPP Immunity
    
5.9 LEADING CASES
        5.901 In General
        5.902 Real Estate Brokers and Agents
        5.903 Financial Services Providers
        5.904 Architects
        5.905 Contractors
        5.906 Distributors
        5.907 Government Contractors
        5.908 Manufacturers
        5.909 Clubs and Community Organizations
        5.910 Computer Technology
        5.911 Attorneys
        5.912 Insurers and Sureties
        5.913 Advertisers
        5.914 Commercial Tenants
        5.915 Hospitals
        5.916 Recreational Sites
        5.917 Former Employees
        5.918 Higher Education
        5.919 Religious Institutions
        5.920 Minority Stockholders
        5.921 Competitive Bidding
        5.922 Parental Rights

APPENDIX 5-1: COMPLAINT—TORTIOUS INTERFERENCE WITH
BUSINESS EXPECTANCY AND/OR PROSPECTIVE ECONOMIC
ADVANTAGE, STATUTORY BUSINESS CONSPIRACY,
AND CONSTRUCTIVE TRUST

APPENDIX 5-2: INTERROGATORIES AND REQUESTS—TORTIOUS
INTERFERENCE WITH BUSINESS EXPECTANCY AND/OR
PROSPECTIVE ECONOMIC ADVANTAGE AND BUSINESS
CONSPIRACY

CHAPTER 6: BREACH OF COVENANTS NOT TO COMPETE

6.1 INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW
        6.101 History of Virginia Law Regarding Restrictive
        Covenants
        6.102 General Principles

6.2 CONTRACT FORMATION
        6.201 Consideration
        6.202 Acceptance
        6.203 Termination

6.3 REASONABLENESS OF RESTRAINT
        6.301 Guidelines in Assessing Reasonableness
        6.302 Criteria for Assessing Reasonableness

6.4 MISCELLANEOUS ISSUES
        6.401 Reformation and Blue Penciling
        6.402 Separability and Severability
        6.403 Indirect Participation in a Competing Business
        6.404 Assignability of Noncompetition Agreements
        6.405 Effect of Bankruptcy on Restrictive Covenants
        6.406 Noncompetition Agreement and Nonrenewal of
        Employment Contract
        6.407 Resignation and Reemployment
        6.408 Enforceability of Covenants in Business Purchase
        Agreements
        6.409 First Breach Defense
        6.410 Choice of Law Provisions
        6.411 Statute of Limitations
        6.412 Restrictive Covenants Contained in Settlement and
        Separation Agreements

6.5 PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS IN LITIGATING
NONCOMPETE AGREEMENTS
        6.501 Injunctions and Temporary Restraining Orders
        6.502 Availability of Declaratory Relief
        6.503 Responding to a Noncompetition Claim with a
        Demurrer
        6.504 Responding to a Noncompetition Claim with a
        Plea in Bar
        6.505 Proving Damages

6.6 DRAFTING CONSIDERATIONS FOR NONCOMPETITION
AGREEMENTS

CHAPTER 7: WRONGFUL DISCHARGE

7.1 WRONGFUL DISCHARGE IN VIOLATION OF
PUBLIC POLICY
        7.101 Overview
        7.102 Elements of a Bowman Claim

7.2 CASE LAW DEVELOPMENT
        7.201 Discharge of Employee in the Exercise of a
        Statutory Right
        7.202 Requirement That Employee Be a Member of
        the Class of Persons Intended to Be Protected
        by the Public Policy
        7.203 Discharge of an Employee for Refusing to Commit
        a Criminal Act
    
7.3 DETERMINING THE EXISTENCE OF A PUBLIC POLICY
        7.301 In General
        7.302 Lawrence Chrysler Plymouth Corp. v. Brooks
        7.303 City of Virginia Beach v. Harris
        7.304 Rowan v. Tractor Supply Co.
        7.305 Blanchard v. Capital One Services, LLC

7.4 STATUTORY PREEMPTION OF WRONGFUL
DISCHARGE CLAIMS
        7.401 In General
        7.402 Mannell v. American Tobacco Co.
        7.403 Cauthorne v. King
        7.404 Pruitt v. Johnston Memorial Hospital, Inc.

7.5 INDIVIDUAL LIABILITY FOR BOWMAN CLAIMS

7.6 STANDARD OF PROOF AND DAMAGES

7.7 CONSTRUCTIVE DISCHARGE IN VIRGINIA
        7.701 In General
        7.702 Dowdy v. Bower
        7.703 Molina v. Summer Consultants, Inc.
        7.704 Padilla v. Silver Diner
        7.705 Gochenour v. Beasley
        7.706 Barron v. NetVersant-Northern Virginia, Inc.
        7.707 Lundy v. Cole Vision Corp.
        7.708 Case Evaluation

7.8 CONCLUSION

CHAPTER 8: CONSPIRACY TO INJURE A BUSINESS

8.1 INTRODUCTION

8.2 COMMON LAW CIVIL CONSPIRACY

8.3 STATUTORY BUSINESS CONSPIRACY
        8.301 Statutory Language—Civil Conspiracy
        8.302 Statutory Language—Attempted Conspiracy
        8.303 Scope of Conspiracy Statute
        8.304 Pleading a Claim for Conspiracy
        8.305 Elements of a Conspiracy Claim
        8.306 Standard of Proof
        8.307 Compensatory Damages
        8.308 Treble Damages, Punitive Damages, and
        the Statutory Cap
        8.309 Injunctive Relief
        8.310 Attorney Fees and Costs
    
8.4 DEFENSES
        8.401 Statute of Limitations
        8.402 Doctrine of Intracorporate Immunity
        8.403 Noerr-Pennington Immunity
        8.404 Anti-SLAPP Immunity

8.5 LEADING CASES
        8.501 Allen Realty Corp. v. Holbert
        8.502 Hechler Chevrolet, Inc. v. General Motors Corp.
        8.503 Greenspan v. Osheroff
        8.504 Tazewell Oil Co. v. United Virginia Bank
        8.505 Commercial Business Systems, Inc. v. BellSouth
        Services, Inc.
        8.506 Advanced Marine Enterprises, Inc. v. PRC, Inc.
        8.507 Feddeman & Co. v. Langan Associates
        8.508 Simmons v. Miller
        8.509 Andrews v. Ring
        8.510 Williams v. Dominion Technology Partners, L.L.C.
        8.511 Bell Atlantic Corp. v. Twombly
        8.512 Banks v. Mario Industries of Virginia, Inc.
        8.513 Station #2, LLC v. Lynch
        8.514 Dunlap v. Cottman Transmission Systems, LLC
        8.515 Almy v. Grisham
        8.516 Gelber v. Glock
        8.517 La Bella Dona Skin Care, Inc. v. Belle Femme
        Enterprises, LLC

CHAPTER 9: MISAPPROPRIATION OF TRADE SECRETS:
VIRGINIA UNIFORM TRADE SECRETS ACT


9.1 INTRODUCTION

9.2 HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT

9.3 VIRGINIA UNIFORM TRADE SECRETS ACT
        9.301 In General
        9.302 Definition of “Trade Secret”
        9.303 Definition of “Misappropriation”
        9.304 Requirement of Independent Economic Value
        9.305 Requirement That Trade Secret Not Be
        Generally Known
        9.306 Requirement That Trade Secret Not Be
        Readily Ascertainable
        9.307 Requirement of Reasonable Efforts to Maintain
        Secrecy
        9.308 Other Provisions of the Virginia Act

9.4 CONCLUSION

APPENDIX 9-1: COMPLAINT—VIOLATION OF VIRGINIA
UNIFORM TRADE SECRETS ACT AND OTHER
RELATED CLAIMS

APPENDIX 9-2: CONFIDENTIALITY STIPULATION AND
PROTECTIVE ORDER

CHAPTER 10: CIVIL ACTIONS UNDER THE VIRGINIA
COMPUTER CRIMES ACT


10.1 INTRODUCTION
        10.101 History of the Act
        10.102 Framework of the Act

10.2 VIRGINIA COMPUTER CRIMES
        10.201 Computer Fraud
        10.202 Transmission of Unsolicited Bulk Electronic Mail
        10.203 Computer Trespass
        10.204 Computer Invasion of Privacy
        10.205 Gathering Personal Information by Deception
        (“Phishing”)
        10.206 Theft of Computer Services
        10.207 Personal Trespass by Computer
        10.208 Harassment by Computer
        10.209 Property Capable of Embezzlement
        10.210 Computer as an Instrument of Forgery
        10.211 Encryption Used in Criminal Activity

10.3 OTHER PROVISIONS OF THE ACT
        10.301 Statute of Limitations
        10.302 Personal Jurisdiction
        10.303 Protection of Secrecy, Trade Secrets, and Privacy
        During Proceedings
        10.304 Preemption
        10.305 Damages

10.4 CONCLUSION

CHAPTER 11: VIRGINIA CONSUMER PROTECTION ACT
CLAIMS


11.1 INTRODUCTION

11.2 ANALYSIS OF A CLAIM
        11.201 Application of the VCPA
        11.202 Key Definitions
        11.203 Unfair Business Practices Prohibited
        11.204 Violations of Other Virginia Statutes
        11.205 Foreclosure Rescue
        11.206 Misrepresentation
        11.207 Authorized Transactions Not Covered
        11.208 Privity Between the Parties
        11.209 Justifiable Detrimental Reliance

11.3 DAMAGES
        11.301 Actual Damages
        11.302 Treble Damages for Willful Violations
        11.303 Attorney Fees and Costs

11.4 STATUTE OF LIMITATIONS

11.5 ADDITIONAL STRATEGIES
        11.501 Plaintiff’s Counsel
        11.502 Defense Counsel

APPENDIX 11-1: COMPLAINT—VIOLATION OF THE VIRGINIA
CONSUMER PROTECTION ACT

CHAPTER 12: ANTITRUST VIOLATIONS

12.1 OVERVIEW

12.2 JURISDICTION OVER VIRGINIA COMMERCE

12.3 PROHIBITED CONDUCT
        12.301 Conspiracy to Restrain Trade and Monopolization
        12.302 Price Discrimination
        12.303 Defenses to Price Discrimination
        12.304 Discrimination in Providing Promotional Benefits
        12.305 Advertising and Promotional Allowances
        12.306 Buyer Liability for Receiving Discriminatory Price

12.4 CONDUCT IMMUNIZED BY STATUTE

12.5 GOVERNMENT INVESTIGATIONS AND CIVIL
INVESTIGATIVE DEMANDS
        12.501 Attorney General to Investigate Suspected Violations
        12.502 When a CID May Issue
        12.503 Attorney General’s Authority to Issue a CID
        12.504 Content and Service of CID
        12.505 Documents in Lieu of Sworn Answers
        12.506 Challenging a CID
        12.507 Sworn Testimony Taken; Advice and Participation
        by Counsel; Witness Fees and Mileage
        12.508 Failure to Comply with CID
        12.509 Self-Incrimination; Immunity; Contempt
        12.510 Cooperation of State and Local Officials and
        Employees Required; Confidentiality

12.6 GOVERNMENT ENFORCEMENT
        12.601 Actions for Injunctive Relief and Civil Penalties
        12.602 Actions for Actual Damages; Treble Damages
        12.603 Parens Patriae Actions
        12.604 Attorney’s Fees Recoverable

12.7 PRIVATE RIGHT OF ACTION
        12.701 Action for Injunctive Relief and Damages
        12.702 Action for Actual Damages; Costs of Suit;
        Attorney’s Fees; Treble Damages
        12.703 Forum and Venue

12.8 MISCELLANEOUS ISSUES
        12.801 Pleading a Claim
        12.802 Effect of Conviction
        12.803 Statute of Limitations
        12.804 State Action Immunity
        12.805 Noerr-Pennington Immunity
        12.806 Intracorporate Immunity Doctrine
        12.807 Business of Insurance Not Exempt

TABLE OF AUTHORITIES

INDEX


Authors

EDITORS:

Edward Lee Isler

Edward B. Lowry

David W. Thomas

AUTHORS:

Elaine Charlson Bredehoft

Francis H. Casola

Thomas M. Dunlap

David L. Greenspan

Nicholas R. Klaiber

Kathleen Zahorik Quill

Steven W. Ray

Lori H. Turner

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Virginia Business Torts

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