The Virginia Lawyer: A Deskbook for Practitioners

The Virginia Lawyer: A Deskbook for Practitioners
Publication Date: 2018
Electronic Forms: 150+
Available Formats: Print (2,178 pages, softcover, 2 volumes, forms CD) 
  Electronic (searchable PDF via flash drive, CD, or immediate download)
Product #: 885

Information

Summary of Contents:

  • Administrative Law
  • Business Law
  • Civil Litigation
  • Criminal Litigation
  • Consumer Law
  • Defamation
  • Eminent Domain
  • Employment Law
  • Estate Planning and Administration
  • Family Law
  • Incapacitated Adults: Guardianship and Conservatorship
  • Intellectual Property
  • Real Estate Practice
  • Representing Debtors and Creditors
  • Managing Your Law Office
  • Professional Responsibility

"Whether you’re meeting with a new client or with an old client who’s bringing you a new issue, preparation is key to building relationships that last. Turn to The Virginia Lawyer for the quick answers to help you to confidently answer your client’s questions.” - Christine M. Reilly, Senior Publications Attorney

The Virginia Lawyer provides concise analysis, practical advice, and electronic forms from experienced practitioners across a broad spectrum of practice areas. Published in cooperation with The Virginia Bar Association, this two-volume set covers the substance and procedure of the most significant areas of Virginia practice and will quickly focus your research on issues and pitfalls for any new case. It also provides guidance on successfully managing your law office and ensuring that professional ethics requirements are handled seamlessly as part of your day-to-day practice.

The 2018 new edition is updated through the 2017 session of the General Assembly and includes changes in the U.S. Code and the latest case law.

It includes over 150 ready-to-use electronic forms for an array of pleadings, agreements, and transactional documents.


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Table of Contents

CHAPTER LIST

1. Managing Your Law Office

2. Professional Responsibility

3. Litigation: Civil and Criminal

4. Employment Law: Employee Rights and Employer Responsibilities

5. Business Law

6. Family Law

7. The Law of Defamation

8. Intellectual Property

9. Representing Debtors and Creditors

10. Consumer Law

11. Real Estate Practice

12. Eminent Domain

13. Estate Planning and Administration

14. Incapacitated Adults: Guardianship and Conservatorship

15. Administrative Law

Volume 1


CHAPTER 1: MANAGING YOUR LAW OFFICE

1.1 STARTING A LAW PRACTICE
        1.101 Introduction
        1.102 Business Plan
        1.103 Advisors and Mentors
        1.104 Selection of Practice Entity
        1.105 Office Space
        1.106 Office Equipment
        1.107 Office Staff
        1.108 Communications with Clients and Nonclients
        1.109 Developing the Practice
        1.110 Advertising
        1.111 Year-End Review

1.2 LAW OFFICE TECHNOLOGY
        1.201 In General
        1.202 Shielding Against Malpractice
        1.203 Improving Office Efficiencies
        1.204 Market Forces for Efficiencies
        1.205 Software
        1.206 Backing Up Data
        1.207 Practicing Law Without a Physical Office
    
1.3 PROFESSIONAL LIABILITY AND OTHER INSURANCE
        1.301 In General
        1.302 Types of Malpractice Carriers
        1.303 Considerations When Buying Malpractice Coverage
        1.304 Other Insurance

1.4 CASE MANAGEMENT
        1.401 Interviewing Prospective Clients
        1.402 Conflicts Checks
        1.403 Retainer Agreements
        1.404 Declination Letters

1.5 CLIENT COMMUNICATIONS

1.6 DOCKET CONTROL
        1.601 Monitoring Workload
        1.602 Organizing Case Files
        1.603 Tracking Case Files
        1.604 Closing Case Files

1.7 TICKLER SYSTEMS
        1.701 Determining Deadlines
        1.702 Calendar Solutions

1.8 FEES
        1.801 Reasonableness
        1.802 Contingent Fees
        1.803 Fiduciary Compensation
        1.804 Hourly Fees
        1.805 Hybrid and Other Fees
        1.806 Fee Agreements
        1.807 Collecting Fees
        1.808 Termination of Employment
        1.809 Disposition of Client Files

1.9 BILLING PRACTICES AND PROCEDURES
        1.901 Timekeeping
        1.902 Billing and Collecting Fees
    
1.10 TRUST ACCOUNTS
        1.1001 Duty to Safeguard Client’s Funds and Property
        1.1002 Rule 1.15 Generally
        1.1003 Scope of Rule 1.15
        1.1004 Other Property
        1.1005 Types of Trust Accounts
        1.1006 Interest and Other Investments
        1.1007 Record-Keeping and Accounting
        1.1008 Deposits into Trust Accounts
        1.1009 Withdrawals from Trust Accounts
        1.1010 Liability for Violations

1.11 PLANNING FOR THE SUCCESSION OF A LAW PRACTICE
        1.1101 Notifying Clients
        1.1102 Expert Advice
        1.1103 Sale of Practice
    
APPENDIX 1-1: NONENGAGEMENT LETTER

APPENDIX 1-2: FILL-IN-THE-BLANKS REPRESENTATION
AGREEMENT

APPENDIX 1-3: ENGAGEMENT LETTER IN SHORT LETTER
FORMAT

APPENDIX 1-4: PERSONAL INJURY PLAINTIFF—LONG FORM
(CONTINGENCY FEE)

APPENDIX 1-5: CLOSING LETTER

APPENDIX 1-6: ESCROW ACCOUNT RECORD-KEEPING AND
ACCOUNTING FORMS


CHAPTER 2: PROFESSIONAL RESPONSIBILITY

2.1 OVERVIEW: RESOURCES FOR LEGAL ETHICS ISSUES
        2.101 In General
        2.102 Resources

2.2 ADVERTISING AND SOLICITATION
        2.201 Basic Rule
        2.202 Mail and Email
        2.203 Direct Contact with Potential Clients
        2.204 Lawyer Referral Services

2.3 CREATING THE ATTORNEY-CLIENT RELATIONSHIP AND
DETERMINING REASONABLE FEE AGREEMENTS
        2.301 Avoiding Unintended Professional Relationships
        2.302 Fee Agreements and Arrangements

2.4 MAINTAINING THE RELATIONSHIP WITH THE CLIENT
        2.401 The Duty to Communicate
        2.402 The Duty to Abide by the Client’s Decisions
        2.403 The Duty to Attend to Client Matters Promptly
    
2.5 PROFESSIONAL INDEPENDENCE AND LOYALTY TO
CLIENTS: AVOIDING CONFLICTS OF INTEREST
        2.501 Basic Rule
        2.502 Potential Conflicts of Interest
        2.503 Per Se Conflicts
        2.504 Concurrent Representation of Adverse Clients in
        Unrelated Matters
        2.505 Representing Clients Adverse to Former Clients
        2.506 Representing Multiple Clients in a Single Matter
        2.507 Representing Entities and Organizations
        2.508 Successive Government and Private Employment
        2.509 Providing Limited Pro Bono Services
        2.510 Conflicts Between Insurer and Insured
        2.511 Petitioning for Guardianship for Impaired Client
        2.512 Conflicts Involving Governmental Entities, Public
        Officials, and Government Lawyers
        2.513 Joint Representation of Husband and Wife in an
        Uncontested Divorce or Property Settlement
        2.514 Client Referred from Mediation to Legal Representation
        2.515 Prospective Clients

2.6 CONFIDENTIALITY: PROTECTING CLIENT CONFIDENCES
AND SECRETS
        2.601 In General
        2.602 Disclosures Permitted by Rule 1.6(b)
        2.603 Mandatory Disclosures Under Rule 1.6(c)
        2.604 Disclosure Obligations for Attorneys Appearing Before
        the Securities and Exchange Commission
        2.605 Protection of Client Information
        2.606 Attorney-Client Privilege Waived by Inadvertent
        Disclosure

2.7 SAFEKEEPING PROPERTY AND TRUST ACCOUNTING
        2.701 Rules Governing Trust Accounts and Interest on
        Lawyers Trust Accounts
        2.702 IOLTA Accounts
        2.703 Non-IOLTA Accounts
        2.704 Approved Financial Institutions
        2.705 Funds Deposited in the Trust Account
        2.706 Notification of Receipt of Funds
        2.707 Accounting
        2.708 Prompt Payment or Delivery of Funds
        2.709 Recordkeeping Requirements
        2.710 Required Accounting Procedures
        2.711 Disbursement on Uncollected Funds Improper
        2.712 Lawyer’s Responsibility for Nonlawyer Support Staff
        2.713 Risk Management and Good Practices

2.8 FAIRNESS IN DEALING WITH OPPOSING AND THIRD
PARTIES
        2.801 Receiving Inadvertently Transmitted Confidential
        Information
        2.802 Using Surreptitious Means to Acquire Information
        During Investigations
        2.803 Communicating with Persons Represented by Counsel
        2.804 Communicating with Adversary’s Expert
        2.805 Communicating with Adversary’s Health Care Provider
        2.806 Dealing with Unrepresented Persons

2.9 SUMMARY AND REVIEW: AVOIDING BAR COMPLAINTS
        2.901 Common Complaints Against Lawyers
        2.902 Avoiding Complaints


CHAPTER 3: LITIGATION: CIVIL AND CRIMINAL

3.1 CIVIL PRACTICE IN THE GENERAL DISTRICT COURTS
        3.101 Jurisdiction
        3.102 Venue and Service of Process
        3.103 Commencement of an Action
        3.104 Specific Actions
        3.105 Procedure in the General District Court
        3.106 Finality of Judgment
        3.107 Satisfaction of Judgment
        3.108 Substitution of Counsel
        3.109 Withdrawal as Counsel
    
3.2 CIVIL PRACTICE—COURTS OF RECORD
        3.201 Introduction
        3.202 Proper Venue
        3.203 Complaint
        3.204 Service of Process
        3.205 Defensive Pleadings
        3.206 Discovery
        3.207 Pretrial Motions
        3.208 Scheduling Cases for Trial
        3.209 Witnesses
        3.210 Court Reporter
        3.211 Initial Stage of Trial
        3.212 Evidence
        3.213 Motions During Trial
        3.214 Nonsuit
        3.215 Instructions and Argument
        3.216 Verdicts and Motions After Verdict
        3.217 Final Disposition of the Case
        3.218 Appellate Practice Rules
        3.219 Settlement of Cases
        3.220 Financial Settlement with Client

3.3 CRIMINAL DEFENSE
        3.301 Introduction to the Criminal Process
        3.302 Pretrial Proceedings
        3.303 The Trial

3.4 JUVENILE LAW
        3.401 Introduction
        3.402 Pretrial Proceedings
        3.403 Adjudicatory Hearing
        3.404 Disposition

3.5 ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION
        3.501 Introduction
        3.502 Continuum of Dispute Resolution Options
        3.503 Mediation
        3.504 Arbitration

APPENDIX 3-1: NOTICE OF PRESENTATION OF ORDER

APPENDIX 3-2: LIST OF STANDARD GENERAL DISTRICT COURT
FORMS

APPENDIX 3-3: COMPLAINT—VEHICLE ACCIDENT

APPENDIX 3-4: COMPLAINT—BODILY INJURY

APPENDIX 3-5: ORDER APPOINTING DEFENDANT’S ATTORNEY
AS GUARDIAN AD LITEM

APPENDIX 3-6: ORDER EXTENDING TIME TO FILE
RESPONSIVE PLEADINGS

APPENDIX 3-7: RESPONSIVE PLEADING

APPENDIX 3-8: DEMURRER

APPENDIX 3-9: MOTION OF DEFENDANT FOR A BILL OF
PARTICULARS

APPENDIX 3-10: SPECIAL PLEA OF THE STATUTE OF
LIMITATIONS

APPENDIX 3-11: ANSWER

APPENDIX 3-12: MOTION FOR SUMMARY JUDGMENT

APPENDIX 3-13: PRAECIPE

APPENDIX 3-14: REQUEST TO CLERK TO ISSUE
SUBPOENAS

APPENDIX 3-15: JUDGMENT ORDER—BENCH TRIAL

APPENDIX 3-16: JUDGMENT ORDER—JURY VERDICT FOR
PLAINTIFF

APPENDIX 3-17: JUDGMENT ORDER—JURY VERDICT FOR
DEFENDANT

APPENDIX 3-18: DISMISSAL ORDER

APPENDIX 3-19: RELEASE OF ALL CLAIMS

APPENDIX 3-20: MOTION TO APPROVE COMPROMISE
SETTLEMENT—MINOR PLAINTIFF

APPENDIX 3-21: ANSWER OF DEFENDANT OFFERING
COMPROMISE

APPENDIX 3-22: ANSWER OF THE GUARDIAN AD LITEM

APPENDIX 3-23: ORDER APPROVING SETTLEMENT

APPENDIX 3-24: RECEIPTS

APPENDIX 3-25: JUDGMENT ORDER—WRONGFUL DEATH
SETTLEMENT

APPENDIX 3-26: DETENTION ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENT


CHAPTER 4: EMPLOYMENT LAW: EMPLOYEE RIGHTS
ANDEMPLOYER RESPONSIBILITIES


4.1 INTRODUCTION
        4.101 In General
        4.102 History of Employment at Will in Virginia

4.2 FEDERAL CIVIL RIGHTS STATUTES
        4.201 In General
        4.202 42 U.S.C. § 1981
        4.203 42 U.S.C. § 1983
        4.204 Attorney Fees
        4.205 Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964

4.3 THE VIRGINIA HUMAN RIGHTS ACT

4.4 AGE DISCRIMINATION IN EMPLOYMENT ACT (ADEA)

4.5 AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA)
        4.501 Scope
        4.502 Aspects of Employment Covered
        4.503 “Qualified Individuals”
        4.504 Duty of Reasonable Accommodation
        4.505 Undue Hardship
        4.506 Remedies
        4.507 Business Necessity Defense
        4.508 Rehabilitation Act

4.6 VIRGINIANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (VDA)

4.7 FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT (FLSA)
        4.701 In General
        4.702 Wage and Hour Law
        4.703 Coverage
        4.704 Exceptions
        4.705 Exemptions from Minimum Wage and Overtime
        4.706 Job Requirements Cannot Reduce Pay
        4.707 Overtime Compensation
        4.708 Time Worked
        4.709 Workweek
        4.710 Record-Keeping and Posting
        4.711 Retaliation
        4.712 Audits; Actions Against State Employers
        4.713 State Wage and Hour Law
        4.714 State Wage Payment Laws
        4.715 Child Labor

4.8 THE FEDERAL EQUAL PAY ACT (EPA)
        4.801 Sex-Based Wage Disparities
        4.802 Employers and Employees Covered
        4.803 Definition of Equal Work
        4.804 Components of Equal Work
        4.805 Retaliation
        4.806 Employers’ Defenses

4.9 THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT (FMLA)
        4.901 In General
        4.902 Coverage
        4.903 Eligible Employees
        4.904 Events That Trigger Entitlement to FMLA Leave
        4.905 Notice from Employee
        4.906 Length and Timing of FMLA Leave
        4.907 Paid or Unpaid Leave
        4.908 Employee’s Right to Return to Work
        4.909 Returning Employee’s Rights
        4.910 Notice to Employees
        4.911 Health Benefits Continuation
        4.912 Other Benefits Required to Be Continued
        4.913 Medical Certifications
        4.914 Employer Records
        4.915 Other Employee Rights
        4.916 Interaction with the Americans with Disabilities Act
    
4.10 UNIFORMED SERVICES EMPLOYMENT AND
REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS ACT (USERRA)
        4.1001 In General
        4.1002 Coverage
        4.1003 Notice to Employer
        4.1004 Cost of Benefits
        4.1005 Waiver of Benefits
        4.1006 Health Benefits
        4.1007 Use of Paid Leave
        4.1008 Reemployment
        4.1009 Dishonorable Discharge
        4.1010 Documentation
        4.1011 Time Limits for Reporting or Application
        4.1012 Effect of Untimely Reporting or Application
        4.1013 Reemployment Position
        4.1014 Reemployment Benefits
        4.1015 Reinstatement of Health Benefits
        4.1016 Retention Rights

4.11 OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACTS,
FEDERAL AND STATE (OSHA)
        4.1101 In General
        4.1102 State Enforcement
        4.1103 Employer Coverage
        4.1104 Employers’ Primary Obligations
        4.1105 Other Rights, Responsibilities, and Duties
        4.1106 Elements of an OSHA Violation
        4.1107 Defenses
        4.1108 Warrants
        4.1109 Citations
        4.1110 Contesting Citations
        4.1111 Employee Coverage and Nondiscrimination Rules
        4.1112 Work Refusals
        4.1113 Procedure for Discrimination Cases
        4.1114 Penalties and Remedies

4.12 UNIONS
        4.1201 In General
        4.1202 Protected Concerted Activity and Union Organizing
        4.1203 Preelection Campaigning
        4.1204 Access to Employer’s Property
        4.1205 Duty to Bargain
        4.1206 Purchases, Acquisitions, and the Obligation to
        Recognize the Union
        4.1207 Unfair Labor Practice Charges

4.13 WORKERS’ COMPENSATION
        4.1301 Exclusive Remedy
        4.1302 Occupational Disease
    
4.14 SOCIAL MEDIA POLICIES
        4.1401 Potential Risks Related to Social Media Use
        4.1402 Employees’ Use
        4.1403 Supervisors’ Use
        4.1404 Potential Risks Relating to Social Media Regulation
        4.1405 Employment Law Statutes
        4.1406 Key Social Media Policy Provisions


CHAPTER 5: BUSINESS LAW

5.1 COMPARISON OF BUSINESS ENTITIES
        5.101 Introduction
        5.102 Sole Proprietorships
        5.103 Corporations
        5.104 General Partnerships
        5.105 Limited Partnerships
        5.106 Registered Limited Liability Partnerships
        5.107 Limited Liability Companies
        5.108 Business Trusts

5.2 CORPORATIONS
        5.201 The Virginia Stock Corporation Act
        5.202 Articles of Incorporation
        5.203 Capitalization; Shares of Stock
        5.204 Directors, Officers, and Agents
        5.205 Filing and Fees
        5.206 Post-Incorporation Organization
        5.207 Annual Reports and Fees
        5.208 Domestication and Conversion
        5.209 Benefit Corporations

5.3 PARTNERSHIPS
        5.301 Nature of Partnerships
        5.302 Relations of Partners to Third Parties
        5.303 Relationship of Partners to Each Other and to
        the Partnership
        5.304 Limited Liability Partnerships
        5.305 Professional Service Limited Liability Partnerships

5.4 LIMITED LIABILITY COMPANIES
        5.401 In General
        5.402 Nature of the LLC
        5.403 Terminology
        5.404 Structuring Issues
        5.405 Nontax Issues
        5.406 Tax Issues
        5.407 Default Rules
        5.408 Articles of Organization
        5.409 Annual Registration Fee and Report
        5.410 Ownership and Members
        5.411 Operating Agreement
        5.412 Management Structure
        5.413 Financial Arrangements
        5.414 Assignments of Membership Interests

5.5 CONTRACT DRAFTING PRINCIPLES
        5.501 Goals and Strategies
        5.502 Function of the Contract
        5.503 Top Ten Drafting Techniques

5.6 ANTITRUST CONSIDERATIONS
        5.601 Overview
        5.602 Competition During the Pendency of a Transaction
        5.603 Document Creation
        5.604 Information Sharing
        5.605 Drafting Considerations

APPENDIX 5-1: ARTICLES OF INCORPORATION WITH
INDEMNITY PROVISIONS

APPENDIX 5-2: SUBSCRIPTION LETTER

APPENDIX 5-3: UNANIMOUS WRITTEN CONSENT IN LIEU
OF ORGANIZATIONAL MEETING

APPENDIX 5-4: CORPORATION BYLAWS

APPENDIX 5-5: PARTNERSHIP AGREEMENT

APPENDIX 5-6: OPERATING AGREEMENT WITH BUY-SELL
PROVISION AND OPTIONAL MANAGER-MANAGEMENT
PROVISIONS

APPENDIX 5-7: ARTICLES OF ORGANIZATION OF A LIMITED
LIABILITY COMPANY

APPENDIX 5-8: IDENTIFICATION OF PARTIES

APPENDIX 5-9: COVENANT NOT TO COMPETE

APPENDIX 5-10: DISTRIBUTOR’S ASSURANCES TO
SUPPLIER

APPENDIX 5-11: STATED OBLIGATIONS

APPENDIX 5-12: LIMITATION OF LIABILITY;
INDEMNIFICATION

APPENDIX 5-13: INDEMNIFICATION

APPENDIX 5-14: INSURANCE

APPENDIX 5-15: REPRESENTATIONS AND WARRANTIES

APPENDIX 5-16: SURVIVAL PROVISION

APPENDIX 5-17: COVENANTS

APPENDIX 5-18: CONDITIONS

APPENDIX 5-19: DISPUTE RESOLUTION


CHAPTER 6: FAMILY LAW

6.1 OVERVIEW
        6.101 Scope of Practice of Domestic Relations Law
        6.102 Jurisdiction
        6.103 Initial Consultation with Client
    
6.2 GROUNDS OF DIVORCE
        6.201 In General
        6.202 Grounds of Divorce—Separation of the Parties
        6.203 Grounds of Divorce—Fault Based
        6.204 Defenses to Divorce Actions
        6.205 Obtaining a Divorce
        6.206 Obtaining Jurisdiction and Service of Process
        6.207 Pre-Trial Motions
        6.208 Formal Discovery Methods
        6.209 Evidentiary Issues
        6.210 Property Settlement Agreements
        6.211 Corroboration of Grounds for Divorce
        6.212 Final Decree of Divorce (a vinculo matrimonii)
        6.213 Legal Effects of Divorce
        6.214 Transfer of Divorce Case
        6.215 Legal Concerns After the Entry of Final Decree
        of Divorce
        6.216 Division of Military Pensions after National Defense
        Authorization Act of 2017
        6.217 Enforcement of Final Decree of Divorce
        6.218 Other Types of Relief in Domestic Relations Cases
        6.219 Actions to Affirm Marriage
        6.220 Actions to Annul Marriage
        6.221 Actions for Separate Maintenance
    
6.3 DIVISION OF PROPERTY—EQUITABLE DISTRIBUTION
        6.301 Division of Military Retirement Benefits
        6.302 General Principles of Equitable Distribution
        6.303 Foreign Divorces
        6.304 Exceptions to the Equitable Distribution Statute
        6.305 Identification of the Assets
        6.306 Legal Title and Ownership of Assets
        6.307 Valuation of the Assets
        6.308 Classification of Property
        6.309 Identification and Classification of Debt
        6.310 Statutory Factors of Equitable Distribution
        6.311 Division of Property
        6.312 Enforcement of Equitable Distribution Award

6.4 DIVISION OF RETIREMENT BENEFITS—FEDERAL LAW
CONTROLS
        6.401 Know the Provisions of Federal Retirement Plans
        6.402 Division of Retirement Benefits—Property Settlement
        Agreements
        6.403 Role of Virginia Law in Division of Deferred
        Compensation

6.5 NATIONAL DEFENSE AUTHORIZATION ACT OF 2017
        6.501 Enactment of the National Defense Authorization
        Act of 2017
        6.502 Applies to Active Duty Servicemembers
        6.503 Definition of Disposable Retired Pay
        6.504 Enforcement of Support Orders
        6.505 Use of Sample Forms
        6.506 Resources

6.6 LIFE INSURANCE AWARDED BY THE COURT

6.7 COURT MAY DECREE MAINTENANCE AND SUPPORT
FOR SPOUSES
        6.701 Entitlement to Spousal Support
        6.702 Statutory Basis for Spousal Support
        6.703 Statutory Factors for Spousal Support
        6.704 Pleadings
        6.705 Types of Spousal Support
        6.706 Duration of Spousal Support
        6.707 Burden of Proof
        6.708 Reservation of Spousal Support
        6.709 Modification of Spousal Support
        6.710 Imputation of Income
        6.711 Bars to Spousal Support
        6.712 Spousal Support Awarded Where There Is
        Manifest Injustice
        6.713 Written Findings
        6.714 Taxation of Spousal Support
        6.715 Planning for the Spousal Support Case
        6.716 Enforcement of Spousal Support Awards
    
6.8 CHILD CUSTODY AND VISITATION/PARENTING TIME
        6.801 In General
        6.802 Jurisdiction
        6.803 Pleadings
        6.804 Statutory Factors for the Best Interests of the Child
        6.805 What Does “Best Interests of a Child” Mean?
        6.806 Types of Custody Arrangements
        6.807 Guardian Ad Litem
        6.808 Virginia Military Parents Equal Protection Act
        6.809 Court’s Findings and Order
        6.810 Notice of Relocation
        6.811 Enforcement of Custody and Visitation Cases
        6.812 Modification of Custody and Visitation Orders
        6.813 Post-Decree Issues
        6.814 Resources

6.9 CHILD SUPPORT
        6.901 In General
        6.902 Pleadings
        6.903 Persons Who Must Pay Child Support
        6.904 Duration of Child Support Obligation
        6.905 Child Support Guidelines
        6.906 Determining Amount of Child Support
        6.907 Unreimbursed Medical or Dental Expenses
        6.908 Life Insurance
        6.909 Income Tax Child Dependency Exemption
        6.910 Effective Date of Child Support Orders
        6.911 Required Notices
        6.912 Qualified Medical Child Support Orders
        6.913 Enforcement of Child Support Orders
    
6.10 SAME-SEX MARRIAGE

6.11 ATTORNEY FEES AND COSTS

6.12 ADOPTION
        6.1201 Introduction
        6.1202 Legal Basis for Adoption
        6.1203 Jurisdiction
        6.1204 Venue
        6.1205 Proceedings in Juvenile and Domestic Relations
        District Court
        6.1206 Proceedings in the Circuit Court
        6.1207 Agency Placement Adoption
        6.1208 Parental Placement Adoption
        6.1209 Stepparent Adoption
        6.1210 Close Relative Adoption
        6.1211 Adult Adoption
        6.1212 Foster Care Placement Adoption
        6.1213 Special Needs Adoption
        6.1214 Interstate Adoption
        6.1215 Intercountry Adoption
        6.1216 Final Order of Adoption
        6.1217 Legal Effects of Adoption

APPENDIX 6-1: ACCEPTANCE OF SERVICE OF PROCESS AND
WAIVER OF FUTURE SERVICE OF PROCESS AND
NOTICE

APPENDIX 6-2: COMPLAINT FOR DIVORCE A MENSA ET
THORO

APPENDIX 6-3: COMPLAINT—ONE YEAR SEPARATION—
INCORPORATING AGREEMENT

APPENDIX 6-4: COMPLAINT—ONE YEAR SEPARATION—NO
AGREEMENT—COLLATERAL ISSUES PLEADED

APPENDIX 6-5: DECREE—SEPARATION OF ONE YEAR

APPENDIX 6-6: PRIVATE ADDENDUM TO FINAL DECREE OF
DIVORCE

APPENDIX 6-7: CLAUSE GRANTING SOLE CUSTODY—
SPECIFIED VISITATION

APPENDIX 6-8: ORDER OF SUPPORT—CHILD AND SPOUSAL
SUPPORT (COMPUTER GENERATED)

APPENDIX 6-9: PETITION FOR ADOPTION

APPENDIX 6-10: INTERLOCUTORY ORDER

APPENDIX 6-11: ORDER OF REFERENCE

APPENDIX 6-12: FINAL ORDER OF ADOPTION

APPENDIX 6-13: FINAL ORDER OF ADOPTION AFTER
INTERLOCUTORY ORDER

APPENDIX 6-14: SAMPLE TERMS AND PROVISIONS FOR A
RAILROAD RETIREMENT ORDER


CHAPTER 7: THE LAW OF DEFAMATION

7.1 INTRODUCTION

7.2 NATURE OF THE COMMUNICATION
        7.201 In General
        7.202 “Communication” Requirement
        7.203 Civil Versus Criminal Defamation
        7.204 Libel Versus Slander
        7.205 Liability for Third Party’s Defamation
        7.206 United Kingdom Law

7.3 PUBLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATION
        7.301 In General
        7.302 Intra-Corporate Communication
        7.303 Other Publication Issues
        7.304 Repetition by the Alleged Defamer
        7.305 Republication by Others
        7.306 Failure to Act as Actionable “Publication”
        7.307 Role of Court and Jury

7.4 INTERPRETING THE COMMUNICATION
        7.401 Basic Rules
        7.402 Print Media
        7.403 Role of Court and Jury
    
7.5 FACT VERSUS OPINION
        7.501 In General
        7.502 Federal Constitutional Protection
        7.503 Virginia Constitutional Protection
        7.504 Four-Part Test
        7.505 Difficulty of Drawing the Line
        7.506 Relationship Between Opinion and Facts
        7.507 Ironic Nature of the Opinion Doctrine
        7.508 Virginia Supreme Court Cases
        7.509 Examples of Actionable Statements of Fact
        7.510 Examples of Nonactionable Opinion
        7.511 Workplace Defamation
        7.512 Rhetorical Hyperbole
        7.513 Role of Court and Jury

7.6 DEFAMATORY MEANING
        7.601 In General
        7.602 Per Se Versus Per Quod Defamation
        7.603 Elements (Including the “Sting”)
        7.604 Difficulty of Drawing the Line
        7.605 Examples of Communications Capable of
        Defamatory Meaning
        7.606 Examples of Communications Not Capable of
        Defamatory Meaning
        7.607 Job Evaluations and Terminations
        7.608 Role of Court and Jury

7.7 TRUTH VERSUS FALSITY
        7.701 In General
        7.702 Burden of Proof
        7.703 “Substantial Truth”
        7.704 Examples of Technically False but “Substantially
        True” Statements
        7.705 True Statements with Defamatory Implications
        7.706 Truthful Transmission of a Third Party’s Defamation
        Without Endorsement
        7.707 True Statements Believed to Be False
        7.708 Binding Nature of Plaintiff’s Admission of Truth
        7.709 Role of Court and Jury

7.8 DEFAMATION BY IMPLICATION
        7.801 In General
        7.802 Virginia Approach
        7.803 Examples of Statements Carrying Defamatory
        Implication
        7.804 Examples of Statements Not Carrying Defamatory
        Implication
        7.805 Intent
        7.806 Role of Court and Jury
    
7.9 DEFAMATION PER SE
        7.901 In General
        7.902 Categories
        7.903 Special Damages
        7.904 Examples of Communications Constituting Defamation
        Per Se
        7.905 Examples of Communications Not Constituting
        Defamation Per Se
        7.906 Confusion About the Per Se Doctrine
        7.907 Workplace Defamation
        7.908 Defamation of Corporations
        7.909 Continuing Importance of the Doctrine
        7.910 Role of Court and Jury

7.10 WORK-RELATED DEFAMATION
        7.1001 In General
        7.1002 Federal Labor Law Preemption
        7.1003 Federal ERISA Preemption
        7.1004 OSHA Preemption
        7.1005 Workers’ Compensation Law
        7.1006 Arbitration Agreements
        7.1007 Compulsory Counterclaims
        7.1008 Other Issues

7.11 RELATIONSHIP TO OTHER CLAIMS
        7.1101 In General
        7.1102 Constitutional Torts
        7.1103 Insulting Words
        7.1104 Misappropriation of Name or Likeness for
        Commercial Purposes
        7.1105 Other Common Law Tort Claims by Public Plaintiffs
        7.1106 Intentional Infliction of Emotional Distress
        7.1107 Intentional Interference with Contract
        7.1108 Torts Focusing on the Newsgathering Process
        7.1109 Statutory Conspiracy
        7.1110 Contracts
        7.1111 RICO Claims
        7.1112 Other Statutes

7.12 STATUTE OF LIMITATIONS
        7.1201 In General
        7.1202 Publication
        7.1203 “Single Publication” Rule
        7.1204 Accrual Based on Extrinsic Events
        7.1205 Republication
        7.1206 Actions Based on Third Party’s Communication
        7.1207 Pleading Exact Words as Creating a New Cause
        of Action
        7.1208 Tolling of the Statute of Limitations
        7.1209 Simultaneous Criminal and Civil Cases
        7.1210 Relation Back
        7.1211 Choice of Law
        7.1212 Role of Court and Jury
    
7.13 SUBJECT OF THE COMMUNICATION
        7.1301 Introduction
        7.1302 “Of and Concerning” Test
        7.1303 Categories of Subjects
        7.1304 Public Versus Private
        7.1305 Corporate Plaintiffs
        7.1306 “Libel-Proof” Doctrine and Related Concepts
        7.1307 Product Disparagement
        7.1308 Slander of Title
        7.1309 Food Disparagement
        7.1310 Role of Court and Jury
    
7.14 ABSOLUTE PRIVILEGE
        7.1401 In General
        7.1402 Governments and Their Employees
        7.1403 Statutory Absolute Privilege
        7.1404 Church Matters
        7.1405 Legislators
        7.1406 Mandated Statements
        7.1407 Charitable Immunity
        7.1408 Judicial Proceedings
        7.1409 Quasi-Judicial Proceedings
        7.1410 Context of the Statements: Peripheral
        Communications
        7.1411 Legislative Proceedings
        7.1412 Role of Court and Jury
    
7.15 QUALIFIED PRIVILEGE
        7.1501 In General
        7.1502 Statutory Qualified Privilege
        7.1503 Common Law Qualified Privilege Generally
        7.1504 Abuse of the Privilege
        7.1505 Fair Reports of Public Records
        7.1506 Comment on Matters of Public Concern
        7.1507 Role of Court and Jury

7.16 FAULT: DEFINING THE STANDARDS
        7.1601 Introduction
        7.1602 Constitutional Malice
        7.1603 Negligence

7.17 FAULT: PUBLIC PLAINTIFFS
        7.1701 In General
        7.1702 History
        7.1703 New York Times Doctrine
        7.1704 Defamatory Implication
        7.1705 Defendants Who Deny Making the Alleged
        Statements
        7.1706 Burden of Proof
        7.1707 Role of Court and Jury
    
7.18 FAULT: PRIVATE PLAINTIFFS
        7.1801 In General
        7.1802 The Virginia Standard Generally
        7.1803 Applying the Standard
        7.1804 Role of Court and Jury
    
7.19 IMPUTED LIABILITY
        7.1901 In General
        7.1902 Corporations
        7.1903 Agent’s Individual Liability
        7.1904 Principal’s Primary Liability for Third
        Party’s Defamation
        7.1905 Compensatory Damages
        7.1906 Punitive Damages
        7.1907 Role of Court and Jury
    
7.20 DAMAGES
        7.2001 In General
        7.2002 Presumed Damages
        7.2003 Compensatory Damages
        7.2004 Punitive Damages
        7.2005 Statutory Mitigation

7.21 LITIGATION: PRELIMINARY ISSUES
        7.2101 In General
        7.2102 Arbitration
        7.2103 Exhaustion of Remedies
        7.2104 Standing
        7.2105 Suing the Right Defendant
        7.2106 Subject Matter Jurisdiction: Federal Courts
        7.2107 Subject Matter Jurisdiction: State Courts
        7.2108 Personal Jurisdiction
        7.2109 Long-Arm Jurisdiction: Traditional Rules
        7.2110 Long-Arm Jurisdiction: Internet Defamation
        7.2111 Venue
        7.2112 Choice of Laws

7.22 LITIGATION: INITIAL PLEADINGS AND SUMMARY
DISPOSITIONS
        7.2201 In General
        7.2202 Initial Pleading: Identifying the Exact
        Defamatory Statement
        7.2203 Initial Pleading: Other Specificity Requirements
        7.2204 Statutory Provisions
        7.2205 Court as Gatekeeper
        7.2206 Demurrers
        7.2207 New Federal Standard for Motion to Dismiss
        7.2208 Preserving Defenses After Unsuccessful Demurrer
        7.2209 Repleading
        7.2210 Nonsuits
        7.2211 Motions to Strike
        7.2212 Amendments
        7.2213 Summary Judgment
    
7.23 LITIGATION: OTHER ISSUES
        7.2301 In General
        7.2302 Discovery
        7.2303 Dilemma Facing Defendants Who Deny
        Making the Defamatory Statements
        7.2304 Reporter’s Privilege
        7.2305 Judicial Estoppel
        7.2306 Collateral Estoppel
        7.2307 Injunctions
        7.2308 Consent
        7.2309 Evidentiary Issues
        7.2310 Sanctions
        7.2311 Jury Instructions
        7.2312 Offset
        7.2313 Rule 50 Motions
        7.2314 Remittitur
        7.2315 New Trials
        7.2316 Avoiding Constitutional Issues
        7.2317 Other Issues
    
7.24 LITIGATION: APPEALS
        7.2401 In General
        7.2402 Standard of Review
        7.2403 Damages
        7.2404 Remittitur
        7.2405 Other Issues

7.25 PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS
        7.2501 In General
        7.2502 Seeking Non-Litigation Relief
        7.2503 Mirage of Substantial Damages
        7.2504 “Skeletons in the Closet”
        7.2505 Media Defendants’ Ability to Declare a Victory
        7.2506 Conclusion

INDEX

Volume 2



CHAPTER 8: INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY

8.1 TRADE SECRETS
        8.101 Introduction
        8.102 What Is a Trade Secret?
        8.103 Protecting and Maintaining Trade Secrets
        8.104 Limiting Disclosure of Trade Secrets
        8.105 Nondisclosure Agreements
        8.106 Misappropriation of Trade Secrets
        8.107 Remedies for Misappropriation of Trade Secrets
        8.108 Defenses to Misappropriation of Trade Secrets
        8.109 Duration of Trade Secret Protection
        8.110 Trade Secrets Versus Other Forms of Intellectual
        Property

8.2 COPYRIGHTS
        8.201 Introduction
        8.202 What Is a Copyright?
        8.203 Creation and Ownership of Copyrighted Works
        8.204 When Copyright Protection Begins
        8.205 Copyright Notice
        8.206 Moral Rights
        8.207 Copyright Registration
        8.208 Copyright Preregistration
        8.209 Copyright Registration Procedures
        8.210 Benefits of Copyright Registration
        8.211 Registration of Compilations
        8.212 Term of Copyright
        8.213 Copyright Searching
        8.214 Copyright Licenses, Transfers, and Assignments
        8.215 Uniform Computer Information Transactions Act
        8.216 Security Interests in Copyrights
        8.217 Copyright Infringement
        8.218 Digital Millennium Copyright Act
        8.219 Defenses to Copyright Infringement
        8.220 Remedies for Copyright Infringement
        8.221 Copyright Versus Other Forms of Intellectual Property
        Protection
        8.222 Foreign Copyright Protection
        8.223 Company Logos

8.3 TRADEMARKS
        8.301 Introduction
        8.302 What Is a Trademark?
        8.303 Types of Marks
        8.304 Selecting a Trademark
        8.305 Spectrum of Distinctiveness
        8.306 Ownership and Use of Trademarks
        8.307 Converging Use of Trademarks
        8.308 Registration of Trademarks
        8.309 Federal Trademark Examination Process
        8.310 Publication Period for Federal Trademarks
        8.311 Issuance of Federal Registration
        8.312 Issuance of Federal Notice of Allowance
        8.313 Federal Trademark Registration Symbol
        8.314 Benefits of Federal Trademark Registration
        8.315 Federal Trademark Maintenance and Renewal Filings
        8.316 International Trademark Registration: The
        Madrid Protocol
        8.317 Virginia Trademark Registration Process
        8.318 Benefits of State Trademark Registration
        8.319 Virginia Trademark Renewal Filings
        8.320 Maintaining Trademark Rights
        8.321 Term of Trademark Rights
        8.322 Transfer, Assignment, and Licensing of Trademarks
        8.323 Trademark Infringement Generally
        8.324 Trademark Trial and Appeals Board
        8.325 Trademark Infringement in the Fourth Circuit
        8.326 Trademark Infringement in Virginia
        8.327 Defenses to Trademark Infringement
        8.328 Anticybersquatting Consumer Protection Act
        8.329 Remedies for Trademark Infringement
        8.330 Alternative Dispute Resolution
        8.331 Trademark Dilution
        8.332 Remedies for Trademark Dilution
        8.333 Trademark Versus Other Forms of Intellectual
        Property Protection

8.4 PATENTS
        8.401 Introduction
        8.402 What Is a Patent?
        8.403 Invention Creation and Patent Ownership
        8.404 Preservation of Patent Rights
        8.405 Who May File a Patent Application?
        8.406 Patent Examination Process
        8.407 Benefits of Patenting
        8.408 Categories of United States Patents
        8.409 Types of Patent Applications
        8.410 Patentability of Inventions
        8.411 Patent Term
        8.412 Patent Marking
        8.413 Patent Licensing
        8.414 Security Interests in Patents
        8.415 Intellectual Property Valuation
        8.416 Patent Infringement
        8.417 Test for Infringement
        8.418 Remedies for Infringement
        8.419 Defenses to Patent Infringement
        8.420 Patent Versus Other Forms of Intellectual
        Property Protection

APPENDIX 8-1: INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY ASSIGNMENT
AGREEMENT FOR NEWLY HIRED EMPLOYEES  

APPENDIX 8-2: MUTUAL NONDISCLOSURE AGREEMENT
(TRANSACTIONAL)

APPENDIX 8-3: NONDISCLOSURE AGREEMENT
(DEVELOPMENT OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY)

APPENDIX 8-4: COPYRIGHT ASSIGNMENT AGREEMENT
(SOFTWARE)

APPENDIX 8-5: COPYRIGHT REGISTRATION APPLICATION
FOR A NONDRAMATIC LITERARY WORK (FORM TX)

APPENDIX 8-6: CLICKWRAP LICENSE AGREEMENT FOR
INTERNET ACCESSIBLE SOFTWARE

APPENDIX 8-7: COPYRIGHT ASSIGNMENT AGREEMENT
(PLAY)

APPENDIX 8-8: SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT AND
CONSULTING AGREEMENT

APPENDIX 8-9: TRADEMARK CERTIFICATE OF
REGISTRATION

APPENDIX 8-10: TRADEMARK CEASE AND DESIST LETTER

APPENDIX 8-11: TRADEMARK ASSIGNMENT AGREEMENT

APPENDIX 8-12: REGISTERED UTILITY PATENT

APPENDIX 8-13: SIMPLE INVENTION RIGHTS ASSIGNMENT
BY EMPLOYEE TO EMPLOYER


CHAPTER 9: REPRESENTING DEBTORS AND CREDITORS

9.1 FAIR DEBT COLLECTION PRACTICES ACT
        9.101 In General
        9.102 Applicability
        9.103 Required Disclosures
        9.104 Manner of Disputing the Debt
        9.105 Time Limits
        9.106 Restrictions on Communications
        9.107 Harassment or Abuse
        9.108 False or Misleading Representations
        9.109 Application of Payments
        9.110 Venue
        9.111 Enforcement
        9.112 Bankruptcy Cases

9.2 FILING AN ACTION TO COLLECT A DEBT
        9.201 Introduction
        9.202 Choice of State or Federal Court
        9.203 Choice of Circuit or General District Court
        9.204 Venue
        9.205 Identifying the Parties
        9.206 Service of Process
        9.207 Civil Warrant or Motion for Judgment Under
        Section 8.01-28
        9.208 Confession of Judgment
        9.209 Action for Money Judgment in General District Court
        9.210 Courtroom Proceedings in General District Court
        9.211 Actions in Circuit Court

9.3 ENFORCEMENT OF JUDGMENT LIENS
        9.301 Introduction
        9.302 Enforcing an Equitable Decree
        9.303 Perfecting a Judgment Lien on Real Estate
        9.304 Execution Against Tangible Personal Property
        9.305 Execution Against Intangible Personal Property
        9.306 Garnishment
        9.307 Interrogatories to a Debtor
        9.308 Creditor’s Suit to Enforce a Judgment Lien
        9.309 Suspension of Driving Privileges

9.4 ENFORCEMENT OF SECURITY INTERESTS
        9.401 In General
        9.402 Importance of the Security Agreement
        9.403 Possession
        9.404 Bankruptcy
        9.405 Duties of a Secured Party in Possession
        9.406 Sale or Other Disposition
        9.407 Private Sale
        9.408 Public Sale
        9.409 Acceptance of Collateral in Full or Partial
        Satisfaction of Obligation
        9.410 Disposition of Consumer Goods and Investment
        Securities
        9.411 Application of Proceeds of Sale or Other Disposition
        9.412 Right of Redemption
        9.413 Debtor’s Remedies for Improper Disposition
        9.414 “Lender Liability” Issues
    
9.5 REAL PROPERTY FORECLOSURES
        9.501 Deed of Trust
        9.502 Trustee
        9.503 How the Lien Is Established
        9.504 Priorities
        9.505 Mortgages
        9.506 Judicial Foreclosure
        9.507 Miscellaneous Terms
        9.508 Right of Redemption
        9.509 The Decision to Foreclose
        9.510 Gathering Documentation
        9.511 Notice of Sale
        9.512 Substitute Trustee
        9.513 Review of Liens and Other Matters
        9.514 Filed Mechanics’ Liens
        9.515 Unfiled Mechanics’ Liens
        9.516 Title Company’s Liability for Title Reports
        9.517 Federal Tax Lien
        9.518 Advertisement of Sale
        9.519 Conduct of Sale
        9.520 Settlement
        9.521 Account and Accounting
        9.522 Deed in Lieu of Foreclosure
        9.523 Recent Virginia Legislation
        9.524 Recent Federal Efforts

APPENDIX 9-1: COVER LETTER

APPENDIX 9-2: FAIR DEBT COLLECTION PRACTICES ACT
(FDCPA) NOTICE

APPENDIX 9-3: AFFIDAVIT OF SERVICE BY SPECIAL
PROCESS SERVER

APPENDIX 9-4: NOTICE AND MOTION FOR JUDGMENT

APPENDIX 9-5: BILLS OF PARTICULARS

APPENDIX 9-6: NOTICE OF LIEN

APPENDIX 9-7: COMPLAINT

APPENDIX 9-8: NOTICE—MOTION FOR APPOINTMENT OF
COMMISSIONER IN CHANCERY

APPENDIX 9-9: DECREE OF REFERENCE APPOINTING A
COMMISSIONER IN CHANCERY

APPENDIX 9-10: NOTICE THAT COMMISSIONER IN
CHANCERY WILL FILE REPORT

APPENDIX 9-11: REPORT OF COMMISSIONER IN CHANCERY

APPENDIX 9-12: DECREE FOLLOWING COMMISSIONER’S REPORT

APPENDIX 9-13: ADVERTISEMENT OF SALE

APPENDIX 9-14: NOTICE—MOTION TO CONFIRM SALE

APPENDIX 9-15: DECREE CONFIRMING SALE

APPENDIX 9-16: SUPPLEMENTAL REPORT OF
COMMISSIONER IN CHANCERY

APPENDIX 9-17: NOTICE—MOTION TO CONFIRM REPORT
OF SPECIAL COMMISSIONER

APPENDIX 9-18: REPORT OF SPECIAL COMMISSIONER

APPENDIX 9-19: SPECIAL WARRANTY DEED

APPENDIX 9-20: SECOND REPORT OF SPECIAL
COMMISSIONER

APPENDIX 9-21: DECREE CONFIRMING REPORT AND
DISCHARGING SPECIAL COMMISSIONER

APPENDIX 9-22: “DEFAULT” PROVISION FOR SECURITY
AGREEMENT

APPENDIX 9-23: PROVISION FOR SECURITY AGREEMENT
COVERING ACCOUNTS, CHATTEL PAPER, OR
INSTRUMENTS

APPENDIX 9-24: PROVISION FOR AGREEMENT REQUIRING
THE COLLATERAL TO BE ASSEMBLED AT A GIVEN
LOCATION

APPENDIX 9-25: ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF DEFAULT AND
WAIVER OF RIGHTS OF REDEMPTION AND
NOTIFICATION OF SALE

APPENDIX 9-26: PROVISION FOR AGREEMENT ALLOWING
THE SECURED PARTY TO ENTER THE DEBTOR’S
PREMISES

APPENDIX 9-27: VERIFIED PETITION FOR ENTRY OF AN
ORDER OF SEIZURE IN DETINUE

APPENDIX 9-28: ORDER OF SEIZURE IN DETINUE

APPENDIX 9-29: NOTICE OF SALE OR OTHER DISPOSITION

APPENDIX 9-30: ACCELERATION LETTER WITH 30-DAY
FDCPA (FIRST COMMUNICATION) LANGUAGE

APPENDIX 9-31: AFFIDAVIT OF NONMILITARY STATUS

APPENDIX 9-32: LOST NOTE AFFIDAVIT

APPENDIX 9-33: LOST NOTE LETTER

APPENDIX 9-34: ENGAGEMENT LETTER

APPENDIX 9-35: NOTICE OF SALE LETTER

APPENDIX 9-36: NOTICE TO CONDOMINIUM OWNERS’
ASSOCIATION

APPENDIX 9-37: TRUSTEES’ APPOINTMENT DEED

APPENDIX 9-38: PETITION FOR AID AND DIRECTION

APPENDIX 9-39: REQUEST FOR TITLE REPORT (AND
COMMITMENT)

APPENDIX 9-40: NOTICE TO INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE

APPENDIX 9-41: INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE RIGHT OF
REDEMPTION

APPENDIX 9-42: NOTICE OF TRUSTEES’ SALE—
RESIDENTIAL

APPENDIX 9-43: SUBJECT-TO PROVISION (CONDOMINIUM)

APPENDIX 9-44: AS-IS DISCLAIMER

APPENDIX 9-45: FORFEITURE AND NEXT HIGHEST BIDDER
PROVISION

APPENDIX 9-46: CLOSING PROVISIONS

APPENDIX 9-47: MEMORANDUM OF SALE

APPENDIX 9-48: TRUSTEE’S DEED

APPENDIX 9-49: LETTER TO COMMISSIONER OF ACCOUNTS

APPENDIX 9-50: FORECLOSURE CHECKLIST


CHAPTER 10: CONSUMER LAW

10.1 VIRGINIA LAW
        10.101 Introduction
        10.102 Regulation of Interest Rates and Other Charges
        10.103 Virginia Laws Relating to Mortgage Loans
        10.104 Requirements of Chapter 15 of Title 6.2,
        “Consumer Finance Companies”
        10.105 Miscellaneous Laws Relating to Consumer
        Credit Transactions and Consumer Protection
        10.106 Privacy
        10.107 Electronic Commerce

10.2 FEDERAL LAW
        10.201 Introduction
        10.202 Truth in Lending Act
        10.203 Equal Credit Opportunity Act
        10.204 Fair Credit Reporting Act
        10.205 Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act
        10.206 Fair Debt Collection Practices Act
        10.207 Electronic Fund Transfer Act
        10.208 Interstate Land Sales Act
        10.209 Flood Disaster Protection
        10.210 Privacy
        10.211 Magnuson-Moss Warranty Federal Trade
        Commission Improvement Act
        10.212 SAFE Act
        10.213 Truth in Savings Act
        10.214 FTC Rules
        10.215 Miscellaneous


CHAPTER 11: REAL ESTATE PRACTICE

11.1 RESIDENTIAL REAL ESTATE SETTLEMENTS
        11.101 Legislation Affecting Real Estate Settlements
        11.102 Representing the Purchaser
        11.103 The Closing
        11.104 Post-Closing
        11.105 Representing the Seller

11.2 RESIDENTIAL LEASES
        11.201 Common Law Principles
        11.202 Exceptions to Common Law Principles
        11.203 The Virginia Residential Landlord and Tenant
        Act or the Virginia Rental Housing Act
        11.204 Rental Agreements
        11.205 Landlord Obligations Under VRLTA
        11.206 Tenant Obligations
        11.207 Tenant Remedies
        11.208 Landlord Remedies
        11.209 Retaliatory Action
        11.210 Manufactured Home Lot Rental Act
        11.211 Residential Lead-Based Paint Regulations
    
APPENDIX 11-1: PURCHASER’S REPRESENTATION
INFORMATION AND CHECKLIST

APPENDIX 11-2: DEPARTMENT OF PROFESSIONAL AND
OCCUPATIONAL REGULATION RESIDENTAL PROPERTY
DISCLOSURE STATEMENT

APPENDIX 11-3: SAMPLE OWNERS’ AFFIDAVIT AS TO
MECHANICS’ LIENS AND POSSESSION

APPENDIX 11-4: VIRGINIA REALTORS® RESIDENTIAL
CONTRACT OF PURCHASE

APPENDIX 11-5: AFFIDAVIT THAT TRANSFEROR IS NOT
FOREIGN NONINDIVIDUAL FOR PURPOSE OF
WITHHOLDING OF TAX

APPENDIX 11-6: AFFIDAVIT THAT TRANSFEROR IS NOT
FOREIGN INDIVIDUAL FOR PURPOSE OF
WITHHOLDING OF TAX

APPENDIX 11-7: CERTIFICATE OF RESIDENCY

APPENDIX 11-8: SELLER’S REPRESENTATION INFORMATION
AND CHECKLIST

APPENDIX 11-9: RESIDENTIAL LEASE AGREEMENT—
VIRGINIA REALTORS® FORM

APPENDIX 11-10: GENERAL WARRANTY DEED: VBA FORM


CHAPTER 12: EMINENT DOMAIN

12.1 SCOPE OF CHAPTER

12.2 OVERVIEW
        12.201 History
        12.202 Fundamental Principles of Government Takings
        12.203 United States Constitution
        12.204 Virginia Constitution
    
12.3 LIMITATIONS ON POWER
        12.301 Limitations on Public Use
        12.302 Limitations on Delegation of Power

12.4 PROCEDURE
        12.401 In General
        12.402 Right of Entry for Preliminary Site Inspections
        12.403 Disputes Regarding Entry
        12.404 Jurisdictional Prerequisites for Condemnation
        Petitions
        12.405 Quick-Take
        12.406 Commencement of Quick-Take Proceedings
        12.407 Jurisdiction of Condemnation Proceedings
        12.408 Petition for Condemnation
        12.409 Answer and Defenses to the Take
        12.410 Failure to File an Answer
        12.411 Owner Under Legal Disability
        12.412 Amendments to Pleadings
        12.413 Intervention of Interested Parties
        12.414 Participation of Tenants in Proceedings to
        Determine Just Compensation
        12.415 Pretrial Settlement Conference
        12.416 Jurisdictional Hearing
        12.417 Disputes over Ownership
        12.418 Right of Entry After Filing a Petition for
        Condemnation
        12.419 Selection of Jury
        12.420 Appointment of Commissioners
        12.421 Exceptions to Jurors’ Report
        12.422 Judgment and Postjudgment Procedures
        12.423 Distribution of Money Paid into Court
        12.424 Interest on the Award of Just Compensation
        12.425 Recovery of Costs and Fees
        12.426 Real Property Acquisition Policies
        12.427 Reimbursement of Attorney Fees in Special Cases:
        Condemnation, Abandonment, Dismissal, and
        Inverse Condemnation

12.5 COUNTIES, CITIES, AND TOWNS
        12.501 In General
        12.502 Condemnation Resolutions
        12.503 County’s Use of Quick-Take Procedures
        12.504 Special Procedures for Establishing or Altering
        Roads and Bridges

12.6 VIRGINIA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
        12.601 In General
        12.602 Negotiations Before Condemnation
        12.603 Valuation Criteria for Enhancement or Damage
        to the Residue
        12.604 Draw Down of Funds on Deposit
        12.605 Remedy for VDOT’s Failure to Initiate
        Condemnation Proceedings
        12.606 Interest on Awards or Draw Downs
        12.607 Owner Reacquisition of Property
    
12.7 REDEVELOPMENT AND HOUSING AUTHORITIES
        12.701 In General
        12.702 Conservation Plans
        12.703 Industrial Development
        12.704 Time Limitations on Redevelopment Plans

12.8 VALUATION
        12.801 Introduction
        12.802 Fair Market Value
        12.803 Alternate Valuations
        12.804 Valuation Formula
        12.805 Highest and Best Use
        12.806 Use and Marketability
        12.807 Enhancement Benefits
        12.808 Project Influence on Appreciation and Depreciation
        12.809 Unity of Parcels
        12.810 Probability of Rezoning
        12.811 Raw, Unimproved, or Undeveloped Land
        12.812 Valuation of Property as a Whole
        12.813 Special Purpose Properties
        12.814 Fixtures and Improvements
        12.815 Timber, Crops, and Minerals
        12.816 Business Losses
        12.817 Lost Profits
        12.818 Temporary Takings
        12.819 Damages Without Comparable Sales
        12.820 Contractor Negligence
        12.821 Standards of Compensability
        12.822 Cost to Cure
        12.823 Compensability of Specific Elements of Damage
        or Loss
        12.824 Access to and from the Property
        12.825 Inconvenience
        12.826 Evidence
        12.827 Owner’s Testimony
        12.828 The Appraiser
        12.829 Predicate Witnesses
        12.830 Speculative or Remote Valuation

12.9 INVERSE CONDEMNATION
        12.901 Traditional Inverse Condemnation
        12.902 Statute of Limitations
        12.903 Kitchen v. City of Newport News
    
12.10 REGULATORY TAKINGS
        12.1001 In General
        12.1002 Substantive Due Process

12.11 TAX ASPECTS OF CONDEMNATION PROCEEDS

12.12 PRECONDEMNATION ADVICE FOR OWNERS

12.13 RELOCATION ASSISTANCE
        12.1301 In General
        12.1302 Reimbursement for Moving Residential
        Personal Property
        12.1303 Supplement for Purchase of Comparable Housing
        12.1304 Supplemental Payment for Replacement Rental
        Housing
        12.1305 Lump-Sum Payment to Business for Moving
        Expenses
        12.1306 Business Reestablishment Expenses
        12.1307 Payment to Businesses for Loss of Tangible
        Personal Property
        12.1308 Last Resort Housing
    
APPENDIX 12-1: GOVERNMENT AGENCIES AND PUBLIC
UTILITIES WITH POWER OF EMINENT DOMAIN AND
THEIR AUTHORIZING LEGISLATIVE ACTS

APPENDIX 12-2: CERTIFICATE OF PARTIAL SATISFACTION

APPENDIX 12-3: TRUSTEE(S) AND BENEFICIARY CONSENT

APPENDIX 12-4: SUBORDINATION AGREEMENT

APPENDIX 12-5: PETITION PURSUANT TO SECTION 33.2-1023
OF THE VIRGINIA CODE (BEFORE SUIT FILED)

APPENDIX 12-6: ORDER PURSUANT TO SECTION 33.2-1023
OF THE VIRGINIA CODE (BEFORE SUIT FILED)

APPENDIX 12-7: PETITION PURSUANT TO SECTION 33.2-1023
OF THE VIRGINIA CODE (AFTER SUIT FILED)

APPENDIX 12-8: ORDER PURSUANT TO SECTION 33.2-1023
OF THE VIRGINIA CODE (AFTER SUIT FILED)


CHAPTER 13: ESTATE PLANNING AND ADMINISTRATION

13.1 INTRODUCTION TO ESTATE PLANNING

13.2 STARTING THE PROCESS
        13.201 Initial Contact
        13.202 Scheduling the Interview
    
13.3 COLLECTING INFORMATION
        13.301 What Information to Ask For
        13.302 How to Ask for Information

13.4 RECOGNIZING ETHICAL DILEMMAS

13.5 CONDUCTING THE INTERVIEW

13.6 MAPPING THE PLAN

13.7 FORMS OF OWNERSHIP
        13.701 Fee Simple
        13.702 Tenants in Common
        13.703 Joint Tenants with Right of Survivorship
        13.704 Tenants by the Entirety
        13.705 Community Property
        13.706 Payable on Death Accounts
        13.707 Transfer on Death Accounts
        13.708 TOD Ownership of Securities
        13.709 TOD Ownership of Real Estate
    
13.8 ELECTIVE SHARE FOR ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING
BEFORE JANUARY 1, 2017
        13.801 In General
        13.802 Description and Timing
        13.803 Property Included in the Augmented Estate
        13.804 Excluded Property
        13.805 Meaning of “Property”
        13.806 How the Augmented Estate Is Satisfied
    
13.9 ELECTIVE SHARE FOR ESTATES OF DECEDENTS DYING
ON OR AFTER JANUARY 1, 2017
        13.901 In General
        13.902 Amount of Elective Share and Timing of Election
        13.903 Property Included in the Augmented Estate and
        Marital Property Portion
        13.904 Property Excluded From the Augmented Estate
        13.905 How the Elective Share Amount Is Satisfied

13.10 OTHER STATUTORY ALLOWANCES
        13.1001 Family Allowance
        13.1002 Exempt Property
        13.1003 Homestead Allowance

13.11 REASONS FOR HAVING A WILL
        13.1101 Control Over Disposition of Property
        13.1102 Reduction of Estate Taxes
        13.1103 Control over Naming Fiduciaries

13.12 TYPES OF TRUSTS
        13.1201 In General
        13.1202 Revocable and Irrevocable Trusts Compared
        13.1203 Inter Vivos and Testamentary Trusts Compared
        13.1204 Probate Fees and Administration Expenses
        13.1205 Federal Income Taxes: Grantor Versus
        Nongrantor Trusts

13.13 USES OF TRUSTS
        13.1301 Avoiding Probate
        13.1302 Managing Assets
        13.1303 Tax Savings
        13.1304 Providing for Minors and Other Persons
        Under a Disability
        13.1305 Providing for Spendthrifts

13.14 ALTERNATIVES TO TRUSTS
        13.1401 Uniform Transfers to Minors Act
        13.1402 Uniform Custodial Trust Act
        13.1403 POD Bank Accounts, Savings Accounts and
        United States Savings Bonds; TOD
        Investments; Real Property
        13.1404 Survivorship

13.15 PLANNING FOR MARRIED COUPLES
        13.1501 Marital Agreements
        13.1502 Providing for a Spouse While Controlling the
        Disposition of the Remainder

13.16 DRAFTING WILLS AND TRUSTS
        13.1601 Will Statutes
        13.1602 Will Forms
        13.1603 Living Trusts
        13.1604 Revocable Trust Form
    
13.17 POWERS OF ATTORNEY
        13.1701 In General
        13.1702 Types of Powers of Attorney
        13.1703 Construction of Powers of Attorney
        13.1704 “Durable” Powers of Attorney
        13.1705 Contingent Powers of Attorney Versus
        Delivery in Escrow
        13.1706 Ending the Power of Attorney
        13.1707 Relationship Between Guardian and Agent
        Under Durable Power of Attorney or
        Advance Directive
        13.1708 Final Directives: Health Care Powers of
        Attorney, Advance Directives, and Do Not
        Resuscitate Orders

13.18 CHOOSING FIDUCIARIES
        13.1801 In General
        13.1802 Executors
        13.1803 Administrators and Administrators With
        Will Annexed
        13.1804 Trustees, Guardians, and Attorneys-in-Fact
        13.1805 Co-Fiduciaries
        13.1806 Other Considerations
    
13.19 EXECUTING AND SAFEKEEPING DOCUMENTS
        13.1901 Reviewing Documents
        13.1902 Execution of Wills
        13.1903 Execution of Other Estate Planning Documents
        13.1904 Safekeeping of the Documents
        13.1905 Terminating the Representation

13.20 INITIATING THE ESTATE ADMINISTRATION PROCESS
        13.2001 Introduction and Definitions
        13.2002 Ethical Considerations
        13.2003 Personal Decisions After Death

13.21 PROBATE AND QUALIFICATION
        13.2101 Jurisdiction
        13.2102 Who May Qualify as Personal Representative
        13.2103 Requirements for Probate of a Will
        13.2104 Methods of Probate
        13.2105 Probate of Lost or Destroyed Will
        13.2106 Probate of Later Will
        13.2107 Probate of Foreign Will
        13.2108 Compelling Production of Will
        13.2109 Destroying or Concealing Will
        13.2110 Practical Aspects of Ex Parte Probate and
        Qualification Before Clerk
        13.2111 Probate and Qualification Order
    
13.22 ADMINISTRATION AFTER PROBATE
        13.2201 In General
        13.2202 Powers and Duties of Personal Representatives
        13.2203 Notice of Probate
        13.2204 Collection of Assets
        13.2205 Filing the Inventory
        13.2206 Managing and Administering Assets
        13.2207 Filing Tax Returns
        13.2208 Commissioner of Accounts

13.23 WINDING UP AND SETTLEMENT OF THE ESTATE
        13.2301 Debts and Demands
        13.2302 Distribution of Assets
        13.2303 Filing the Accounting
        13.2304 Distribution of Final Assets
    
APPENDIX 13-1: INITIAL LETTER TO CLIENT

APPENDIX 13-2: ENGAGEMENT LETTER

APPENDIX 13-3: SHORT-FORM QUESTIONNAIRE

APPENDIX 13-4: NON-TAX WILL FOR SINGLE PERSON
WITH TRUST FOR YOUNG BENEFICIARIES

APPENDIX 13-5: NON-TAX WILL WITH TRUST FOR
CHILDREN

APPENDIX 13-6: POUR-OVER WILL

APPENDIX 13-7: NON-TAX TRUST WITH TRUST FOR
CHILDREN

APPENDIX 13-8: MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING
ACCOMPANYING POWER OF ATTORNEY

APPENDIX 13-9: MEMORANDUM OF ESCROW DELIVERY OF
POWER OF ATTORNEY, AUTHORIZATION FOR
RELEASE OF CONFIDENTIAL AND PROTECTED
HEALTH INFORMATION

APPENDIX 13-10: ADVANCE MEDICAL DIRECTIVE;
APPOINTMENT OF AGENT FOR HEALTH CARE
DECISIONS; APPOINTMENT OF PERSONAL
REPRESENTATIVE TO OBTAIN HEALTH CARE
INFORMATION; APPOINTMENT OF AGENT TO MAKE
ANATOMICAL GIFTS

APPENDIX 13-11: DURABLE GENERAL POWER OF
ATTORNEY


CHAPTER 14: INCAPACITATED ADULTS: GUARDIANSHIP
AND CONSERVATORSHIP


14.1 INTRODUCTION

14.2 PETITION FOR APPOINTMENT
        14.201 Definitions
        14.202 Filing the Petition
        14.203 Contents of the Petition
        14.204 Notice Requirements

14.3 GUARDIAN AD LITEM
        14.301 Certification
        14.302 Role
        14.303 Respondent’s Right to Counsel and Trial
        14.304 Statutory Duties in General
        14.305 Investigation
        14.306 Personal Appearance
        14.307 Report
        14.308 Fees

14.4 EVALUATION REPORT
        14.401 In General
        14.402 Contents
        14.403 Obtaining the Evaluation
    
14.5 HEARING

14.6 QUALIFICATION OF GUARDIAN OR CONSERVATOR

14.7 POWERS AND DUTIES OF GUARDIAN
        14.701 Powers in General
        14.702 Effect of Prior Advance Medical Directive
        or Power of Attorney
        14.703 Contact with Incapacitated Person
        14.704 Mandated Reporter
        14.705 Fiduciary Capacity
        14.706 Limitations on Authority
        14.707 Annual Reports
        14.708 Fees
        14.709 Short-Term Psychiatric Hospitalization
    
14.8 POWERS AND DUTIES OF CONSERVATOR
        14.801 Powers in General
        14.802 Sale of Real Estate
        14.803 Estate Planning
        14.804 Mandated Reporter
        14.805 Inventory and Accountings
        14.806 Fees

14.9 RESTORATION, MODIFICATION, OR TERMINATION
        14.901 Petition
        14.902 Relief
        14.903 Procedure
        14.904 Findings
        14.905 Termination

14.10 STANDBY GUARDIAN

14.11 VIRGINIA UNIFORM ADULT GUARDIANSHIP
AND PROTECTIVE PROCEEDINGS ACT
        14.1101 In General
        14.1102 Jurisdictional Rules
        14.1103 Transfer of Authority
        14.1104 Status of Orders from Other States
    
APPENDIX 14-1: PETITION FOR APPOINTMENT OF
GUARDIAN AND CONSERVATOR

APPENDIX 14-2: EVALUATION FORM

APPENDIX 14-3: ORDER APPOINTING GUARDIAN AD LITEM

APPENDIX 14-4: NOTICE

APPENDIX 14-5: REPORT OF GUARDIAN AD LITEM

APPENDIX 14-6: ORDER APPOINTING CONSERVATOR AND
GUARDIAN


CHAPTER 15: ADMINISTRATIVE LAW

15.1 SOURCES OF VIRGINIA ADMINISTRATIVE LAW
        15.101 Virginia Administrative Agencies Generally
        15.102 Agency Authorizing Statutes (Basic Law)
        15.103 Virginia Administrative Process Act
        15.104 Exemptions
        15.105 Case Law
        15.106 Federal Law

15.2 AGENCY RULEMAKING
        15.201 In General
        15.202 Notice of Intended Regulatory Action
        15.203 Proposed Regulations
        15.204 Fast-Track Rulemaking
        15.205 Evidentiary Hearings
        15.206 Emergency Regulations
        15.207 Formal Adoption and Filing of Regulations
        15.208 Executive Review
        15.209 Legislative Review

15.3 AGENCY PERMITTING AND ENFORCEMENT ACTIONS
    15.301 In General
        15.302 Exemptions
        15.303 Informal Fact Finding
        15.304 Formal Evidentiary Hearings
        15.305 Summary Case Decision Proceedings
        15.306 Time Limits for Issuance of Decisions
        15.307 Final Orders
        15.308 Petition for Reconsideration
    
15.4 JUDICIAL REVIEW
        15.401 In General
        15.402 Exemptions
        15.403 Circuit Court Review
        15.404 Scope of Judicial Review
        15.405 Court Judgments and Intermediate Relief
        15.406 Appellate Review of the Circuit Courts’ Decisions
    
15.5 SPECIFIC AGENCIES
        15.501 In General
        15.502 Starting Point for Analysis
        15.503 Virginia Department of Alcoholic Beverage
        Control (Alcoholic Beverage Control Board)
        15.504 Environmental Regulation
        15.505 Occupational Health and Safety
        15.506 Professional and Occupational Licensing
        15.507 Transportation

15.6 STATE CORPORATION COMMISSION (SCC)
        15.601 Introduction
        15.602 Exemption from the Administrative Process Act
        15.603 Sources of SCC Law
        15.604 Administrative Procedure Generally
        15.605 Forms of SCC Proceedings
        15.606 SCC Rulemaking
        15.607 SCC Adjudications
        15.608 SCC Hearing Examiners
        15.609 Judicial Review of SCC Decisions
        15.610 Subject-Matter Jurisdiction of the SCC

APPENDIX 15-1: AGENCY RULEMAKING PROCESS

APPENDIX 15-2: AGENCY ADJUDICATIONS PROCESS

TABLE OF AUTHORITIES

INDEX


Authors

Editors

Dean E. Lhospital, University of Virginia / Charlottesville (Expand/Collapse Bio)

Dean E. Lhospital, co-editor of this book and co-author of Chapter 3, is a Senior Contract Negotiator at the University of Virginia (UVA), supporting research in the School of Medicine. Before joining UVA, Mr. Lhospital was in private practice in Charlottesville handling criminal defense and civil litigation in state and federal trial courts across Virginia and appeals before the Virginia Court of Appeals, the Virginia Supreme Court, and the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit. Mr. Lhospital is on the Board of Governors for the Virginia State Bar Young Lawyers Conference and sits on the Advisory Council for the Legal Aid Justice Center in Charlottesville. He received his J.D. from George Mason University School of Law, where he was the Editor-in- Chief of the Journal of Law, Economics & Policy.

Timothy L. McHugh, Hunton & Williams / Richmond (Expand/Collapse Bio)

Timothy L. McHugh, co-editor of this book, practices environmental and administrative law at Hunton & Williams LLP in Richmond, with an emphasis on litigation and compliance involving air, water, and waste laws. He also co-chairs Hunton & Williams’s Veterans Pro Bono Program. Mr. McHugh’s professional memberships include: the American Bar Association, Section on Environment, Energy, and Resources; the Virginia Bar Association; and the Richmond Bar Association. Mr. McHugh received his J.D. from Washington University in St. Louis School of Law, cum laude, and B.S. degrees in Political Science and Criminal Justice from Appalachian State University.

Authors

Luke J. Bresnahan, Kaufman & Canoles / Norfolk (Expand/Collapse Bio)

Luke J. Bresnahan, co-author of Chapter 1, is a commercial litigation associate with Kaufman & Canoles in Norfolk. Mr. Bresnahan earned his B.A. in Government from the University of Virginia in 2012 and his J.D. from the T.C. Williams School of Law, University of Richmond, in 2016. During law school, he was a member of the University of Richmond Law Review and served as a representative on the Student Bar Association.

Taylor Denslow Brewer, Goodman Allen Donnelly / Richmond (Expand/Collapse Bio)

Taylor Denslow Brewer, co-author of Chapter 1, is an attorney in Richmond, where she defends hospitals, physicians, dentists, nurses, nursing homes, and other health care providers against medical malpractice lawsuits. She also represents automobile insurance carriers and their insureds in personal injury lawsuits. After graduating from Davidson College in 2008 with a B.S. in Psychology and Spanish, she received her J.D., cum laude, from the University of South Carolina School of Law in 2011. During law school, she served on the editorial board of the South Carolina Law Review and was President of the Health Law Society. She is a member of the Richmond Bar Association and the Virginia Association of Defense Attorneys.

John K. Byrum, Jr., Woods Rogers PLC / Richmond (Expand/Collapse Bio)

John K. Byrum, Jr., author of Chapter 15, is a principal with Woods Rogers PLC in its Administrative and Regulatory, Business and Corporate, Litigation, Appellate, and Environmental practice groups. Mr. Byrum was a member of the University of Richmond Law Review and Moot Court Board and published articles in the Law Review as well as the National Journal of Trial Advocacy. He served for more than eight years as an Assistant Attorney General in the Office of the Attorney General of Virginia, five of those as the lead litigator for the Commonwealth’s several environmental agencies. Throughout the course of his practice, he has handled cases at both the state and federal levels, in administrative proceedings, at trial, and on appeal before the Court of Appeals of Virginia, the Virginia Supreme Court, and the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit.

William H. Casterline, Jr., Blankingship & Keith, PC / Fairfax (Expand/Collapse Bio)

William H. Casterline, Jr., co-author of Chapter 9, is a principal with Blankingship & Keith, P.C. His practice focuses on commercial real estate and creditors’ rights. He represents buyers and sellers of commercial properties, including land, office buildings, and hotels. He also represents lenders in the preparation of loan documents for large commercial loans and in closings. He has handled thousands of residential foreclosures and related bankruptcies and over 500 commercial foreclosures. Mr. Casterline is the editor of Virginia Foreclosure Practice, and he frequently lectures on foreclosures and creditors’ rights in bankruptcies. His creditors’ rights practice includes receiverships, unlawful detainers, suits to enforce judgments, and deficiency lawsuits. He represents only creditors in bankruptcy cases, including relief from stay motions, objections to plans, claims disputes, and preference defenses. He also represents commercial landlords in tenant bankruptcies. He has been retained in dozens of cases as an expert witness on foreclosures and trustee duties. Mr. Casterline received his B.A. from the University of Richmond in 1973 and his J.D. from the Marshall-Wythe School of Law in 1976, where he served on the William & Mary Law Review. After law school, he served four years as a captain in the United States Army Judge Advocate General’s Corps. He is a fellow in both the American College of Real Estate Lawyers and the American College of Mortgage Lawyers.

Lindsey A. Coley, Gentry Locke Attorneys / Roanoke (Expand/Collapse Bio)

Lindsey A. Coley, co-author of Chapter 13, is a partner at Gentry Locke Attorneys in Roanoke. Ms. Coley practices law in the areas of estate planning, estate administration, and employment. She is an active member of the Roanoke Bar Association and serves on the Board of Governors for the Virginia State Bar Young Lawyers Conference, Board of Directors for the Smith Mountain Lake Regional Chamber of Commerce, and the Roanoke Valley Society for Human Resource Management. Ms. Coley received her B.S., magna cum laude, from Elon University and earned her J.D. and an MBA from the University of Dayton. She has been named a Virginia Super Lawyers “Rising Star” for the past five years.

Kay M. Creasman, Old Republic Title Company / Richmond (Expand/Collapse Bio)

Kay M. Creasman, co-author of Chapter 11, is Virginia Counsel and Assistant Vice President for Old Republic National Title Insurance Company. She has been with Old Republic since March 2008, solving problems with practical solutions for title and settlement agents throughout Virginia.

Ms. Creasman received a J.D. from the University of Richmond, an M.Ed. from Tulane University, and a B.S. from Athens College. Since 1976, she has, at various times, maintained a private law practice in the Richmond area focusing on real estate, small business matters, and wills; owned and operated a high-volume title insurance and nonattorney settlement agency; been employed by national underwriters as counsel in Virginia and West Virginia; searched title in the record rooms; and taught both undergraduate and graduate students in the business schools at Virginia Commonwealth University and the University of Richmond. Ms. Creasman is a frequent speaker for Virginia CLE, Virginia Land Title Association, Old Republic National Title Insurance Company and others on real estate and title insurance matters.

Ms. Creasman has been active as an Area Representative for the Real Property Section of the Virginia State Bar since 2010 involved with multiple committees, has been on the Board of Governors since 2013, and currently (2017-2018) serves as the Vice Chair of the Board of Governors. She is a member of the Real Estate Section of the Virginia Bar Association. She is the recipient of the 2017 Traver Scholar Award presented by the Real Property Section of the Virginia State Bar and Virginia CLE to honor men and women who embody the highest ideals and expertise in the practice of real estate law. Traver Scholars are Real Property Section members who have made significant contributions to the practice of real property law generally and the section specifically, and have generously shared their knowledge with others.

Ms. Creasman is an active member and a past president (2003-2004) of the Virginia Land Title Association (VLTA) and the 2010 recipient of the VLTA Distinguished Service Award, which honors individual members of VLTA who have made significant contributions to, and an impact on, the success of the association. Within VLTA she focuses on legislative matters affecting real estate in Virginia and continuing education of title and settlement agents.

Kevin F. X. DeTurris, Blankingship & Keith, P.C. / Fairfax (Expand/Collapse Bio)

Kevin F. X. DeTurris, co-author of Chapter 12, is a principal with the law firm of Blankingship & Keith, P.C. Mr. DeTurris’ practice is concentrated in eminent domain matters and civil litigation. He has been listed in Super Lawyers as a rising star in the years 2013 and 2014. He is the co-editor of Eminent Domain Law in Virginia (Virginia CLE 2017) and co-author of the trial chapter of that book. His professional activities include serving as a Director on the Virginia Bar Association’s Young Lawyers Division Board(2007-2008), a Director on the Fairfax Bar Association’s Board of Directors 2005-2007), and President of the Fairfax Bar Association’s Young Lawyers Section (2005-2006). Mr. DeTurris has spoken at numerous continuing legal education courses on eminent domain and property tax appeals. He received his B.A. from the University of Rhode Island in 1995 and his J.D. from the American University Washington College of Law in 2003.

Thomas M. Dunlap, Dunlap Bennett & Ludwig PLLC / Leesburg (Expand/Collapse Bio)

Thomas M. Dunlap, co-author of Chapter 8, manages the intellectual property practice of Dunlap Bennett & Ludwig, PLLC, which was named a Best of Virginia firm by Virginia Living for each year from 2014 through 2017. Mr. Dunlap’s practice focuses on transactions and disputes in patent, copyright, and trademark. He has handled patent, copyright, and trademark cases in courts across the United States, including recent success in winning three major preliminary injunctions in patent cases (EDTX and DNJ) and successfully arguing a number of major patent matters before the Federal Circuit. Mr. Dunlap has taught numerous CLE courses in intellectual property (including recently Lost Profits: The Footprint Approach and Determining Damages in Patent Infringement Cases, A 2017 Perspective) and has often been named a Virginia and Washington D.C. SuperLawyer. He has also been included in Virginia Business magazine’s Legal and Business Elite. Mr. Dunlap is a Certified Patent Valuation Analyst and is also a founder and patent holder of the biotechnology company Ceres Nanosciences, Inc. He has served as a special prosecutor in Loudoun County and has a background in retail commercial banking and finance at JP Morgan Chase and the Bank of New York.

Lauren Stockburger Eells, Gentry Locke Attorneys / Roanoke (Expand/Collapse Bio)

Lauren Stockburger Eells, co-author of Chapter 13, is an associate at Gentry Locke Attorneys in their General Commercial Practice Group. Ms. Eels primarily assists individuals, families, business owners, and beneficiaries with various estate-related matters, including extensive planning, wealth preservation techniques, business succession planning, and administration. Additionally, Ms. Eels works with closely held businesses, assisting them with general corporate matters, various commercial transactions, and intellectual property protection. She graduated, cum laude, from Virginia Tech in 2007 and received her J.D. from the University of Richmond T.C. Williams School of Law in 2010. Ms. Eels lives in Roanoke with her husband and twin sons.

Elizabeth Godwin-Jones, Godwin-Jones & Price, P.C. / Richmond (Expand/Collapse Bio)

Elizabeth Godwin-Jones, co-author of Chapter 11, is a partner with the law firm of Godwin-Jones & Price, P.C. She graduated with honors from Iowa State University with a B.A. in German. While at Iowa State she was inducted into Phi Beta Kappa. She received a J.D. from Georgetown University. Ms. Godwin-Jones received a master’s degree in German linguistics from the University of Illinois and studied Low German dialects for one year as a Fulbright scholar at the University of Münster, Germany. She studied law for one year at the Université de Pau in France and received a licence en droit degree avec mention. Ms. Godwin-Jones is a member of the Virginia State Bar, Virginia Creditors’ Bar Association, Virginia Apartment Association, and the Richmond Apartment Owners Association. She serves on the Legislation Committee of the Virginia Apartment Association and is a past president of the Virginia Creditors’ Bar Association. Ms. Godwin-Jones has lectured for the National Business Institute, the Central Virginia Apartment Association, and the Richmond Association of Realtors.

Leslie A. T. Haley, ParkHaley LLP / Richmond (Expand/Collapse Bio)

Leslie A.T. Haley, author of Chapter 2, is a partner at ParkHaley LLP in Richmond. Ms. Haley provides legal ethics and law office management advice and counsel to lawyers and law firms. Ms. Haley is the former Senior Assistant Ethics Counsel for the Virginia State Bar, where she spent 14 years advising Virginia lawyers and judges on questions of ethics and lawyer advertising as well as unauthorized practice of law issues. She served as staff liaison to the Legal Ethics Committee and drafted numerous advisory ethics opinions. She is a frequent author and lecturer on various CLE topics both in Virginia and on a national level and teaches Professional Responsibility and Legal Skills at William and Mary’s Marshall-Wythe School of Law.

Anne M. Heishman, Dingman Labowitz P.C. / Alexandria (Expand/Collapse Bio)

Anne M. Heishman, author of Chapter 14, concentrates her practice on guardianship, conservatorship, estate and trust administration, and contested fiduciary matters. She also serves as a guardian ad litem for incapacitated adults. Ms. Heishman clerked for the Honorable Michael P. McWeeny of the Fairfax County Circuit Court immediately after law school and worked as a domestic relations attorney before joining Dingman Labowitz. She has extensive courtroom experience at both the trial and appellate levels.

Ms. Heishman has been a lecturer or panel participant for seminars presented by the Fairfax Bar Association, the Virginia Trial Lawyers Association, and the Virginia Academy of Elder Law Attorneys. She has been recognized as a top elder law attorney by Washingtonian magazine, Northern Virginia magazine, and Virginia Business magazine.

Ms. Heishman was born in Washington, D.C., and resides in Alexandria, Virginia.

Andrew M. Hendrick, Shuttleworth, Ruloff, Swain, Haddad & Morecock, P.C. / Virginia Beach (Expand/Collapse Bio)

Andrew M. Hendrick, author of Chapter 4, is an attorney with Shuttleworth, Ruloff, Swain, Haddad & Morecock, P.C., in Virginia Beach. He concentrates his practice in the areas of business, employment, and trusts and estates. He has represented both employers and employees in a variety of matters, including cases before state and federal agencies and litigation in federal courts.

Mr. Hendrick received his B.A. from The Citadel in 1995 and his J.D. from the University of Virginia School of Law in 1998. He is member of the Virginia State Bar.

Steven L. Higgs, Steven L. Higgs, PC / Roanoke (Expand/Collapse Bio)

Steven L. Higgs, co-author of Chapter 9, is the principal of Steven L. Higgs, P.C., in Roanoke. He is certified in Creditors’ Rights and in Consumer Bankruptcy Law by the American Board of Certification. He is a member of the panel of Chapter 7 bankruptcy trustees for the Western District of Virginia. His areas of practice include representation of creditors in bankruptcy cases, creditors’ rights, civil litigation, and commercial real estate. Mr. Higgs earned a B.A. from Washington and Lee University in 1980 and a J.D. in 1983 from the T.C. Williams School of Law, University of Richmond. He is a frequent speaker for Virginia CLE and is a contributing author of four Virginia Lawyers Practice Deskbooks: Bankruptcy Practice in Virginia (4th ed. 2017), Debt Collection for Virginia Lawyers—A Systematic Approach (6th ed. 2016), Enforcement of Liens and Judgments in Virginia (7th ed. 2016), and The Virginia Lawyer—A Deskbook for Practitioners (6th ed. 2017). Mr. Higgs is the author or co-author of more than 100 articles, seminar outlines, and book chapters on bankruptcy law, creditors’ rights law, legal ethics, and real estate foreclosures. He is a past president of the Roanoke Bar Association and a member of the American Bar Association, the Virginia State Bar, and the American Bankruptcy Institute. He is a Fellow of the American Bar Association, the Virginia Law Foundation, the Roanoke Law Foundation, the Litigation Counsel of America, and the National Conference of Bar Presidents.

Henry E. Howell, III, The Eminent Domain Litigation Group, PLC / Chesapeake (Expand/Collapse Bio)

Henry E. Howell, III, co-author of chapter 12, is the principal member of The Eminent Domain Litigation Group, P.L.C., where he practices in eminent domain and property rights litigation for owners. Mr. Howell has specialized in representing owners in eminent domain proceedings for the past nine years. He is admitted to practice before the courts of Virginia, the United States District Courts for the Eastern and Western Districts of Virginia, and the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit. Mr. Howell is a member of the Virginia Beach, Norfolk, and Portsmouth bar associations.

David Ludwig, Dunlap Bennett & Ludwig PLLC / Leesburg (Expand/Collapse Bio)

David Ludwig, co-author of Chapter 8, is a partner at Dunlap Bennett & Ludwig, PLLC and co-chair of the firm’s litigation group. Mr. Ludwig’s practice focuses on intellectual property disputes in the areas of copyright, patent, trademark, and domain names, in addition to commercial transactions and government contracts. He has represented manufacturing companies in complex patent infringement matters, technology companies in trademark infringement matters, and copyright holders in infringement actions against companies that include Disney, ABC, and Oracle. Mr. Ludwig is an adjunct professor on intellectual property matters at the George Washington University Law School, and he has taught numerous CLE courses on intellectual property and domain name issues. He maintains an “AV Preeminent” peer review rating from Martindale-Hubbell and has been included in Virginia Business magazine’s Legal Elite.

Mr. Ludwig received his B.A. from Sonoma State University and his J.D. from the George Washington University Law School. He regularly volunteers at community non-profit organizations and serves as President of the Board of Directors of Every Citizen Has Opportunities, Inc., a nonprofit that provides employment, vocational training, and community integration opportunities for persons with intellectual and developmental disabilities.

Michael G. Matheson, ThompsonMcMullan, PC / Richmond (Expand/Collapse Bio)

Michael G. Matheson, co-author of Chapter 3, is a civil litigation attorney whose practice emphasizes claims involving business disputes, real estate and land use, civil rights, commercial law, and construction law. Mr. Matheson received a B.S. in Economics from Virginia Commonwealth University and, in 2011, earned his J.D., summa cum laude, from the University of Richmond’s T.C. Williams School of Law. As a law student, Mr. Matheson served as the Executive Editor of the Richmond Law Review, Vol. 46. He is a member of the Order of the Coif and the McNeil Law Society. In 2010, Mr. Matheson was a student clerk for the Hon. James R. Spencer (Ret.) of the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia. Upon graduation, he served as judicial law clerk for the Hon. Michael C. Allen (Ret.) of the Circuit Court for Chesterfield County. Mr. Matheson currently serves as President-Elect of the Chesterfield County Bar Association.

Stephen A. Mutnick, Winslow & McCurry, PLLC / Midlothian (Expand/Collapse Bio)

Stephen A. Mutnick, co-author of Chapter 3, practices primarily in the areas of criminal and traffic defense and also acts as a guardian ad litem. Mr. Mutnick regularly defends those accused of crimes, ranging from speeding to murder, in the counties of Chesterfield, Henrico, and Hanover, and in the City of Richmond and other jurisdictions in central Virginia. He is certified as court-appointed counsel for both adults and juveniles in misdemeanor and felony cases and as a guardian ad litem for juveniles. He also regularly appears as counsel and as guardian ad litem for juveniles in delinquency cases.

Mr. Mutnick has been a speaker for Virginia CLE since 2013 and has lectured in the areas of the DUI defense, Serious Traffic Offenses, and Juvenile Criminal Law. In 2016, Mr. Mutnick created and was lead faculty in the seminar Representing the Criminal Juvenile Defendant: Navigating the Juvenile Justice System. He also has taught at the Commonwealth Attorney’s Services Council Spring Institute, the Virginia State Police Academy, and the Henrico Police Academy.

During the General Assembly session, Mr. Mutnick serves as Counsel to the House of Delegates’ Courts of Justice Committee, where he advises the members of the General Assembly on important issues in criminal law. In 2016, he was appointed to a two-year term as a member of the Chesterfield Colonial Heights Community Criminal Justice Board, in which capacity he assists county leaders in developing criminal justice policy.

Mr. Mutnick joined the firm of Winslow & McCurry in 2013 after serving as an Assistant Commonwealth’s Attorney for approximately six years. He was an Assistant Commonwealth’s Attorney in Loudoun County for two years, before serving as an Assistant Commonwealth’s Attorney in Henrico County until 2013.

Born and raised in Burke, Virginia, Mr. Mutnick attended the College of William and Mary with a major in Public Policy. After college, he attended the T.C. Williams School of Law at the University of Richmond, where he was awarded the trial advocacy award upon graduation from the Virginia Trial Lawyers Association. Mr. Mutnick lives with his wife and two dogs in the Richmond area.

Hon. Robert A. Pustilnik, Richmond General District Court (Ret.) (Expand/Collapse Bio)

Judge Robert A. Pustilnik, co-author of Chapter 9, served as judge of the Richmond General District Court, Civil Division, prior to his retirement in 2012. He had previously been a partner in a very active collection practice from 1969 until April 2002. Judge Pustilnik has been a regular speaker for Virginia CLE, the Richmond Bar Association, and other professional groups. He was a founding member of the National Association of Retail Collection Attorneys and one of the original members of the Virginia Creditors’ Bar Association. While in private practice, he served as pro bono counsel for Richmond Legal Aid. Judge Pustilnik retired from the bench in January 2012 but continues to sit as a substitute judge.

Rhonda Quagliana, St. John, Bowling, Lawrence & Quagliana, LLP / Charlottesville (Expand/Collapse Bio)

Rhonda Quagliana, co-author of Chapter 3, earned a B.A. in 1984 from Tulane University and a Ph.D. in English from the University of Virginia in 1992 before earning a J.D. from the University of Virginia in 1995. She is a partner with St. John, Bowling, Lawrence & Quagliana, LLP, a litigation and business transaction firm that represents clients in state and federal courts in a variety of matters. Her general litigation practice focuses on complex civil and criminal cases. She is an adjunct faculty member at the University of Virginia School of Law, where she teaches trial advocacy and Federal Criminal Pretrial and Trial Practice. Ms. Quagliana serves as a substitute judge in the General District and Juvenile and Domestic Relations Courts of the Sixteenth Judicial District. She has contributed her efforts to a number of law-related organizations, including as president of the Charlottesville/Albemarle Bar Association, the Indigent Defense Commission’s Capital Qualification Standards Committee, and the Local Rules Committee for the United States District Court for the Western District of Virginia. Ms. Quagliana has lectured and written on a variety of topics, including Title IX disciplinary matters; the effective use of voir dire in criminal trials; litigating death penalty cases; the importance of pro bono efforts by attorneys in their communities; and the recovery of damages in Virginia courts. Ms. Quagliana has also served on community boards and nonprofit organizations, including the Region Ten Local Human Rights Committee and the Charlottesville/Albemarle SPCA.

Jeremy B. Root, Blankingship & Keith, P.C. / Fairfax (Expand/Collapse Bio)

Jeremy B. Root, co-author of Chapter 9, is a principal with Blankingship & Keith, P.C. His practice combines the transactional aspects of commercial real estate, such as commercial lending, acquisition, development, and leasing, with the enforcement of real estate liens through foreclosures and receiverships. He frequently represents creditors in bankruptcy matters, including claim objections, preference defenses, and relief from the automatic stay. Over the past 14 years, Mr. Root has conducted hundreds of foreclosures, including those involving multiple complex commercial matters. Mr. Root received his B.A. from Wheaton College (Illinois) in 1997 and his J.D. from George Mason University School of Law in 2003, where he served on the George Mason Law Review. Since 2012, he has served as a member of the Real Estate Section Council of the Virginia Bar Association and is currently serving as president of the Northern Virginia Bankruptcy Bar Association.

Mark E. Rubin, The McCammon Group / Richmond (Expand/Collapse Bio)

Mark E. Rubin, co-author of Chapter 3, is an attorney and a certified mediator for the McCammon Group. Mr. Rubin is also the executive director of the Virginia Center for Consensus Building and the former executive director for the Office of Government Relations for Virginia Commonwealth University and for the university’s Health System. His ADR experience covers a broad range of areas, including professional malpractice, personal injury, securities, employment, and general commercial matters.

Mr. Rubin is a Fellow in the Virginia Law Foundation and a recipient of the Distinguished Service Award from the Virginia Trial Lawyers Foundation. He is also a former chairperson of the Virginia State Bar/Virginia Bar Association Joint Committee on Dispute Resolution. He is a member of Phi Beta Kappa and received his B.A. from the University of North Carolina and his J.D. from The University of Virginia School of Law.

Leslie A. Shaner, QDRO Virginia, PLC / Chesterfield (Expand/Collapse Bio)

Leslie A. Shaner, author of Chapter 6, is the principal of QDRO Virginia, PLC, a resource for domestic relations attorneys when retirement accounts must be divided. Her practice experience includes all aspects of family law, with a particular focus on the division of retirement benefits in divorce, elder law, and estate planning.

Ms. Shaner is a frequent CLE speaker and author in Virginia. Among her presentations are “Valuing Assets in Today’s Economy,” presented in February, 2010 for Virginia CLE, and an article, “The Development and Death of Federal Common Law in Divorce,” published in the Virginia Bar Association Winter Journal. She is the author of Divorce in the Golden Years, a national legal treatise published by the American Bar Association that addresses issues for elderly divorce clients.

Ms. Shaner is a member of the American Bar Association (Family Law Section), the Virginia State Bar Association (Family Law and Estates & Trusts Sections), the Virginia Bar Association (Domestic Relations and Elder Law Section Council Member), the National Academy of Elder Law Attorneys, the Virginia Academy of Elder Law Attorneys (Board of Directors 2008–2010), the Chesterfield-Colonial Heights Bar Association, the Metro Richmond Women’s Bar Association, and the Metro Richmond Family Law Bar Association. She is a graduate of Randolph-Macon Woman’s College and the Washington & Lee University School of Law. She is a member of Phi Beta Kappa and has been elected to Virginia’s Legal Elite.

Ms. Shaner was named one of the 2012 Influential Women in Virginia by Virginia Lawyers Media, Inc. She has also been named one of Virginia Businessmagazine’s Legal Elite for her work in the areas of estates, trusts, and taxes.

Thomas E. Spahn, McGuireWoods LLP / Tysons Corner (Expand/Collapse Bio)

Thomas E. Spahn, author of Chapter 7, practices as a commercial litigator with McGuireWoods in Tysons Corner, Virginia. Mr. Spahn was selected as the 2013 metro-Washington DC “Lawyer of the Year” for “Bet the Company Litigation” by The Best Lawyers in America (Woodward/White, Inc.). He has served on the ABA Standing Committee on Ethics and Professional Responsibility. He is also is a Member of the American Law Institute and a Fellow of the American Bar Foundation. Mr. Spahn has written extensively on attorney-client privilege, ethics, and other topics and has spoken at over 1,700 CLE programs throughout the United States and in several other countries. He is the author of The Attorney-Client Privilege and the Work Product Doctrine: A Practitioner’s Guide (Virginia CLE 2013) and a companion publication, A Virginia-Specific Summary Guide: The Attorney-Client Privilege and the Work Product Doctrine (Virginia CLE 2017). He is also the author of individual chapters in several other Virginia CLE publications. Mr. Spahn graduated magna cum laude from Yale University and received his J.D. from Yale Law School.

Paul B. Terpak, Blankingship & Keith, PC / Fairfax (Expand/Collapse Bio)

Paul B. Terpak, co-author of Chapter 12, is a shareholder and head of the Virginia Eminent Domain Group at Blankingship & Keith, P.C. His firm was ranked No. 1 in Virginia in Eminent Domain by Best Lawyers in America for several years, and Best Lawyers has named him Washington, D.C. Area Eminent Domain and Condemnation Law Lawyer of the Year for 2012, 2016, and 2018. Mr. Terpak has written and lectured about eminent domain on numerous occasions and served on the Virginia Code Commission Advisory Committee on the recodification of eminent domain law. He is a graduate of the University of Virginia and its School of Law and is a past president of the Fairfax Bar Association and past chair of the Virginia State Bar Committee on Lawyer Discipline.

Wilson R. Trice, ThompsonMcMullan, P.C. / Richmond (Expand/Collapse Bio)

Wilson R. Trice, author of Chapter 10, is a member of the firm of Thompson-McMullan in Richmond. His practice focuses on commercial and real estate lending, banking, and consumer financial services. He is listed in Virginia Business magazine’s list of Legal Elite. Mr. Trice received a B.A. from the University of Virginia and graduated from the University of Richmond Law School, where he was on the staff of the University of Richmond Law Review and chaired its Honor Court. He is the Virginia reporter for the ABA publications Commercial Lending Law and The Law of Guaranties.

Richard C. Wetzel, III, Dominion Resources Services, Inc. / Richmond (Expand/Collapse Bio)

Richard C. Wetzel, III, author of Chapter 5, serves as corporate counsel for Dominion Resources Services, Inc., advising on all manner of commercial transactions, including mergers, acquisitions, divestitures, and joint ventures. Before joining Dominion Resources, Mr. Wetzel was an attorney with Hunton & Williams LLP, where his practice focused on representing public and private companies in connection with mergers and acquisitions, securities offerings, and corporate and securities laws. He earned his B.S. in Finance from the Pennsylvania State University and his J.D. from the University of Virginia School of Law, where he was a Hardy C. Dillard Fellow.

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