Virginia Family Law: A Systematic Approach

Virginia Family Law: A Systematic Approach law book
Publication Date: November 2015
Electronic Forms: 212
Available Formats: Print (1,010 pages, softcover, 2 volumes)
  Electronic (searchable PDF via flash drive, CD, or immediate download)
  Both Print and Electronic formats
Product #: 871

Information

Virginia Family Law Content Highlights:
  • Divorce
  • Annulment
  • Pretrial Diversion by the Court
  • Spousal Support
  • Child Support
  • Property
  • Information Gathering and Discovery
  • Child Custody and Visitation
  • Domestic Violence
  • Trial Preparation and Trial
  • Enforcement and Modification of Orders and Decrees
  • Interstate Divorce and Support Cases

2016 Edition In Production. Purchase the current edition today and receive the 2016 edition without charge when published.

"I wrote this family law book for Virginia attorneys to fill the need for a practice-oriented resource that integrates the legal, procedural and ethical requirements faced by family law practitioners every day. Basic family law principles found in Virginia statutes and appellate opinions are very succinctly stated. Equal attention is paid to the procedural requirements that govern court proceedings. Of most use to family law practitioners are the more than 200 forms that practitioners can use when they need to file their clients’ cases in court. "

- University of Virginia School of Law Professor Richard Balnave, author

This book for Virginia attorneys emphasizes the “how to” aspects of practicing family law in Virginia. It follows the time line of how real cases develop – interviewing of the client and collecting information, assessing the client’s claims or defenses, determining which courts may be able to hear the client’s case, identifying jurisdictional, venue and notice requirements, preparing pleadings, motions, and discovery requests, preparing for court hearings, drafting final orders and decrees and finally concluding the representation. Professor Balnave's practical analysis is complemented by well over 200 forms for pleadings, orders, and correspondence.

This 2015 edition of Virginia Family Law covers published appellate opinions through October 2015, including recent opinions dealing with equitable distribution of property, spousal and child support, and pleading requirements in divorce litigation. Both the text and forms also have been updated to reflect amendments to the Virginia Code in several areas, such as the duration of support obligations and the adoption of adoption of a newer version of UIFSA, governing the interstate and international enforcement of support obligations.


Table of Contents

CHAPTER LIST

1. Forming The Attorney-Client Relationship

2. Divorce

3. Annulment

4. Pretrial Diversion By The Court

5. Information-Gathering And Discovery

6. Spousal Support And Child Support

7. Property

8. Child Custody And Visitation

9. Domestic Violence

10. Trial Preparation And Trial

11. Enforcement And Modification Of Orders And Decrees

12. Interstate Divorce Jurisdiction

13. Interstate Support Cases

14. Interstate Child Custody Cases

15. Concluding Representation

Volume 1


CHAPTER 1: FORMING THE ATTORNEY-CLIENT RELATIONSHIP


1.1 INITIAL CONTACT
    1.101 Checking for Conflicts of Interest
    1.102 Prospective Clients and Conflicts of Interest
    1.103 Setting an Initial Appointment
    
1.2 INITIAL INTERVIEW

1.3 ACCEPTING OR DECLINING REPRESENTATION
    1.301 General Considerations
    1.302 Ethical Considerations
    1.303 Declining Representation
    1.304 Accepting Representation
    1.305 Fee Agreements

1.4 EXPLAINING THE NEXT STEPS TO A CLIENT
    1.401 In General
    1.402 Information Resources for Clients
    1.403 Gathering Information from a Client

APPENDIX 1-1: CONFLICT OF INTEREST DATA FORM

APPENDIX 1-2: NEW CLIENT INQUIRY

APPENDIX 1-3: LETTER TO CLIENT DECLINING REPRESENTATION

APPENDIX 1-4: LETTER TO CLIENT REGARDING SCOPE OF REPRESENTATION

APPENDIX 1-5: AVAILABILITY RETAINER

APPENDIX 1-6: FEE AGREEMENT—SHORT FORM

APPENDIX 1-7: FEE AGREEMENT—LONG FORM

APPENDIX 1-8: COMPREHENSIVE INFORMATION FORM


CHAPTER 2: DIVORCE

2.1 INTRODUCTION

2.2 JURISDICTION
    2.201 Circuit Court
    2.202 Residence and Domicile Requirements
    2.203 In Rem Jurisdiction and In Personam Jurisdiction
    2.204 Personal Jurisdiction
    2.205 In Rem Jurisdiction

2.3 VENUE
    2.301 Preferred Venue
    2.302 Objection and Transfer

2.4 SPECIAL PARTIES
    2.401 Person Under a Disability
    2.402 Military Personnel

2.5 PRO BONO LEGAL ASSISTANCE
    2.501 Waiving Fees and Costs
    2.502 Dispensing with Publication in Newspaper
    2.503 Costs of Guardian ad Litem

2.6 DIVORCE FROM BED AND BOARD (A MENSA ET THORO)
    2.601 Grounds
    2.602 When to Seek Divorce from Bed and Board
    2.603 Legal Effects of Divorce from Bed and Board
    2.604 Pleading
    2.605 Confidential Information and Separate Addenda

2.7 PENDENTE LITE RELIEF
    2.701 What Relief Is Available?
    2.702 Procedure

2.8 DIVORCE—FINAL
    2.801 Complaint
    2.802 Grounds for Final Divorce
    2.803 Answer
    2.804 Defenses
    2.805 Counterclaim
    2.806 Answer to Counterclaim

2.9 MOTIONS

2.10 INFORMATION-GATHERING AND DISCOVERY

2.11 ARRANGING FOR AN EVIDENTIARY HEARING

2.12 MOVING FROM A BED AND BOARD DIVORCE TO A FINAL DIVORCE
    2.1201 Merger of Bed and Board Decree into Final Decree
    2.1202 When No Bed and Board Decree Was Entered
    2.1203 Without Amended Bill or Amended Counterclaim

2.13 DIVORCE DECREES—FINAL (A VINCULO MATRIMONII)
    2.1301 Parts of a Decree
    2.1302 Forms
    2.1303 Presentation of Decree
    2.1304 60-Day Deadline for Decision

APPENDIX 2-1: COURT FORMS

APPENDIX 2-2: RETURN OF SERVICE BY PRIVATE PROCESS SERVER

APPENDIX 2-3: ACCEPTANCE OF SERVICE OF PROCESS

APPENDIX 2-4: ACCEPTANCE OF SERVICE OF PROCESS AND WAIVER OF FUTURE SERVICE OF PROCESS AND NOTICE

APPENDIX 2-5: WAIVER OF SERVICE OF PROCESS AND NOTICE

APPENDIX 2-6: NOTICE OF PENDING PROCEEDING

APPENDIX 2-7: PLEADING LONG-ARM JURISDICTION

APPENDIX 2-8: LETTER TO SHERIFF IN ANOTHER STATE

APPENDIX 2-9: PROOF OF SERVICE BY LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICER IN ANOTHER STATE

APPENDIX 2-10: AFFIDAVIT FOR SERVICE BY PUBLICATION—DEFENDANT’S WHEREABOUTS UNKNOWN

APPENDIX 2-11: AFFIDAVIT FOR SERVICE BY PUBLICATION—SHERIFF UNABLE TO SERVE

APPENDIX 2-12: AFFIDAVIT FOR SERVICE BY PUBLICATION—OUT OF STATE DEFENDANT

APPENDIX 2-13: ORDER OF PUBLICATION

APPENDIX 2-14: AFFIDAVIT OF NEWSPAPER PUBLISHER

APPENDIX 2-15: LETTER TO COUNSEL REGARDING OBJECTION TO VENUE

APPENDIX 2-16: MOTION TO TRANSFER (OBJECTION TO VENUE)

APPENDIX 2-17: ORDER TO TRANSFER—BY AGREEMENT

APPENDIX 2-18: MOTION FOR APPOINTMENT OF GUARDIAN AD LITEM FOR A PERSON UNDER A DISABILITY

APPENDIX 2-19: ORDER APPOINTING GUARDIAN AD LITEM FOR A PERSON UNDER A DISABILITY

APPENDIX 2-20: AFFIDAVIT REGARDING MILITARY SERVICE

APPENDIX 2-21: LETTER TO MILITARY LEGAL OFFICER

APPENDIX 2-22: WAIVER OF RIGHTS UNDER THE SERVICEMEMBERS CIVIL RELIEF ACT AND ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF MILITARY LEGAL OFFICER

APPENDIX 2-23: MOTION FOR APPOINTMENT OF ATTORNEY FOR MILITARY SERVICE PERSON

APPENDIX 2-24: ORDER APPOINTING ATTORNEY FOR MILITARY SERVICE PERSON

APPENDIX 2-25: MOTION FOR WAIVER OF FEES AND COSTS

APPENDIX 2-26: AFFIDAVIT OF INDIGENCE

APPENDIX 2-27: ORDER WAIVING FEES AND COSTS

APPENDIX 2-28: MOTION FOR LEAVE OF COURT TO NOTIFY DEFENDANT BY MAIL AND POSTING

APPENDIX 2-29: ORDER PROVIDING NOTICE BY MAIL AND POSTING

APPENDIX 2-30: ORDER APPOINTING GUARDIAN AD LITEM (PRO BONO)

APPENDIX 2-31: NOTICE OF PENDENTE LITE HEARING

APPENDIX 2-32: PLAINTIFF’S COMPLAINT FOR DIVORCE A MENSA ET THORO

APPENDIX 2-33: DEFENDANT’S ANSWER AND COUNTERCLAIM

APPENDIX 2-34: PLAINTIFF’S ANSWER TO DEFENDANT’S COUNTERCLAIM

APPENDIX 2-35: DECREE OF DIVORCE A MENSA ET THORO

APPENDIX 2-36: MOTION FOR PENDENTE LITE RELIEF (COSTS AND ATTORNEY FEES)

APPENDIX 2-37: ORDER GRANTING PENDENTE LITE RELIEF (COSTS AND ATTORNEY FEES)

APPENDIX 2-38: PENDENTE LITE ORDER

APPENDIX 2-39: CONFIDENTIAL INFORMATION ADDENDUM

APPENDIX 2-40: PENDENTE LITE ORDER—SPOUSAL SUPPORT

APPENDIX 2-41: INCOME DEDUCTION ORDER

APPENDIX 2-42: COMPLAINT (SIX-MONTH SEPARATION) INCORPORATING AGREEMENT

APPENDIX 2-43: COMPLAINT (ONE-YEAR SEPARATION) INCORPORATING AGREEMENT

APPENDIX 2-44: COMPLAINT PLEADING OTHER GROUNDS

APPENDIX 2-45A: PLEADING ADULTERY

APPENDIX 2-45B: PLEADING FELONY CONVICTION AND CONFINEMENT

APPENDIX 2-45C: PLEADING CRUELTY

APPENDIX 2-45D: PLEADING DESERTION OR ABANDONMENT

APPENDIX 2-46A: ANSWER—PLEADING CONDONATION

APPENDIX 2-46B: ANSWER—PLEADING RECRIMINATION

APPENDIX 2-46C: ANSWER—PLEADING JUSTIFICATION FOR LEAVING

APPENDIX 2-46D: ANSWER—PLEADING CONNIVANCE

APPENDIX 2-47: NOTICE OF MOTION—GENERAL

APPENDIX 2-48: MOTION FOR EXTENSION OF TIME TO FILE PLEADINGS

APPENDIX 2-49: ORDER GRANTING EXTENSION OF TIME TO FILE PLEADINGS

APPENDIX 2-50: MOTION FOR LEAVE OF COURT TO FILE LATE PLEADING

APPENDIX 2-51: ORDER PERMITTING THE LATE FILING

APPENDIX 2-52: DEMURRER

APPENDIX 2-53: ORDER OVERRULING DEMURRER

APPENDIX 2-54: ORDER GRANTING DEMURRER

APPENDIX 2-55: MOTION TO AMEND PLEADING

APPENDIX 2-56: ORDER PERMITTING AMENDMENT OF PLEADING

APPENDIX 2-57: MOTION TO CONSOLIDATE

APPENDIX 2-58: ORDER OF CONSOLIDATION

APPENDIX 2-59: NOTICE OF DEPOSITION

APPENDIX 2-60: DECREE OF REFERENCE TO COMMISSIONER IN CHANCERY

APPENDIX 2-61: REQUEST TO SCHEDULE CIVIL TRIAL

APPENDIX 2-62: PETITION FOR MERGER OF DECREE OF DIVORCE A MENSA ET
THORO INTO A DECREE OF DIVORCE A VINCULO MATRIMONII

APPENDIX 2-63: NOTICE OF PETITION FOR MERGER

APPENDIX 2-64: DECREE OF DIVORCE A VINCULO MATRIMONII UPON PETITION FOR MERGER WITH DECREE OF DIVORCE A MENSA ET THORO

APPENDIX 2-65: MOTION FOR DECREE OF DIVORCE PURSUANT TO SECTION 20-121.01 OF THE VIRGINIA CODE

APPENDIX 2-66: MOTION FOR DECREE OF DIVORCE PURSUANT TO SECTION 20-121.02 OF THE VIRGINIA CODE

APPENDIX 2-67: DECREE—SEPARATION OF ONE YEAR

APPENDIX 2-68A: DECREE—SEPARATION OF SIX MONTHS

APPENDIX 2-68B: DECREE—ADULTERY

APPENDIX 2-68C: DECREE—CRUELTY OR CONSTRUCTIVE DESERTION

APPENDIX 2-68D: DECREE—DESERTION OR ABANDONMENT

APPENDIX 2-68E: DECREE—CONVICTION OF A FELONY AND SENTENCE OF CONFINEMENT

APPENDIX 2-69: ORDER FOR CHANGE OF NAME

APPENDIX 2-70: NOTICE OF PRESENTATION OF DECREE

APPENDIX 2-71: FINAL DECREE OF DIVORCE

APPENDIX 2-72: CHECKLIST FOR AFFIDAVITS IN SUPPORT OF UNCONTESTED DIVORCE


CHAPTER 3: ANNULMENT

3.1 ANNULMENT AND ITS EFFECTS

3.2 WHY SEEK AN ANNULMENT?

3.3 GROUNDS AND DEFENSES

3.4 PROCEDURE

3.5 ANNULMENT FORMS

APPENDIX 3-1: COMPLAINT FOR ANNULMENT

APPENDIX 3-2: DECREE OF ANNULMENT


CHAPTER 4: PRETRIAL DIVERSION BY THE COURT

4.1 INTRODUCTION

4.2 COURT’S AUTHORITY TO REFER THE PARTIES

4.3 REFERRAL TO MEDIATION AND OTHER TYPES OF ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION

4.4 REFERRAL TO EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS

APPENDIX 4-1: COURT FORMS

APPENDIX 4-2: LETTER TO CLIENT CONCERNING MEDIATION

APPENDIX 4-3: ORDER OF REFERENCE—GENERAL

APPENDIX 4-4: OBJECTION TO REFERRAL TO DISPUTE RESOLUTION ORIENTATION

APPENDIX 4-5: MOTION TO QUASH SUBPOENA

APPENDIX 4-6: ORDER QUASHING SUBPOENA

APPENDIX 4-7: LETTER TO CLIENT CONCERNING EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS

APPENDIX 4-8: ORDER OF DESIGNATION AND REFERRAL TO SETTLEMENT CONFERENCE


CHAPTER 5: INFORMATION-GATHERING AND DISCOVERY


5.1 INTRODUCTION

5.2 INFORMAL INFORMATION-GATHERING

5.3 DISCOVERY
    5.301 In General
    5.302 Depositions
    5.303 Interrogatories
    5.304 Production of Documents or Things
    5.305 Physical and Mental Examinations
    5.306 Evaluation by Vocational Expert
    5.307 Requests for Admissions
    5.308 Protecting Information from Discovery
    5.309 Enforcing Discovery
    5.310 Discovery in the Juvenile and Domestic Relations District Court

5.4 PROFESSIONALISM

APPENDIX 5-1: COURT FORMS

APPENDIX 5-2: CLIENT AUTHORIZATION FOR RELEASE OF INFORMATION—GENERAL

APPENDIX 5-3: CLIENT AUTHORIZATION FOR RELEASE OF FINANCIAL INFORMATION

APPENDIX 5-4: CLIENT AUTHORIZATION FOR RELEASE OF VIRGINIA TAX INFORMATION

APPENDIX 5-5: REQUEST FOR COPY OR TRANSCRIPT OF TAX FORM—FEDERAL

APPENDIX 5-6: CLIENT AUTHORIZATION FOR RELEASE OF INFORMATION BY THE DIVISION OF CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT

APPENDIX 5-7: LETTER REQUESTING HEALTH RECORDS

APPENDIX 5-8: AUTHORIZATION TO RELEASE CONFIDENTIAL HEALTH RECORDS

APPENDIX 5-9: REQUEST FOR COPY OF CRIMINAL CONVICTION

APPENDIX 5-10: CLIENT AUTHORIZATION FOR RELEASE OF INFORMATION BY PREVIOUS ATTORNEY

APPENDIX 5-11: NOTICE OF DEPOSITION

APPENDIX 5-12: PLAINTIFF’S OR DEFENDANT’S FIRST INTERROGATORIES

APPENDIX 5-13: ANSWERS AND OBJECTIONS TO INTERROGATORIES

APPENDIX 5-14: OATH TO ANSWERS TO INTERROGATORIES

APPENDIX 5-15: MOTION FOR LEAVE OF COURT TO SERVE MORE THAN THIRTY INTERROGATORIES

APPENDIX 5-16: ORDER GRANTING LEAVE OF COURT TO SERVE MORE THAN THIRTY INTERROGATORIES

APPENDIX 5-17: LETTER TO CLIENT CONCERNING INTERROGATORIES

APPENDIX 5-18: REQUEST FOR SUPPLEMENTATION OF ANSWERS TO INTERROGATORIES

APPENDIX 5-19: SUPPLEMENTAL ANSWERS TO INTERROGATORIES

APPENDIX 5-20: FIRST REQUEST FOR PRODUCTION OF DOCUMENTS

APPENDIX 5-21: RESPONSE TO REQUEST FOR PRODUCTION

APPENDIX 5-22: REQUEST FOR SUBPOENA DUCES TECUM

APPENDIX 5-23: NOTICE TO HEALTH CARE ENTITY PURSUANT TO SECTION 32.1-127.1:03 OF THE VIRGINIA CODE

APPENDIX 5-24: NOTICE TO INDIVIDUAL PURSUANT TO SECTION 32.1-127.1:03 OF THE VIRGINIA CODE

APPENDIX 5-25: CERTIFICATION—NO MOTION TO QUASH FILED

APPENDIX 5-26: CERTIFICATION—

APPENDIX 5-27: APPLICATION FOR DISCLOSURE OF SUBSTANCE ABUSE RECORDS

APPENDIX 5-28: ORDER FOR DISCLOSURE OF SUBSTANCE ABUSE RECORDS

APPENDIX 5-29: MOTION FOR MENTAL EXAMINATION

APPENDIX 5-30: ORDER FOR PHYSICAL OR MENTAL EXAMINATION

APPENDIX 5-31: REQUEST FOR ADMISSIONS

APPENDIX 5-32: RESPONSE TO REQUEST FOR ADMISSIONS

APPENDIX 5-33: MOTION TO QUASH SUBPOENA DUCES TECUM

APPENDIX 5-34: ORDER QUASHING SUBPOENA DUCES TECUM

APPENDIX 5-35: MOTION TO QUASH OR MODIFY SUBPOENA DUCES TECUM

APPENDIX 5-36: ORDER MODIFYING SUBPOENA DUCES TECUM

APPENDIX 5-37: MOTION FOR PROTECTIVE ORDER

APPENDIX 5-38: PROTECTIVE ORDER

APPENDIX 5-39: MOTION TO COMPEL

APPENDIX 5-40: ORDER  

APPENDIX 5-41: MOTION TO COMPEL ANSWERS TO DEPOSITION QUESTIONS

APPENDIX 5-42: ORDER

APPENDIX 5-43: MOTION FOR SANCTIONS

APPENDIX 5-44: ORDER IMPOSING SANCTIONS

APPENDIX 5-45: MOTION FOR LEAVE OF COURT TO SERVE INTERROGATORIES—JUVENILE AND DOMESTIC RELATIONS DISTRICT COURT

APPENDIX 5-46: ORDER PERMITTING INTERROGATORIES—JUVENILE AND DOMESTIC RELATIONS DISTRICT COURT


CHAPTER 6: SPOUSAL SUPPORT AND CHILD SUPPORT

6.1 INTRODUCTION

6.2 JURISDICTION
    6.201 Juvenile and Domestic Relations District Court
    6.202 Circuit Court
    6.203 Concurrent Jurisdiction
    6.204 Division of Child Support Enforcement

6.3 VENUE
    6.301 Juvenile and Domestic Relations District Court
    6.302 Circuit Court

6.4 PLEADING
    6.401 Juvenile and Domestic Relations District Court
    6.402 Circuit Court

6.5 SERVICE OF PROCESS AND NOTICE
    6.501 In General
    6.502 Juvenile and Domestic Relations District Court
    6.503 Circuit Court

6.6 INFORMATION-GATHERING AND DISCOVERY

6.7 SPOUSAL SUPPORT AND MAINTENANCE
    6.701 Sequence of Determining Issues
    6.702 When Spousal Support May Be Granted
    6.703 Eligibility
    6.704 Factors to Consider in Awarding Support
    6.706 Written Findings of the Court
    6.707 Reservation of Right to Seek Support

6.8 CHILD SUPPORT
    6.801 Sequence of Determining Issues
    6.802 Persons Liable for Child Support
    6.803 Duration of Child Support Obligation
    6.804 Child Support Guidelines
    6.805 Determining Amount of Child Support Award

6.9 PENDENTE LITE RELIEF

6.10 ORDERS AND DECREES
    6.1001 Required Information and Notices
    6.1002 60-Day Deadline for Decision
    6.1003 Payroll Deduction Orders
    6.1004 Child Income Tax Dependency Exemption Allocation
    6.1005 Spousal Support Awards
    6.1006 Qualified Medical Child Support Orders (QMCSO)
    6.1007 Attorney Fees

6.11 APPEALS FROM THE JUVENILE AND DOMESTIC RELATIONS DISTRICT COURT

APPENDIX 6-1: COURT FORMS

APPENDIX 6-2: COMPLAINT FOR SEPARATE MAINTENANCE

APPENDIX 6-3: INCOME AND EXPENSE STATEMENT

APPENDIX 6-4: ORDER OF SUPPORT: CHILD AND SPOUSAL SUPPORT

APPENDIX 6-5: ORDER OF SUPPORT: SPOUSAL SUPPORT ONLY

APPENDIX 6-6: CHILD INCOME TAX DEPENDENCY EXEMPTION ALLOCATION

APPENDIX 6-7: IRS FORM 8332

APPENDIX 6-8: RESERVATION OF SPOUSAL SUPPORT: PRESUMED 50-PERCENT DURATION

APPENDIX 6-9: RESERVATION OF SPOUSAL SUPPORT: REBUTTING PRESUMED 50-PERCENT DURATION

APPENDIX 6-10: AWARDING SPOUSAL SUPPORT: PERIODIC (UNDEFINED DURATION)

APPENDIX 6-11: AWARDING SPOUSAL SUPPORT: LUMP SUM

APPENDIX 6-12: AWARDING SPOUSAL SUPPORT: PERIODIC (DEFINED DURATION—REHABILITATIVE—DEFINED BY DATE)

APPENDIX 6-13: AWARDING SPOUSAL SUPPORT: PERIODIC (DEFINED DURATION—REHABILITATIVE—DEFINED BY EVENT)

APPENDIX 6-14: QUALIFIED MEDICAL CHILD SUPPORT ORDER (QMCSO)

INDEX

Volume 2


CHAPTER 7: PROPERTY

7.1 IN GENERAL

7.2 INFORMATION-GATHERING AND DISCOVERY

7.3 PRELIMINARY REQUIREMENTS
    7.301 Decree of Dissolution or Divorce
    7.302 Request for Equitable Distribution
    7.303 Retention of Jurisdiction
    7.304 Meaning of “Equitable”
    
7.4 CLASSIFICATION OF PROPERTY
    7.401 In General
    7.402 Separate Property and Separate Debt
    7.403 Marital Property and Marital Debt
    7.404 Hybrid Property
    7.405 Burden of Proof

7.5 DETERMINING TITLE, OWNERSHIP, VALUE, RIGHTS, AND INTERESTS
    7.501 In General
    7.502 Valuation

7.6 TRIAL PREPARATION
    7.601 Evidentiary Requirements
    7.602 Organizing Exhibits
    7.603 Summary of Property for the Court

7.7 FACTORS THE COURT MUST CONSIDER
    7.701 In General
    7.702 Marital Misconduct
    7.703 Nonmonetary Contributions
    7.704 Tax Consequences
    7.705 Waste or Dissipation of Marital Property

7.8 REMEDIES
    7.801 In General
    7.802 Division or Transfer of Property
    7.803 Monetary Award
    7.804 Personal Injury or Workers’ Compensation Award

7.9 PENSION-BASED AWARDS
    7.901 In General
    7.902 Qualified Domestic Relations Orders
    7.903 Authority to Distribute
    7.904 Marital Share
    7.905 Steps to Take
    7.906 Virginia Retirement System
    7.907 Military Retirement Benefits

7.10 FINDINGS FOR THE RECORD

7.11 AGREEMENTS
    7.1101 In General
    7.1102 Marital Agreements
    7.1103 Premarital Agreements

7.12 SUPPORT AWARDS FOLLOW EQUITABLE DISTRIBUTION

APPENDIX 7-1: LETTER TO CLIENT

APPENDIX 7-2: PROPERTY INVENTORY

APPENDIX 7-3: MOTION TO BIFURCATE DIVORCE

APPENDIX 7-4: AGREEMENT (BIFURCATION)

APPENDIX 7-5: BRANDENBURG/HART FORMULA WORKSHEET

APPENDIX 7-6: LETTER TO APPRAISER

APPENDIX 7-7: MOTION FOR DIFFERENT VALUATION DATE

APPENDIX 7-8: ORDER

APPENDIX 7-9: MASTER LIST OF TRIAL EXHIBITS

APPENDIX 7-10: SUMMARY OF PROPERTY


CHAPTER 8: CHILD CUSTODY AND VISITATION

8.1 INTRODUCTION
    8.101 Advising Client About Child Custody Disputes
    8.102 Resources
    8.103 Seminars and Educational Programs

8.2 JURISDICTION
    8.201 Juvenile and Domestic Relations District Court
    8.202 Circuit Court
    8.203 Concurrent Jurisdiction
    
8.3 VENUE
    8.301 Juvenile and Domestic Relations District Court
    8.302 Circuit Court

8.4 TYPES OF CUSTODY
    8.401 In General
    8.402 Sole Custody
    8.403 Joint Custody
    8.404 Shared Custody
    8.405 Split Custody
    8.406 Divided Custody

8.5 FACTORS FOR THE COURT TO CONSIDER

8.6 PARTIES AND BURDEN OF PROOF
    8.601 “Person with a Legitimate Interest”
    8.602 Mother Versus Father
    8.603 Parents Versus Third Parties
    8.604 Parents Versus the Department of Social Services

8.7 INFORMATION-GATHERING
    8.701 Information Needed
    8.702 Sources of Information

8.8 PLEADING
    8.801 Juvenile and Domestic Relations District Court
    8.802 Circuit Court

8.9 SERVICE OF PROCESS
    8.901 In Virginia
    8.902 In Another State

8.10 GUARDIAN AD LITEM
    8.1001 Appointment
    8.1002 Duties

8.11 COURT-APPOINTED SPECIAL ADVOCATE
    8.1101 In General
    8.1102 Duties
    8.1103 Access to Information

8.12 PENDENTE LITE RELIEF

8.13 DISCOVERY
    8.1301 In General
    8.1302 Access to Health Information
    8.1303 Pretrial Evaluations

8.14 ADJUDICATION
    8.1401 Standards of Proof
    8.1402 Evidentiary Issues

8.15 ORDERS AND DECREES
    8.1501 In General
    8.1502 60-Day Deadline for Decision
    8.1503 Orders Regarding Custody and Visitation
    8.1504 Order Requiring Notice of Relocation
    8.1505 Orders Regarding Special Issues

8.16 POST-DECREE
    8.1601 Access to Records
    8.1602 Participation in School Activities
    8.1603 Enforcement
    8.1604 Modification

8.17 STANDBY GUARDIANSHIP
    8.1701 In General
    8.1702 Juvenile and Domestic Relations District Court
    8.1703 Circuit Court

APPENDIX 8-1: COURT FORMS

APPENDIX 8-2: AFFIDAVIT—UCCJEA (COMPUTER GENERATED

APPENDIX 8-3: INTERROGATORIES—CHILD CUSTODY AND VISITATION

APPENDIX 8-4: LETTER TO CLIENT REGARDING CUSTODY EVALUATION

APPENDIX 8-5: CLAUSE GRANTING SOLE CUSTODY—LIBERAL VISITATION BY AGREEMENT

APPENDIX 8-6: CLAUSE GRANTING SOLE CUSTODY—SPECIFIED VISITATION

APPENDIX 8-7: CLAUSE GRANTING SPLIT CUSTODY—LIBERAL VISITATION BY AGREEMENT

APPENDIX 8-8: CLAUSE GRANTING JOINT CUSTODY—SHARED DECISION-MAKING

APPENDIX 8-9: CLAUSE GRANTING JOINT CUSTODY—NO SHARED DECISION-MAKING

APPENDIX 8-10: CLAUSE REQUIRING NOTICE OF RELOCATION

APPENDIX 8-11A: CLAUSE GRANTING ACCESS TO INFORMATION ABOUT CHILD

APPENDIX 8-11B: CLAUSE CONCERNING PARTICIPATION IN THE CHILD’S ACTIVITIES

APPENDIX 8-11C: CLAUSE RESTRICTING ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION

APPENDIX 8-11D: CLAUSE RESTRICTING SEXUAL CONDUCT

APPENDIX 8-11E: CLAUSE RESTRICTING TRAVEL WITH CHILD

APPENDIX 8-12: LETTER TO PRINCIPAL


CHAPTER 9: DOMESTIC VIOLENCE

9.1 INTRODUCTION

9.2 RELIEF AVAILABLE FROM THE CIRCUIT COURT

9.3 RELIEF AVAILABLE FROM THE JUVENILE AND DOMESTIC RELATIONS DISTRICT COURT
    9.301 Introduction
    9.302 Definitions
    9.303 Emergency Protective Orders
    9.304 Preliminary Protective Orders—Family Abuse
    9.305 Full Protective Orders—Family Abuse
    9.306 Child’s Preliminary Protective Order
    9.307 Confidentiality

9.4 SPECIAL RULES OF EVIDENCE
    9.401 Admission of Medical Records
    9.402 Child’s Statement or Testimony

9.5 CHILD CUSTODY AND SUPPORT DOCUMENTS

9.6 EXCLUDING ONE FROM THE RESIDENCE–THE EFFECT ON PROPERTY RIGHTS

APPENDIX 9-1: COURT FORMS

APPENDIX 9-2: COMPLAINT

APPENDIX 9-3: MOTION FOR TEMPORARY RELIEF

APPENDIX 9-4: ORDER PROTECTING PLAINTIFF

APPENDIX 9-5: NOTICE PURSUANT TO SECTION 16.1-245.1 OF THE VIRGINIA CODE

APPENDIX 9-6: CERTIFICATE OF AUTHENTICITY—DOCTOR OR OTHER HEALTH CARE PROVIDER

APPENDIX 9-7: CERTIFICATE OF AUTHENTICITY—LAB ANALYST

APPENDIX 9-8: CERTIFICATE OF AUTHENTICITY—CUSTODIAN OF RECORDS


CHAPTER 10: TRIAL PREPARATION AND TRIAL

10.1 ORGANIZING TRIAL PREPARATION
    10.101 Analyzing Claims and Proof
    10.102 Proof Checklist

10.2 ASSISTANCE FROM OTHER PROFESSIONALS

10.3 PRETRIAL ORDERS AND CONFERENCES

10.4 WITNESSES AND EXHIBITS
    10.401 Securing Witnesses for Trial
    10.402 Securing Exhibits for Trial
    10.403 Forms for Attorney-Issued Subpoenas

10.5 TRIAL
    10.501 Stipulations
    10.502 Agreements Resolving the Issues
    10.503 Managing Exhibits
    10.504 Managing Witness Information
    10.505 Preserving Issues for Appeal
    10.506 Protecting Private Information with Separate Addenda

APPENDIX 10-1: COURT FORMS

APPENDIX 10-2: TRIAL PREPARATION CHART

APPENDIX 10-3: AUTHORIZATION TO CONSULT WITH AND HIRE PROFESSIONALS

APPENDIX 10-4: UNIFORM PRETRIAL SCHEDULING ORDER

APPENDIX 10-5: PRETRIAL ORDER

APPENDIX 10-6: REQUEST FOR WITNESS SUBPOENA (CIRCUIT COURT)

APPENDIX 10-7: PROPOSED WITNESSES AND EXHIBITS

APPENDIX 10-8: OBJECTIONS TO PROPOSED WITNESSES AND EXHIBITS

APPENDIX 10-9: EXHIBITS CHART

APPENDIX 10-10: WITNESS CHART

APPENDIX 10-11: OBJECTIONS TO FINAL DECREE

APPENDIX 10-12: CHECKLIST OF INFORMATION TO BE PRESENTED TO THE COURT

APPENDIX 10-13: CHECKLIST: ATTORNEY-ISSUED SUBPOENAS

APPENDIX 10-14: TRANSMITTAL LETTER TO SHERIFF

APPENDIX 10-15: TRANSMITTAL CHECKLIST FOR ATTORNEY-ISSUED SUBPOENAS

APPENDIX 10-16: RETURN OF SERVICE BY PRIVATE PROCESS SERVER—SUBPOENA


CHAPTER 11: ENFORCEMENT AND MODIFICATION OF ORDERS AND
DECREES


11.1 INTRODUCTION

11.2 ENFORCEMENT: CONTEMPT OF COURT
    11.201 Jurisdiction
    11.202 Applicability
    11.203 Criminal Versus Civil Contempt
    11.204 Elements
    11.205 Defenses
    11.206 Procedures
    11.207 Forms

11.3 ENFORCEMENT: NONCONTEMPT REMEDIES
    11.301 In General
    11.302 Concurrent Remedies of Obligees and the Division of Child Support Enforcement
    11.303 Exclusive Remedies of the Division of Child Support Enforcement
    11.304 Property Decrees

11.4 MODIFICATION
    11.401 Child Custody and Visitation
    11.402 Child Support
    11.403 Spousal Support
    11.404 Property Decrees

APPENDIX 11-1: COURT FORMS

APPENDIX 11-2: MOTION FOR ORDER TO SHOW CAUSE (SUPPORT)

APPENDIX 11-3: ORDER TO SHOW CAUSE (SUPPORT)

APPENDIX 11-4: DECREE OF CIVIL CONTEMPT OF COURT (SUPPORT)

APPENDIX 11-5: PETITION FOR RULE TO SHOW CAUSE (VISITATION)

APPENDIX 11-6: ORDER TO SHOW CAUSE (VISITATION)

APPENDIX 11-7: DECREE OF CIVIL CONTEMPT OF COURT (VISITATION)

APPENDIX 11-8: NOTICE OF POSSIBLE SUSPENSION OF OCCUPATIONAL OR RECREATIONAL LICENSE TO ENFORCE CHILD SUPPORT OBLIGATION

APPENDIX 11-9: PETITION TO SUSPEND OCCUPATIONAL OR OTHER LICENSE

APPENDIX 11-10: ANSWER TO PETITION TO SUSPEND OCCUPATIONAL OR OTHER LICENSE

APPENDIX 11-11: ORDER SUSPENDING OCCUPATIONAL OR OTHER LICENSE

APPENDIX 11-12: ORDER OF REINSTATEMENT


CHAPTER 12: INTERSTATE DIVORCE JURISDICTION

12.1 INTRODUCTION
    12.101 A Defensive Perspective
    12.102 Migratory Marriages

12.2 THE CONSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK
    12.201 Due Process and the Full Faith and Credit Clause
    12.202 Applying the Principles

12.3 THE VIRGINIA LONG-ARM STATUTE
    12.301 Relationship with Constitutional Framework
    12.302 Long-Arm Jurisdiction in Domestic Relations Matters

12.4 STRATEGIES FOR REPRESENTING THE OUT-OF-STATE DEFENDANT
    12.401 Direct and Collateral Attack
    12.402 Challenging Plaintiff’s Domicile
    12.403 Challenging the Lack of Personal Jurisdiction over the Defendant
    12.404 Estoppel

APPENDIX 12-1: SPECIAL APPEARANCE; MOTION TO QUASH SERVICE OF PROCESS AND OBJECTION TO JURISDICTION


CHAPTER 13: INTERSTATE SUPPORT CASES

13.1 UNIFORM INTERSTATE FAMILY SUPPORT ACT
    13.101 Introduction
    13.102 Basic Principles and Design

13.2 CONTINUING, EXCLUSIVE JURISDICTION

13.3 DETERMINING THE CONTROLLING ORDER
    13.301 In General
    13.302 Basic Rules

13.4 LONG-ARM JURISDICTION
    13.401 More One-State Proceedings Allowed
    13.402 Bases for Exercise of Long-Arm Jurisdiction

13.5 GENERAL CIVIL PROVISIONS
    13.501 Action by Minor Parent
    13.502 Pleadings and Forms
    13.503 Procedure and Evidence

13.6 CHOICE OF LAW
    13.601 Introduction
    13.602 Choice of Law Rules
    13.603 Advising a Client
    
13.7 PARENTAGE PROCEEDINGS
    13.701 In General
    13.702 One-State Proceeding Exercising Long-Arm Jurisdiction
    13.703 Two-State Proceeding
    13.704 Parentage Previously Determined

13.8 ESTABLISHING A SUPPORT ORDER

13.9 SIMULTANEOUS PROCEEDINGS
    13.901 “Race to the Courthouse”
    13.902 Determining Which Tribunal Should Defer
    13.903 Advising the Client

13.10 ENFORCING SUPPORT ORDER WITHOUT REGISTRATION
    13.1001 Direct Interstate Enforcement of Income-Withholding Order
    13.1002 Direct Administrative Enforcement of Orders

13.11 ENFORCING SUPPORT ORDER AFTER REGISTRATION
    13.1101 In General
    13.1102 Procedures
    13.1103 Contest of Registered Order

13.12 MODIFICATION OF CHILD SUPPORT ORDERS
    13.1201 Continuing, Exclusive Jurisdiction to Modify
    13.1202 Registering a Child Support Order for Modification
    13.1203 Limitations on Jurisdiction to Modify Registered Order
    13.1204 Notice and Recognition of Modified Order

13.13 SPOUSAL SUPPORT ORDERS—MODIFICATION ONLY BY THE ISSUING TRIBUNAL

13.14 CRIMINAL PROSECUTION IN INTERSTATE CASES
    13.1401 State Prosecutions and Interstate Rendition
    13.1402 Federal Prosecution

APPENDIX 13-1: COURT FORMS

APPENDIX 13-2: CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT TRANSMITTAL #1—INITIAL REQUEST

APPENDIX 13-3: UNIFORM SUPPORT PETITION

APPENDIX 13-4: AFFIDAVIT IN SUPPORT OF ESTABLISHING PATERNITY

APPENDIX 13-5: GENERAL TESTIMONY

APPENDIX 13-6: CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT TRANSMITTAL #2—SUBSEQUENT ACTIONS

APPENDIX 13-7: CHILD SUPPORT ENFORCEMENT TRANSMITTAL #3—REQUEST FOR ASSISTANCE/DISCOVERY

APPENDIX 13-8: REGISTRATION STATEMENT

APPENDIX 13-9: NOTICE OF DETERMINATION OF CONTROLLING ORDER


CHAPTER 14: INTERSTATE CHILD CUSTODY CASES

14.1 INTRODUCTION
    14.101 Child Custody Disputes Involving Different States
    14.102 Development of the Uniform Child Custody Jurisdiction and Enforcement Act
    14.103 UCCJEA Purposes
    14.104 Basic Principles and Design
    14.105 Application of the UCCJEA

14.2 INITIAL CHILD CUSTODY DETERMINATIONS
    14.201 Due Process Requirements
    14.202 Hierarchy of Jurisdictional Bases
    14.203 “Home State” Jurisdiction
    14.204 “Significant Connection” Jurisdiction
    14.205 “More Appropriate Forum” Jurisdiction
    14.206 “Necessity” Jurisdiction

14.3 MODIFICATION OF CUSTODY DETERMINATIONS
    14.301 Exclusive, Continuing Jurisdiction
    14.302 Jurisdiction to Modify

14.4 TEMPORARY EMERGENCY JURISDICTION

14.5 PROCEDURES
    14.501 Information to Be Submitted to the Court
    14.502 Notice
    14.503 Priority Scheduling of Jurisdictional Issue
    14.504 Limited Immunity Related to Appearance
    14.505 Evidence

14.6 SIMULTANEOUS PROCEEDINGS IN OTHER STATES

14.7 DECLINING JURISDICTION

14.8 ENFORCEMENT


CHAPTER 15: CONCLUDING REPRESENTATION

15.1 CONCLUDING THE ATTORNEY-CLIENT RELATIONSHIP
    15.101 In General
    15.102 Concluding After Completing All Work
    15.103 Concluding Before Completing Work

15.2 RETAINING THE FILE

APPENDIX 15-1: LETTER TO CLIENT

APPENDIX 15-2: MOTION TO WITHDRAW AS COUNSEL

APPENDIX 15-3: ORDER

TABLE OF AUTHORITIES

INDEX


Authors

Author

Richard D. Balnave is a professor at the University of Virginia School of Law and directed its Family Law Clinical Program from 1984 until 2000. His teaching areas include legal ethics and professional responsibility, family law, children’s law, and trial advocacy. He has lectured on behalf of the Virginia State Bar, Virginia CLE, the Virginia Judicial Institute, the Virginia Judicial Conference, and the Virginia Mediation Network. Professor Balnave served as editor of Family Law and Practice in Virginia (Virginia CLE 1993 & Supp. 1996) and as an author of Family Law and Practice (Matthew Bender 1989, 1991 & 1998 revisions) and Summary Jury Trials and Mini-Trials: A Comparison, 3 J. Civ. Litig. 141 (1991).

Professor Balnave served on the Board of Governors of the Family Law Section of the Virginia State Bar from 1995 until 1999 and as chair of the section from 1997 until 1998. He has served as a member of the Virginia Bar Association Domestic Relations Law Section >Council and Commission on the Needs of Children, the Virginia Supreme Court’s Commission pn the Future of Virginia’s Judicial System, and as a director of the Virginia Dispute Resolution Center. He presently serves as a member of the Virginia Supreme Court’s Court Improvement Project Advisory Committee Concerning Foster Care and Adoption. Professor Balnave earned a B.A. from the College of William & Mary, an M.A. from the State University of New York Graduate School of Education, and a J.D. from Case Western Reserve University School of Law.

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