Juvenile Law and Practice in Virginia

Juvenile Law and Practice in Virginia
Publication Date: 2014
Available Formats: Print (811 pages, looseleaf, 1 volume)
  Electronic (searchable PDF via flash drive, CD, or immediate download)
  Both Print and Electronic formats
Product #: 855

Information

Content Highlights:
  • JDR Courts and Circuit Courts
  • Child Psychology and Development
  • Mental Health and Substance Abuse
  • Pretrial Proceedings
  • Police Investigations
  • Adjudicatory Hearings
  • Disposition Hearings and Alternatives
  • Post-Disposition Proceedings and Appeals
  • Physical and Medical Aspects of Abuse and Neglect
  • Abuse and Neglect Proceedings
  • Foster Care and Termination of Parental Rights
  • Psychiatric Commitment of Minors
  • Basic Educational Law for Use in Juvenile Cases
  • Comprehensive Services Act and Other Proceedings

Spanning one of the law's broadest areas, Juvenile Law and Practice relates to all the cases where a minor is the subject of litigation. Whether counsel is hired because of a child's delinquent acts or special education needs, or even when court intervention occurs because of allegations of abuse in the home, this book provides the expert guidance to reach a successful resolution for your young client. Procedures and practice in both the juvenile and circuit court are covered, as well as ethical considerations relevant to the representation of children in Virginia. It also analyzes factors such as child psychology and development, physical and medical aspects of child abuse and neglect, and substance abuse

A staple in Virginia's juvenile courts, the 2014 edition is current through changes enacted at the 2013 session of the General Assembly, including changes to the foster care process that became effective in 2014.


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Table of Contents

CHAPTER LIST

1. An Introduction To The Juvenile And Domestic Relations District Court

2. The Role Of The Lawyer In Juvenile Proceedings

3. Child Psychology And Development

4. Mental Health And Substance Abuse Disorders

5. Pretrial Proceedings

6. Police Investigations

7. Transfer Of Juveniles From The Juvenile Court And Handling Juvenile Cases In The Circuit Court

8. The Adjudicatory Hearing

9. The Disposition Hearing

10. Dispositional Alternatives

11. Post-Disposition Proceedings And Appeals

12. Physical And Medical Aspects Of Child Abuse And Neglect

13. Abuse And Neglect Proceedings

14. Foster Care And Termination Of Parental Rights

15. Psychiatric Commitment Of Minors

16. Basic Educational Law

17. Using Educational Law To Create Better Outcomes In Juvenile Cases

18. The Comprehensive Services Act, Petitions For Services, And Other Proceedings


CHAPTER 1: AN INTRODUCTION TO THE JUVENILE AND DOMESTIC RELATIONS DISTRICT COURT

1.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

1.2 RECENT UNITED STATES SUPREME COURT DECISIONS

1.3 ORGANIZATION OF THE JUVENILE CODE

1.4 PHILOSOPHY OF THE JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEM

1.5 JURISDICTION
    1.501 Age Jurisdiction
    1.502 Territorial Jurisdiction (Venue)
    1.503 Subject Matter Jurisdiction
    1.504 Duration of Jurisdiction

BIBLIOGRAPHY

APPENDIX 1-1 DC-616 ORDER OF TRANSFER

CHAPTER 2: THE ROLE OF THE LAWYER IN JUVENILE PROCEEDINGS
  (back to top)

2.1 INTRODUCTION

2.2 THE GUARDIAN AD LITEM
    2.201 In General
    2.202 Qualification
    2.203 Appointment
    2.204 Fees and Expenses
    2.205 Virginia Performance Standards and Other Descriptions of Duties
    2.206 Duties Enumerated on Order of Appointment
    2.207 Performance Standards for Guardians Ad Litem
    2.208 Ethical Concerns
    2.209 Rule 8:6 of the Rules of the Virginia Supreme Court
    2.210 Juvenile Justice and Guardian Ad Litem Standards
    2.211 Determining the Best Interests of the Child
    2.212 Interviewing the Child
    2.213 Gathering Information from Professionals
    2.214 Investigating Child’s Family and Home
    2.215 Representing the Child in Court

2.3 COUNSEL FOR THE DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL SERVICES
    2.301 Introduction
    2.302 Training and Preparing Social Workers
    2.303 Role of Counsel in Court Proceedings
    2.304 Working with the Guardian Ad Litem

2.4 COUNSEL FOR PARENTS OR CUSTODIANS
    2.401 Right to Counsel
    2.402 Duties of Counsel

2.5 COUNSEL IN DELINQUENCY PROCEEDINGS
    2.501 In General
    2.502 Ethical Concerns
    2.503 Rule 8:6 of the Rules of the Virginia Supreme Court
    2.504 Juvenile Justice Standards
    2.505 Examples of Role Confusion
    2.506 Timing of Appointment
    2.507 Fees
    2.508 Duties Before Trial
    2.509 Counsel’s Role in the Detention Decision
    2.510 Transfer or Certification as an Adult
    2.511 The Adjudicatory Hearing
    2.512 The Disposition Hearing
    2.513 Post-Dispositional Review Hearing

2.6 COUNSEL IN CHILDREN IN NEED OF SERVICES, CHILDREN IN
NEED OF SUPERVISION, AND STATUS OFFENSE CASES

2.7 THE COMMONWEALTH’S ATTORNEY
        2.701 Introduction
        2.702 Legal Advisor
        2.703 Pretrial Role
        2.704 Adjudicatory Role
        2.705 The Dispositional Hearing
        2.706 Post-Dispositional Proceedings
        
APPENDIX 2-1 DC-514 ORDER FOR APPOINTMENT OF GUARDIAN AD LITEM

APPENDIX 2-2 STANDARDS TO GOVERN THE PERFORMANCE OF
GUARDIANS AD LITEM FOR CHILDREN

APPENDIX 2-3 DC-40 LIST OF ALLOWANCES

APPENDIX 2-4 DC-510 SUMMONS

APPENDIX 2-5 DC-513 ADVISEMENT AND REQUEST FOR APPOINTMENT
OF COUNSEL

APPENDIX 2-6 DC-515 WAIVER OF RIGHT TO BE REPRESENTED BY A
LAWYER (JUVENILE)

APPENDIX 2-7 LETTER TO CLIENT’S PARENT OR PARENTS WHEN CLIENT
IS DETAINED

APPENDIX 2-8 LETTER TO CLIENT’S PARENT OR PARENTS WHEN CLIENT
IS FREE

APPENDIX 2-9 INITIAL CLIENT INTERVIEW FORM

APPENDIX 2-10 INITIAL PARENT INTERVIEW FORM

APPENDIX 2-11 MEDICAL RECORDS RELEASE

APPENDIX 2-12 REQUEST AND AUTHORIZATION FOR EDUCATIONAL
RECORDS

APPENDIX 2-13 JUVENILE VIOLATION/AFFIDAVIT REPORT

APPENDIX 2-14 DC-545 PRELIMINARY CHILD PROTECTIVE ORDER

APPENDIX 2-15 DC-546 CHILD PROTECTIVE ORDER

APPENDIX 2-16 LIST OF AVAILABLE SERIES 500 FILLABLE FORMS

CHAPTER 3: CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND DEVELOPMENT  (back to top)

3.1 INTRODUCTION

3.2 CHILD DEVELOPMENT
    3.201 General Stages of Childhood
    3.202 Infancy
    3.203 Preschool or Early Childhood
    3.204 Middle Childhood
    3.205 Preadolescence or Late Childhood

3.3 PUBERTY

3.4 ADOLESCENCE

3.5 COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT

3.6 MORAL DEVELOPMENT

3.7 BRAIN DEVELOPMENT DURING ADOLESCENCE

3.8 SPECIAL LEGAL ISSUES WITH DELINQUENT YOUTH
    3.801 In General
    3.802 Competency to Stand Trial
    3.803 Culpability
    3.804 Amenability to Treatment/Malleability

3.9 CONCLUSION

BIBLIOGRAPHY

CHAPTER 4: MENTAL HEALTH AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE DISORDERS
  (back to top)

4.1 INTRODUCTION

4.2 NEURODEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS
    4.201 Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
    4.202 Autism Spectrum Disorders

4.3 DISRUPTIVE BEHAVIOR DISORDERS
    4.301 Oppositional Defiant Disorder
    4.302 Conduct Disorder

4.4 MOOD DISORDERS
    4.401 Depressive Disorders
    4.402 Bipolar Disorder

4.5 ANXIETY DISORDERS
    4.501 Generalized Anxiety Disorder
    4.502 Specific Phobias
    4.503 Panic Disorder

4.6 OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER

4.7 TRAUMA AND STRESS-RELATED DISORDERS
    4.701 Adjustment Disorder
    4.702 Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

4.8 EFFECTS OF NEURODEVELOPMENTAL, MOOD, ANXIETY, STRESSRELATED,
AND DISRUPTIVE BEHAVIOR DISORDERS

4.9 EATING DISORDERS
    4.901 Anorexia Nervosa
    4.902 Bulimia Nervosa

4.10 REACTIVE ATTACHMENT DISORDER

4.11 SUBSTANCE USE DISORDERS
    4.1101 The Continuum of Substance Use
    4.1102 Common Drugs of Abuse During Adolescence
    4.1103 Polysubstance Abuse
    4.1104 Co-occurring Substance Use and Mental Health Disorders

4.12 ABUSED AND NEGLECTED CHILDREN
    4.1201 Incidence and Prevalence of Child Maltreatment
    4.1202 Child Maltreatment, PTSD, and Complex Trauma
    4.1203 Child Maltreatment and Mental Health
    4.1204 Child Maltreatment and Substance Abuse
    4.1205 Child Maltreatment and Juvenile Delinquency

4.13 SPECIAL LEGAL ISSUES WITH DELINQUENT YOUTHS
    4.1301 In General
    4.1302 Competency to Stand Trial
    4.1303 Culpability
    4.1304 Amenability to Treatment

4.14 CONCLUSION

CHAPTER 5: PRETRIAL PROCEEDINGS
  (back to top)

5.1 INTAKE AND DIVERSION
    5.101 Introduction
    5.102 Initiation of Case by Petition or Otherwise
    5.103 Diversion of Case Alleging That Child Is Abused or Neglected, in
    Need of Supervision, in Need of Services, or Delinquent
    5.104 Prerequisites to Filing Petition Alleging That Child Is in Need of
    Supervision
    5.105 Appeal of Intake Officer’s Refusal to Authorize Petition Alleging
    Class 1 Misdemeanor or Felony
    5.107 Commonwealth’s Attorney’s Role in Intake
    5.108 Child’s Attorney’s Role

5.2 DETENTION AND SHELTER CARE
    5.201 General Information and Practices
    5.202 Criteria for Detention
    5.203 Place of Confinement
    5.204 Procedure for Detention Hearing
    5.205 Attorney’s Role in Detention Decision
    5.206 Time Limitations
    5.207 Mental Health Screening and Assessment

5.3 DISCOVERY
    5.301 Introduction
    5.302 General Information
    5.303 Time of Motion
    5.304 Time, Place, and Manner of Discovery and Inspection
    5.305 Failure to Comply

5.4 MOTION PRACTICE
    5.401 Introduction
    5.402 Motion to Suppress
    5.403 Motion in Limine
    5.404 Motion for Severance
    5.405 Motion for Speedy Trial
    5.406 Motion Concerning Petition and Summons
    5.407 Motion for Change of Venue
    5.408 Motion for Continuance
    5.409 Motion for Appointed Expert or Investigator
    5.410 Motion to Dismiss for Double Jeopardy
    5.411 Motion to Recuse Judge
    5.412 Physical or Mental Examination
    5.413 Arraignment
    5.414 Motion for Competency

APPENDIX 5-1 DC-511 PETITION

APPENDIX 5-2 DETENTION ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENT A

APPENDIX 5-3 DETENTION ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENT B

APPENDIX 5-4 DC-529 DETENTION ORDER

APPENDIX 5-5 DC-530 SHELTER CARE ORDER

APPENDIX 5-6 DC-538 PLACEMENT ORDER

APPENDIX 5-7 DC-539 RELEASE ORDER

CHAPTER 6: POLICE INVESTIGATIONS  (back to top)

6.1 INTRODUCTION

6.2 ARREST
    6.201 General Principles
    6.202 When Child May Be Taken into Immediate Custody
    6.203 Duties of Person Taking Child into Custody
    6.204 Counsel’s Role in Ensuring Enforcement of Arrest and Detention
    Statutes
    6.205 Remedy for Violation of Arrest and Detention Statutes

6.3 INTERROGATION OF JUVENILES; CONFESSIONS
    6.301 In General
    6.302 Voluntariness
    6.303 Miranda Issues
    6.304 Violations of Statutes and Rules
    6.305 Attorney’s Role

6.4 SEARCH AND SEIZURE ISSUES
    6.401 General Principles
    6.402 Stops Unique to Children
    6.403 Search and Seizure Issues

6.5 IDENTIFICATION ISSUES INVOLVING JUVENILE DEFENDANTS
    6.501 In General
    6.502 Lineups
    6.503 Fingerprints
    6.504 Photographs
    6.505 DNA Samples
    6.506 Attorney’s Role
    6.507 Preparing for Motions to Suppress

6.6 THE COMMONWEALTH’S ATTORNEY
    6.601 Consultation Between Police and Commonwealth’s Attorney
    6.602 Juveniles as Victims

CHAPTER 7: TRANSFER OF JUVENILES FROM THE JUVENILE COURT
AND HANDLING JUVENILE CASES IN THE CIRCUIT COURT
  (back to top)

7.1 PURPOSE OF TRANSFER OF JURISDICTION

7.2 JURISDICTION OF THE JUVENILE COURT OVER DELINQUENCY
    7.201 Exclusive Original Jurisdiction
    7.202 The Effect of Previous Transfer

7.3 PHILOSOPHY OF THE JUVENILE CODE

7.4 WAIVER OF JUVENILE COURT JURISDICTION BY JUVENILE
    7.401 Requirements for Valid Waiver
    7.402 Decision to Waive
    
7.5 CERTIFICATION OR TRANSFER TO THE CIRCUIT COURT FOR TRIAL
AS AN ADULT
    7.501 Age of the Juvenile
    7.502 The Grade or Nature of the Offense
    7.503 Certification or Transfer Must Be Initiated by Notice or Motion of
    the Commonwealth’s Attorney
    7.504 Defense Counsel’s Role in Influencing the Decision of the Prosecutor
    7.505 Procedural Requirements for Certification or Transfer to the
    Circuit Court

7.6 ROLE OF COUNSEL IN THE TRANSFER PROCESS
    7.601 Ethical Considerations
    7.602 Relationship with Court Staff
    7.603 School and Medical Records
    7.604 Review of Court Files
    7.605 Lay Witnesses
    7.606 Expert Witnesses
    7.607 Virginia Department of Juvenile Justice

7.7 THE TRANSFER REPORT
    7.701 Contents of the Report
    7.702 Transfer Report Must Be in Writing
    7.703 Filing and Access

7.8 CHILD’S TESTIMONY AT TRANSFER HEARING

7.9 EFFECT OF PROCEDURAL IRREGULARITIES

7.10 CERTIFICATION OF JUVENILES FOR TRIAL AS ADULTS PURSUANT
TO SECTION 16.1-269.1(B) AND (C)
    7.1001 Preparation for Certification Hearings
    7.1002 Certification Pursuant to Section 16.1-269.1(B)
    7.1003 Certification Pursuant to Section 16.1-269.1(C)
    7.1004 Judicial Rulings Against Certification

7.11 NECESSARY COURT FINDINGS FOR TRANSFER UNDER SECTION 16.1-
269.1(A)
    7.1101 Probable Cause
    7.1102 Age
    7.1103 Juvenile Is Not a Proper Person to Remain Within the Jurisdiction of
    the Juvenile Court
    7.1104 Competency to Stand Trial, Mental Illness, and Intellectual Disability

7.12 COURT CONCLUSIONS

7.13 REVIEW OF DECISION ON TRANSFER OR CERTIFICATION
    7.1301 Commonwealth’s Attorney’s Options on Juvenile Court’s Refusal
    to Certify
    7.1302 Commonwealth’s Attorney’s Right to Review of Juvenile Court
    Decision to Retain Jurisdiction After Transfer Hearing
    7.1303 Defense Methods for Review of Decision to Transfer
    7.1304 Procedure for Review
    7.1305 Appeal from Circuit Court to Court of Appeals

7.14 BAIL OR DETENTION PENDING CIRCUIT COURT HEARING
    7.1401 Bail
    7.1402 Detention Versus Jail
    7.1403 Speedy Trial Requirements

7.15 TRIAL IN JUVENILE COURT IF JURISDICTION IS RETAINED
    7.1501 Judge
    7.1502 Time Limitations

7.16 TRIAL IN THE CIRCUIT COURT AS AN ADULT
    7.1601 Strategies for Representing the Juvenile in Adult Criminal
    Proceedings
    7.1602 Procedure for Determining Guilt or Innocence
    7.1603 Admissibility of Evidence
    7.1604 Sentencing
    7.1605 Capital Cases and Life-Without-Parole Sentences
    7.1606 Juvenile Dispositions
    7.1607 Adult Sentencing
    7.1608 Circuit Court Sentencing in Violent Juvenile Felony Cases
    7.1609 Serious Offender Review Hearings and Section 19.2-303

7.17 SEX OFFENDER REGISTRATION

7.18 APPEAL

APPENDIX 7-1 DC-517 WAIVER OF JURISDICTION

APPENDIX 7-2 DC-519 NOTICE OF TRANSFER HEARING

APPENDIX 7-3 SAMPLE TRANSFER REPORT

APPENDIX 7-4 DC-518 TRANSFER/RETENTION ORDER

APPENDIX 7-5 DC-575 JUVENILE CASE APPEAL/TRANSFER TRANSMITTAL

CHAPTER 8: THE ADJUDICATORY HEARING
  (back to top)

8.1 INTRODUCTION

8.2 PETITION AND NOTICE OF CHARGES
    8.201 The Petition or Initial Pleading
    8.202 Summons
    8.203 Service of Summons
    8.204 Parental Notice
    8.205 Prisoner as Party or Witness

8.3 SUBPOENAS

8.4 PROCEDURE IN CRIMINAL CASES INVOLVING ADULT DEFENDANTS

8.5 PHYSICAL AND MENTAL EXAMINATIONS AND COMPETENCE
    8.501 Physical and Mental Examinations
    8.502 Temporary Placement with Department of Juvenile Justice
    8.503 Mental Competency
    8.504 Physical Competency to Commit Sex Offenses

8.6 ADVICE OF TRIAL RIGHTS FOR JUVENILES CHARGED WITH
DELINQUENCY

8.7 BURDEN OF PROOF AND EVIDENTIARY RULES
    8.701 Burdens of Proof
    8.702 Evidentiary Rules

8.8 PROCEDURES

8.9 ADMISSIONS AND GUILTY PLEAS
    8.901 Possible Pleas and Inquiry into Guilty Plea
    8.902 Plea Bargaining, Cooperation/Immunity Agreements, and the
    Decision to Plead Guilty

8.10 PLEA OF INFANCY

8.11 CONTEMPT OF COURT

8.12 JURY TRIAL

8.13 RIGHT TO PUBLIC TRIAL AND PRESENCE OF CHILD
    8.1301 Right to a Public Trial in Delinquency Proceedings
    8.1302 Right to Public Trial in Criminal Proceedings
    8.1303 Right to Be Present
    8.1304 Protecting Confidentiality of Closed Proceedings
    8.1305 Court Reporters and Transcripts
    8.1306 Right of Victims to Be Present at Trial

8.14 DOUBLE JEOPARDY

APPENDIX 8-1 DC-512 NOTICE OF HEARING
CHAPTER 9: THE DISPOSITION HEARING  (back to top)

9.1 PHILOSOPHY OF DISPOSITION

9.2 VENUE FOR DISPOSITION

9.3 COURT SERVICES UNIT PROCEDURES FOLLOWING THE
ADJUDICATORY HEARING
    9.301 Case Assignments
    9.302 Juvenile Under Court-Ordered Supervision

9.4 INFORMATION NECESSARY TO MAKE AN EFFECTIVE DISPOSITION
    9.401 Social History
    9.402 Court-Ordered Evaluations
    9.403 Diagnostic Assessment by Department of Juvenile Justice
    9.404 Child Development Center Evaluation
    9.405 Substance Abuse Evaluation

9.5 PLACEMENT OF CHILD PENDING DISPOSITION

9.6 THE DEFENSE COUNSEL AT DISPOSITION
    9.601 Role of Counsel
    9.602 Preparing for the Dispositional Hearing
    9.603 Nature of the Hearing
    9.604 Social History Report Can and Should Incorporate Counsel’s Input
    9.605 Person Who Prepares Report Should Be Present at Hearing
    9.606 Relationship Between Defense Counsel and Probation Staff
    9.607 Counsel Should Learn About Dispositional Options and Procedures
    9.608 Reviewing the Social History
    9.609 Interagency Multi-Discipline Teams
    9.610 Resource Directory

9.7 ROLE OF THE PROSECUTOR IN DISPOSITION

9.8 DISPOSITIONAL HEARINGS

9.9 OTHER DISPOSITIONAL CONSIDERATIONS
    9.901 Comprehensive Services Act
    9.902 Location and Development of Services and Programs
    9.903 Mandated Insurance Coverage
    9.904 Culturally Effective Services

APPENDIX 9-1 DC-542 ORDER FOR INVESTIGATION AND REPORT

APPENDIX 9-2 SAMPLE SOCIAL HISTORY REPORT

APPENDIX 9-3 DC-543 CONFIDENTIALITY NOTICE

APPENDIX 9-4 SAMPLE EVALUATION SUMMARY

APPENDIX 9-5 EXAMPLE OF PSYCHOLOGICAL EVALUATION

APPENDIX 9-6 SAMPLE SUBSTANCE ABUSE EVALUATION

APPENDIX 9-7 DC-569 DISPOSITION ORDER—DELINQUENCY

APPENDIX 9-8 DEPARTMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE YOUTH ASSESSMENT
AND SCREENING INSTRUMENT

APPENDIX 9-9 EXAMPLE OF FAPT AND CMPT FAMILY ASSESSMENT AND
PLANNING TEAM REFERRAL

CHAPTER 10: DISPOSITIONAL ALTERNATIVES  (back to top)

10.1 DELINQUENCY

10.2 CHILDREN IN NEED OF SERVICES

10.3 CHILDREN IN NEED OF SUPERVISION

10.4 STATUS OFFENDERS

10.5 “ABUSE AND LOSE” PROVISIONS
    10.501 In General
    10.502 Underlying Offenses or Conduct
    10.503 Mandatory Loss of Driving Privileges
    10.504 Report to DMV
    10.505 Issuance of Restricted License
    10.506 Withdrawal of License Denial Order
    10.507 Deferral
    10.508 Other Statutory License Suspensions

10.6 ADDITIONAL CONSIDERATIONS
    10.601 Duration of Commitments
    10.602 Department of Juvenile Justice Length-of-Stay Guidelines
    10.603 Cost of Private Placements
    10.604 Protection of Religious Affiliations

10.7 DELINQUENCY DISPOSITIONAL ALTERNATIVES—PROGRAM
EXAMPLES
    10.701 Diversion
    10.702 Remain in Home
    10.703 Parent Participation
    10.704 Deferral of Disposition
    10.705 Probation
    10.706 Fines
    10.707 Driver’s License Suspension
    10.708 Out-of-Home Placement
    10.709 Post-Dispositional Detention
    10.710 Commitment to State Juvenile Correctional Facility
    10.711 Serious Repeat Offender Programs
    10.712 Third Parties
    10.713 Parental Responsibility
    10.714 Aftercare or Parole
    10.8 CHILD IN NEED OF SERVICES OR SUPERVISION DISPOSITIONS
    10.9 THE ROLE OF THE COURT AND COUNSEL IN THE COMPREHENSIVE
    SERVICES ACT

APPENDIX 10-1 DC-569 DISPOSITION ORDER—DELINQUENCY

APPENDIX 10-2 DC-572 JUVENILE COMMITMENT ORDER

APPENDIX 10-3 LENGTH-OF-STAY GUIDELINES

APPENDIX 10-4 DC-568 JUVENILE COMMITMENT REVIEW HEARING ORDER

APPENDIX 10-5 DC-576 DRIVER’S LICENSE DENIAL ORDER

APPENDIX 10-6 DC-577 DRIVER’S LICENSE SUSPENSION ORDER AND ENTRY
INTO SERVICES PROGRAM (JUVENILE)

APPENDIX 10-7 DC-578 RESTRICTED DRIVER’S LICENSE

APPENDIX 10-8 DC-570 JUVENILE COURT ORDER

APPENDIX 10-9 TABLE OF OFFENSES AND SUSPENSIONS BY STATUTE

CHAPTER 11: POST-DISPOSITION PROCEEDINGS AND APPEALS
  (back to top)

11.1 COURT REVIEW OF THE DISPOSITION ORDER

11.2 MOTIONS TO RECONSIDER PARTICIPATION IN PROGRAMS

11.3 SERIOUS OFFENDER REVIEW HEARING

11.4 REENTRY AND TRANSITION PLANNING

11.5 PROCEEDINGS TO REVOKE OR MODIFY ORDERS OF PROBATION,
PROTECTIVE SUPERVISION, OR PAROLE

11.6 CONTEMPT FOR VIOLATION OF COURT ORDER

11.7 APPEALS
    11.701 Juvenile Appeals
    11.702 Termination of Parental Rights

11.8 HABEAS CORPUS AND COLLATERAL REVIEW

11.9 LITIGATION CONCERNING CONDITIONS OF CONFINEMENT
    11.901 Introduction
    11.902 Classification and Separation
    11.903 Health Care
    11.904 Access to Counsel
    11.905 Programs
    11.906 Training and Supervision of Employees
    11.907 Environmental Issues
    11.908 Restraints, Punishments, and Due Process
    11.909 Safety
    11.910 Conclusion

11.10 THE RIGHT TO TREATMENT

APPENDIX 11-1 DC-630 MOTION TO AMEND OR REVIEW ORDER

APPENDIX 11-2 DC-511 PETITION

APPENDIX 11-3 PETITION PURSUANT To § 16.1-285.1(F)

APPENDIX 11-4 SERIOUS OFFENDER PROGRESS REPORT

APPENDIX 11-5 DC-580-NOTICE OF APPEAL

CHAPTER 12: PHYSICAL AND MEDICAL ASPECTS OF CHILD ABUSE
AND NEGLECT
  (back to top)

12.1 INTRODUCTION

12.2 STATISTICAL SUMMARY OF CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT

12.3 RECOGNITION OF CHILD PHYSICAL ABUSE
    12.301 Soft Tissue Injuries
    12.302 Burns
    12.303 Orthopedic Injuries
    12.304 Abdominal Injuries
    12.305 Head Injuries

12.4 MUNCHAUSEN SYNDROME BY PROXY

12.5 CHILD NEGLECT AND FAILURE TO THRIVE

12.6 CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE
    12.601 Introduction
    12.602 Epidemiology
    12.603 Disclosure of Abuse
    12.604 Family’s Reaction to Disclosure
    12.605 Model for Sexual Abuse Evaluation
    12.606 Potential for Fabrication

12.7 PHYSICAL EXAM FOR CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE
    12.701 Generally
    12.702 Anogenital Exams
    12.703 Alternative Diagnoses
    12.704 Systematic Identification of Injuries

APPENDIX 12-1 ABUSE PHOTOGRAPHS

APPENDIX 12-2 DIAGRAM OF FEMALE GENETALIA

APPENDIX 12-3 DIAGRAM OF MALE GENETALIA

APPENDIX 12-4 DIAGRAM OF ANAL ANATOMY

CHAPTER 13: ABUSE AND NEGLECT PROCEEDINGS  (back to top)

13.1 DEFINITION OF ABUSE AND NEGLECT

13.2 STATUTORY FRAMEWORK FOR INVESTIGATING ABUSE AND
NEGLECT
    13.201 Mandatory Reporting
    13.202 Immunity for Good-Faith Reporting
    13.203 Statutory Penalties
    13.204 Family Assessment or Investigation by Local Child Protective
    Services
    13.205 Challenging an Administrative Determination That Report of Child
    Abuse and Neglect is “Founded.
    13.206 Authority to Take Children into Custody

13.3 COURT PROCEEDINGS RELATING TO ABUSE AND NEGLECT
    13.301 In General
    13.302 Emergency Removal Order
    13.303 Preliminary Removal Hearing and Order
    13.304 Adjudication at the Preliminary Removal Hearing; Scheduling the
    Disposition Hearing
    13.305 Preliminary Protective Order
    13.306 Adjudication at the Preliminary Protective Order Hearing;
    Scheduling the Disposition Hearing
    13.307 Dispositional Hearing
    13.308 Appeals
    13.309 Determining Where the Child Will Reside
    13.310 Evidentiary Issues
    13.311 Obtaining Protection for a Child Through Other Kinds of Proceedings

APPENDIX 13-1 DC-620 UNIFORM CHILD CUSTODY JURISDICTION AND
ENFORCEMENT ACT AFFIDAVIT

APPENDIX 13-2 DC-526 EMERGENCY REMOVAL ORDER

APPENDIX 13-3 DC-544 ORDER FOR COURT-APPOINTED SPECIAL
ADVOCATE

APPENDIX 13-4 DC-536 TRIAL WITHOUT A LAWYER

APPENDIX 13-5 DC-528 PRELIMINARY REMOVAL ORDER

APPENDIX 13-6 DC-561 ADJUDICATORY ORDER FOR ABUSE OR
NEGLECT CASES

APPENDIX 13-7 DC-527 PRELIMINARY CHILD PROTECTIVE ORDER—
ABUSE AND NEGLECT

APPENDIX 13-8 DC-532 CHILD PROTECTIVE ORDER—ABUSE AND NEGLECT

APPENDIX 13-9 DC-553 DISPOSITIONAL ORDER FOR UNDERLYING
PETITION, FOSTER CARE PLAN

APPENDIX 13-10 DC-559(A) SUPPLEMENT TO ORDER TRANSFERRING
CUSTODY

CHAPTER 14: FOSTER CARE AND TERMINATION OF PARENTAL RIGHTS  (back to top)

14.1 FOSTER CARE
    14.101 How Children Come into Foster Care
    14.102 The Foster Care Plan
    14.103 Court Review of the Foster Care Plan
    14.104 Requirement for Permanency Planning
    14.105 Requirement for Review of Foster Care Plan
    14.106 Adoption Progress Reports

14.2 TERMINATION OF RESIDUAL PARENTAL RIGHTS
    14.201 In General
    14.202 No Reasonable Likelihood of Rehabilitation in Cases of Serious Child
    Abuse and Neglect
    14.203 Failure of Parents to Communicate with Child or Change Conditions
    That Resulted in Removal
    14.204 Abandonment
    14.205 Prior Termination of Parental Rights or Intrafamily Criminal
    Conduct by Parent
    14.206 Child’s Objection to Termination of Parental Rights
    14.207 Foster Care Plan with Goal of Termination of Parental Rights
    Required
    14.208 Authority to File Petition Requesting Termination
    14.209 Review of Foster Care Plan Combined with Termination Hearing
    14.210 Consideration of Availability of Adoptive Home
    14.211 Key Issues in Litigating Termination of Residual Parental
    Rights Cases
    14.212 Order for Involuntary Termination of Residual Parental
    Rights; Appeal
    14.213 Restoration of Parental Rights
    14.214 Table of Appellate Cases

14.3 PERMANENT FOSTER CARE
    14.301 Agency Authority for Placement
    14.302 Rights of Foster Parents and Child

14.4 INTERSTATE COMPACT ON THE PLACEMENT OF CHILDREN (ICPC)
    14.401 Background and Purpose
    14.402 Resources
    14.403 Attorney Issues

14.5 COMPREHENSIVE SERVICES ACT FOR AT-RISK YOUTH AND FAMILIES
    14.501 Background and Importance
    14.502 Structure
    14.503 Eligibility for Services
    14.504 Power of the Court

APPENDIX 14-1 DC-534 ORDER FOR VOLUNTARY TERMINATION OF
RESIDUAL PARENTAL RIGHTS

APPENDIX 14-2 DC-562 ORDER FOR CUSTODY TRANSFER TO AGENCY

APPENDIX 14-3 DC-554 PETITION FOR FOSTER CARE REVIEW HEARING

APPENDIX 14-4 DC-555 FOSTER CARE REVIEW ORDER

APPENDIX 14-5 DC-556 PETITION FOR PERMANENCY PLANNING HEARING

APPENDIX 14-6 DC-557 PERMANENCY PLANNING ORDER

APPENDIX 14-7 ADOPTION PROGRESS REPORT

APPENDIX 14-8 DC-535 NOTICE OF TERMINATION OF RESIDUAL PARENTAL
RIGHTS

APPENDIX 14-9 DC-531 ORDER FOR INVOLUNTARY TERMINATION OF
RESIDUAL PARENTAL RIGHTS

APPENDIX 14-10 DC-564 PETITION FOR RESTORATION OF PARENTAL
RIGHTS

APPENDIX 14-11 DC-566 PARENTAL PLACEMENT ORDER FOR RESTORATION
OF PARENTAL RIGHTS

APPENDIX 14-12 DC-558 PERMANENT FOSTER CARE PLACEMENT ORDER

CHAPTER 15: PSYCHIATRIC COMMITMENT OF MINORS
  (back to top)

15.1 INTRODUCTION

15.2 THE PSYCHIATRIC INPATIENT TREATMENT OF MINORS ACT
    15.201 Jurisdiction
    15.202 Key Definitions
    15.203 Parental Admission of Minors Under 14 and Nonobjecting Older
    Minors
    15.204 Parental Admission of Objecting Minor 14 Years of Age or Older
    15.205 Emergency Custody and Transportation
    15.206 Involuntary Temporary Detention
    15.207 Involuntary Commitment
    15.208 Mandatory Outpatient Treatment
    15.209 Development of Inpatient Treatment Plan
    15.210 Discharge and Plan
    15.211 Appeal

15.3 ROLE OF ATTORNEYS
    15.301 Guardian Ad Litem and Counsel
    15.302 Guardian Ad Litem
    15.303 Duties of Counsel

15.4 THE “HOW TO’S” OF CIVIL COMMITMENT
    15.401 Read
    15.402 Review
    15.403 Analyze
    15.404 Prepare
    15.405 Strategize

15.5 COMMITMENT PITFALLS (OR WHAT REALLY HAPPENS)
    15.501 Petition
    15.502 Appointment of Counsel
    15.503 Clinical Evaluation

15.6 REPRESENTING THE CHILD
    15.601 Ethical Obligations—Interviewing the Child
    15.602 Independent Evaluation
    15.603 Ethical Considerations—Expectations of Roles
    15.604 Decision-Making Roles
    15.605 Competence and Promptness
    15.606 The Principle of Informed Consent
    15.607 Familiarity with Psychiatric Terminology
    15.608 Who Is the Client?
    
APPENDIX 15-1 TIME LINE OF CIVIL COMMITMENT PROCESS

APPENDIX 15-2 JUVENILE CIVIL COMMITMENT PROCEEDINGS DISTRICT
COURT FORMS

APPENDIX 15-3 ATTORNEY CHECKLIST FOR COMMITMENT HEARINGS

CHAPTER 16: BASIC EDUCATIONAL LAW
  (back to top)

16.1 INTRODUCTION

16.2 ACCESSING STUDENTS’ EDUCATIONAL RECORDS

16.3 STANDARDS OF LEARNING AND NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND
    16.301 In General
    16.302 The Standards of Learning (SOLs) and the SOL Tests Generally
    16.303 The No Child Left Behind Act

16.4 ENROLLMENT
    16.401 In General
    16.402 General Enrollment Principles
    16.403 Students Living with Non-Parent Relatives
    16.404 Enrollment of Homeless Students: McKinney-Vento Rights
    16.405 Enrollment and Immigrant Students
    16.406 Enrollment of Youth in Foster Care
    16.407 Enrollment and Incarcerated Youth

16.5 STUDENT DISCIPLINE
    16.501 Introduction
    16.502 Bullying
    16.503 Sufficient Cause
    16.504 Short-Term Versus Long-Term Suspensions
    16.505 Expulsion
    16.506 Readmission After Expulsion
    16.507 Exclusion (Students Expelled or Suspended from Outside the School
    District)
    16.508 Zero Tolerance
    16.509 Special Circumstances for Mitigation Purposes
    16.510 Drug Offenses and Weapons
    16.511 Other Weapons
    16.512 Alternative Schools and Programs
    16.513 Punishment of Off-Grounds Conduct
    16.514 Allegations of Gang Activity and the First Amendment
    16.515 Corporal Punishment Prohibited; Reasonable Force Permitted
    16.516 Investigation by School and Law Enforcement Officials
    16.517 Procedural Due Process
    16.518 Contents of Written Notice
    16.519 Timelines for Notice, Hearings, and Appeals
    16.520 Requesting Discipline Records
    16.521 Client Testimony and Fifth Amendment Rights
    16.522 Judicial Review of a School Board Action
    16.523 Juvenile Courts and Schools

16.6 BASIC SPECIAL EDUCATION LAW
    16.601 Eligibility for Special Education and Related Services
    16.602 Parental Rights and the Definition of “Parent.”
    16.603 Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE)
    16.604 From Child Find to Eligibility
    16.605 The Individualized Education Program (IEP) and IEP Team
    16.606 The Role of Parental Consent
    16.607 Placement
    16.608 Disputes

16.7 DISCIPLINE OF STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES
    16.701 In General
    16.702 Disciplinary Changes in Placement
    16.703 Manifestation Determination Review (MDR)
    16.704 Services During Removal
    16.705 Weapons, Drugs, Serious Bodily Injuries
    16.706 Disciplining Students Not Yet Found Eligible for Special Education
    16.707 Dispute Resolution/Challenging the MDR Decision

16.8 SECTION 504 OF THE REHABILITATION ACT

CHAPTER 17: USING EDUCATIONAL LAW TO CREATE BETTER
OUTCOMES IN JUVENILE CASES
  (back to top)

17.1 INTRODUCTION

17.2 COMMUNICATION BETWEEN SCHOOL AND COURT

17.3 INTAKE, DETENTION, AND OTHER PRELIMINARY MATTERS
    17.301 Introduction
    17.302 Jurisdiction
    17.303 Understanding a Child’s School Status at Intake
    17.304 Education Services When Child Is Detained
    17.305 Education Factors in Competency Determination

17.4 ADJUDICATION
    17.401 Preliminary (Pre-Adjudication) Matters
    17.402 Trial
    17.403 Probation Violations for Failure to Attend School

17.5 DISPOSITIONAL ALTERNATIVES
    17.501 General Considerations
    17.502 Formulating a Disposition Plan
    17.503 Evidence in the Disposition Hearing
    17.504 Follow-Up When the Court Orders Participation in Educational
    Programming for the Child

17.6 REENTRY INTO EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS

17.7 ATTENDANCE AND TRUANCY
    17.701 Introduction
    17.702 Compulsory Attendance Requirements
    17.703 Truancy and the CHINSup Petition
    17.704 Diversion
    17.705 Adjudication
    17.706 Disposition
    17.707 Violation of Court Order to Go to School (Pre- or Post-Disposition)
    17.708 Dispositional Alternatives

17.8 EDUCATIONAL RIGHTS OF YOUTH IN FOSTER CARE OR
KINSHIP CARE
    17.801 Children in Foster Care
    17.802 Students Living with Non-Parent Relatives

17.9 ORDERING EDUCATIONAL SERVICES

CHAPTER 18: THE COMPREHENSIVE SERVICES ACT, PETITIONS FOR
SERVICES, AND OTHER PROCEEDINGS
  (back to top)

18.1 THE COMPREHENSIVE SERVICES ACT FOR AT-RISK YOUTH
AND FAMILIES
    18.101 Background and Importance
    18.102 Structure
    18.103 Eligibility for Services
    18.104 Attorney’s Role in Obtaining Services
    18.105 Court’s Authority to Order Services Contrary to FAPT and CPMT
    Recommendation

18.2 JUDICIAL PROCEEDINGS TO ORDER SERVICES
    18.201 History of Section 16.1-278 of the Virginia Code
    18.202 Jurisdiction and Scope
    18.203 Examples of Proceedings to Order Services

18.3 ORDERING MEDICAL TREATMENT
    18.301 Emergency Medical Treatment
    18.302 Authorization of Abortion Without Parental Consent
    18.303 Other Medical Treatment or Examination
    18.304 Role of Guardian Ad Litem

18.4 EMANCIPATION
    18.401 Statutory Proceedings
    18.402 Effects of Order
    18.403 Common Law Emancipation

18.5 CONFIDENTIALITY OF JUVENILE RECORDS AND PROCEEDINGS
    18.501 In General
    18.502 Police Records
    18.503 Juvenile Court and Related Records
    18.504 Confidentiality of Proceedings
    18.505 Confidentiality of Department of Juvenile Justice Records
    18.506 Effects of Juvenile Adjudication
    18.507 Expungement
    18.508 Reports to School Authorities
    18.509 DNA Testing
    18.510 Criminal Street Gang Reporting
    18.511 Sex Offender Registration

18.6 STANDBY GUARDIANSHIP

APPENDIX 18-1 DC-550 PETITION REQUESTING AUTHORIZATION FOR
MEDICAL TREATMENT OF JUVENILE

APPENDIX 18-2 DC-551 ORDER AUTHORIZING MEDICAL TREATMENT OF
JUVENILE

APPENDIX 18-3 DC-503 PETITION FOR COURT APPROVAL OF STANDBY
GUARDIAN

APPENDIX 18-4 DC-504 NOTICE OF PETITION FOR COURT APPROVAL OF
STANDBY GUARDIAN

APPENDIX 18-5 DC-505 ORDER APPROVING STANDBY GUARDIAN

APPENDIX 18-6 DC-506 NOTICE OF REVOCATION/STATEMENT OF REFUSAL—
STANDBY GUARDIAN

APPENDIX 18-7 DC-502A PETITION FOR JUDICIAL AUTHORIZATION OF
ABORTION

APPENDIX 18-8 DC-502B ADVISEMENT OF RIGHT TO COUNSEL

APPENDIX 18-9 DC-502C ACKNOWLEDGEMENT OF RIGHT TO COUNSEL
AND APPOINTMENT OF COUNSEL

APPENDIX 18-10 DC-502D ORDER IN PROCEEDING FOR JUDICIAL
AUTHORIZATION OF ABORTION

APPENDIX 18-11 DC-502E NOTICE OF APPEAL—JUDICIAL AUTHORIZATION
OF ABORTION

TABLE OF AUTHORITIES

INDEX

Authors

Editors

Andrew K. Block, Jr.

Angela A. Ciolfi

Authors

Robin L. Foster, M.D.

William B. Reichhardt

Lelia Baum Hopper

Emily SuskiKathleen Kemp

Adrienne E. VolenikMary E. Langer

Daniel C. Murrie Julie E. McConnell

Hon. Ashley Keesee Tunner

Hon. Frank W. Somerville

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