Contract Law in Virginia (OLD EDITION)

Publication Date: 2011 (View 2016 edition.)
Electronic Forms: 32
Available Formats: Print (919 pages, looseleaf, 2 volumes, with forms CD)
Product #: 863

Information

PLEASE NOTE: A 2016 edition of this publication is available in print, CD, USB flash drive, and immediate download. Click here for newest edition.

Contract law pervades every area of practice. Contract Law in Virginia takes the practitioner from contract formation to performance, as well as nonperformance issues. Special attention is given to electronic contracts (including "clickwrap" and "browsewrap" contracts), arbitration agreements, construction contracts, drafting contracts to protect business method processes, and standards for granting preliminary injunctive relief. Both the UCC and federal contract law receive extensive coverage.

Numerous downloadable forms are provided with comments on their use and a guide on the art of drafting contracts.

Table of Contents

PLEASE NOTE: A 2016 edition of this publication is available in print, CD, USB flash drive, and immediate download. Click here for newest edition.

TABLE OF CONTENTS (2011 Edition)
Chapters and Authors 
Acknowledgments
About the Editors and Authors
Preface


CHAPTER LIST
1. Introduction
2. Formation Of Contracts
3. Statute Of Frauds
4. Determining Contractual Obligations
5. Policing The Bargain
6. Performance And Nonperformance
7. Third-Party Beneficiary Law
8. Assignment And Delegation
9. Joint And Several Contracts
10. Special Types Of Contracts
11. General Drafting Principles
12. Remedies For Breach Of Contract
13. Resolving Contract Disputes Through Alternative Dispute Resolution
14. Litigating A Contract Case
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION  (back to top)

1.1 SOURCES AND ORGANIZATION OF CONTRACT LAW
      1.101 Overview
      1.102 Case Law
      1.103 Virginia Statutes
      1.104 Federal Statutes
      1.105 United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods

1.2 DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
      1.201 Definition of a Contract
      1.202 Glossary of Common Contract Terms

1.3 TYPES OF CONTRACTS
      1.301 Voidable and Void Contracts
      1.302 Express and Implied Contracts
      1.303 Unilateral and Bilateral Contracts
      1.304 Executory and Executed Contracts
      1.305 Unenforceable Contracts
      1.306 Entire and Severable Contracts
      1.307 Oral and Written Contracts
      1.308 Electronic Contracts

CHAPTER 2: FORMATION OF CONTRACTS  (back to top)

2.1 INTRODUCTION

2.2 THEORY OF MUTUAL ASSENT

2.3 MECHANICS OF ASSENT: OFFER AND ACCEPTANCE
      2.301 Offer
      2.302 Acceptance
      2.303 Other Elements of Contract Formation
      2.304 Termination of Offer

2.4 CONSIDERATION
      2.401 In General
      2.402 Adequacy of Consideration
      2.403 Bargained-For Exchange
      2.404 Requirement of Mutuality
      2.405 Lack of Consideration
      2.406 Types of Consideration

2.5 CONTRACTS WITHOUT CONSIDERATION
      2.501 In General
      2.502 Equitable Estoppel
      2.503 Promissory Estoppel
      2.504 Quasi-Contract

2.6 SEAL AND OTHER VIRGINIA FORMALITIES
      2.601 Promises Under Seal
      2.602 Notary Requirement
      2.603 Witness Requirement

CHAPTER 3: STATUTE OF FRAUDS  (back to top)

3.1 INTRODUCTION

3.2 SCOPE OF THE STATUTE
      3.201 In General
      3.202 Representations as to Credit
      3.203 Ratification of Contracts by Infants After Coming of Age
      3.204 Promises by Executors or Administrators
      3.205 Promises to Answer for the Debt, Default, or Misdoings of Another
      3.206 Agreements in Consideration of Marriage
      3.207 Contracts Relating to the Sale of Land
      3.208 Agreements Not to Be Performed Within One Year
      3.209 Contracts in the Aggregate of $25,000 or More

3.3 SATISFACTION OF THE STATUTE
      3.301 Form of Writing
      3.302 Essential Terms
      3.303 Signatures

3.4 EXCEPTIONS
      3.401 Parol Evidence
      3.402 Full Performance
      3.403 Part Performance

3.5 EFFECT OF NONCOMPLIANCE

3.6 ADDITIONAL VIRGINIA STATUTES REQUIRING AGREEMENTS TO BE IN WRITING
      3.601 In General
      3.602 Uniform Commercial Code
      3.603 Promise After Bankruptcy

CHAPTER 4: DETERMINING CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS  (back to top)

4.1 OVERVIEW

4.2 CONSTRUCTION AND INTERPRETATION
      4.201 In General
      4.202 Intent
      4.203 Governing Law
      4.204 Plain Meaning
      4.205 Unambiguous Contracts
      4.206 Ambiguous Contracts
      4.207 Conclusion

4.3 THE PAROL EVIDENCE RULE
      4.301 In General
      4.302 Parties to Which the Rule Applies
      4.303 Exceptions to the Parol Evidence Rule
      4.304 Section 8.2-202 of the Virginia Code

4.4 SUPPLYING OMITTED TERMS
      4.401 In General
      4.402 Partial Integration Doctrine
      4.403 Common Terms
      4.404 Scrivener's Error

4.5 CUSTOM AND TRADE USAGE
      4.501 Common Law
      4.502 Knowledge
      4.503 Common Trade
      4.504 Effect on Contract Terms
      4.505 Ambiguity
      4.506 UCC Implications

4.6 CONTRACTS FOR THE INTERNATIONAL SALE OF GOODS
      4.601 In General
      4.602 Parol Evidence Under the CISG
      4.603 Course of Dealing, Custom, and Trade Usage
      4.604 Merger Clauses and Exclusion of CISG Provisions

APPENDIX 4-1: CASES DISCUSSING STATUTORY CONSTRUCTION

CHAPTER 5: POLICING THE BARGAIN  (back to top)

5.1 MENTAL COMPETENCE
      5.101 In General
      5.102 Rebutting the Presumption of Competence

5.2 CONTRACTS OF MINORS
      5.201 In General
      5.202 Ratification and Disaffirmance

5.3 MISTAKE
      5.301 In General
      5.302 Mutual Mistake
      5.303 Unilateral Mistake
      5.304 Misunderstanding
      5.305 Mistake in Transcription
      5.306 Mistake in Transmission by Intermediary

5.4 FRAUD AND MISREPRESENTATION
      5.401 In General
      5.402 Elements of Actual Fraud
      5.403 The Doctrine of Caveat Emptor
      5.404 Constructive Fraud
      5.405 Duty of Prompt Disaffirmance
      5.406 Statutory Protections

5.5 DURESS AND UNDUE INFLUENCE

5.6 MODIFICATION OF CONTRACTS
      5.601 In General
      5.602 Effect of Modification
      5.603 Applicability of the Statute of Frauds
      5.604 No Oral Modification Clauses

5.7 WARRANTIES AND DISCLAIMERS
      5.701 In General
      5.702 Warranties, Representations, and Covenants Distinguished
      5.703 Warranties under the UCC
      5.704 Implied Duty to Indemnify
      5.705 Disclaimers and Modifications of Warranties
      5.706 Modification or Limitation of Remedies

5.8 PUBLIC POLICY AND ILLEGALITY

5.9 UNCONSCIONABILITY
      5.901 In General
      5.902 Proof of Unconscionability
      5.903 Unconscionability Under the UCC
      5.904 Duty of Good Faith

5.10 ACCORD AND SATISFACTION
      5.1001 In General
      5.1002 Joint Tortfeasors
      5.1003 Use of Instrument
      5.1004 Burden of Proof
      5.1005 Effect of UCC Section 1-207

CHAPTER 6: PERFORMANCE AND NONPERFORMANCE  (back to top)

6.1 OVERVIEW
      6.101 Importance of Performance Issues
      6.102 Scope of this Chapter

6.2 CONDITIONS
      6.201 Overview
      6.202 Conditions Based Upon Time
      6.203 Implied Conditions

6.3 ORDER OF PERFORMANCE

6.4 ANTICIPATORY BREACH
      6.401 In General
      6.402 What Constitutes Repudiation
      6.403 The Right to Demand Assurances
      6.404 Repudiation Must Be Clear, Unequivocal, and Material

6.5 BREACH: TYPES AND EFFECTS
      6.501 Overview
      6.502 Making Performance Impossible
      6.503 Failure of Performance

6.6 SUBSTANTIAL PERFORMANCE
      6.601 Overview
      6.602 The UCC and Substantial Performance

6.7 RESPONSES TO BREACH
      6.701 Overview
      6.702 Permissible Actions
      6.703 Waiver
      6.704 Tips for the Practitioner

6.8 EXCUSE FOR NONPERFORMANCE: IMPOSSIBILITY AND FRUSTRATION
      6.801 Overview
      6.802 Impossibility
      6.803 Frustration of Purpose
      6.804 Tips for the Practitioner

CHAPTER 7: THIRD-PARTY BENEFICIARY LAW  (back to top)

7.1 INTRODUCTION

7.2 DISTINGUISHING BETWEEN INTENDED AND INCIDENTAL BENEFICIARIES
      7.201 The "Clearly and Definitely Intended" Standard
      7.202 The Federal "One Overriding Intent" Standard
      7.203 Eligibiity of Class Members to be Third-Party Beneficiaries
      7.204 Requirement That Parties Contemplate a Third-Party Benefit at the Time of Contracting
      7.205 Mere Receipt of Benefit or Harm Under Contract Distinguished

7.3 PAROL EVIDENCE RULE
      7.301 In General
      7.302 Applicability of the Parole Evidence Rule
      7.303 Application in Various Contexts

7.4 DEFENSES TO THIRD-PARTY BENEFICIARY CLAIMS

7.5 CASES BY SUBJECT MATTER AREA
      7.501 Accounting and Auditing Services
      7.502 Arbitration Provisions
      7.503 Attorney-Client Contracts
      7.504 Banking
      7.505 Bankruptcy
      7.506 Disability Benefits/IDEA Contracts
      7.507 Health Care
      7.508 Insurance
      7.509 Labor and Employment Contracts
      7.510 Materialmen Under a Contractor's Bond
      7.511 Owner-Architect Contracts
      7.512 Product Liability
      7.513 Product Warranties
      7.514 Public Finance
      7.515 Real Estate
      7.516 Releases
      7.517 Shipping Contracts
      7.518 Stock Purchase Agreement
      7.519 Wills

CHAPTER 8: ASSIGNMENT AND DELEGATION  (back to top)

8.1 TERMINOLOGY
      8.101 Definitions
      8.102 Illustrations

8.2 ASSIGNMENT OF RIGHTS
      8.201 Assignable Rights
      8.202 Requirements for Effective Assignment
      8.203 Effect of Assignment

8.3 DELEGATION OF DUTIES
      8.301 Duties that May Be Delegated
      8.302 Requirements for Effective Delegation
      8.303 Effect of Delegation

8.4 LIMITATIONS ON ASSIGNMENT AND DELEGATION

8.5 EFFECTS OF MODIFICATION OR DISCHARGE

8.6 PRIORITIES BETWEEN CLAIMANTS
      8.601 General Rule
      8.602 Exceptions to the Rule

APPENDIX 8-1: ASSIGNMENT CLAUSE

CHAPTER 9: JOINT AND SEVERAL CONTRACTS  (back to top)

9.1 OVERVIEW

9.2 MULTIPLE OBLIGORS
      9.201 In General
      9.202 Several Liability
      9.203 Joint Liability
      9.204 Joint and Several Liability
      9.205 Liability of Unnamed Signer
      9.206 Promises of the Same Performance
      9.207 Partnership Obligations
      9.208 Negotiable Instruments
      9.209 Form Provisions

9.3 MULTIPLE OBLIGEES

9.4 EFFECTS OF PERFORMANCE, BREACH, AND DISCHARGE
      9.401 Effects of Performance
      9.402 Effects of Breach
      9.403 Effects of Discharge

9.5 SURVIVAL OF RIGHTS OR DUTIES

APPENDIX 9-1: JOINT AND SEVERAL LIABILITY PROVISION--NOTE

APPENDIX 9-2: JOINT AND SEVERAL LIABILITY PROVISION--GUARANTY

APPENDIX 9-3: JOINT AND SEVERAL LIABILITY PROVISION--LEASE

APPENDIX 9-4: JOINT AND SEVERAL LIABILITY PROVISION--LEASE (ANOTHER FORM)

APPENDIX 9-5: SEVERAL LIABILITY PROVISION--LOAN AGREEMENT

APPENDIX 9-6: SEVERAL LIABILITY PROVISION--STOCK PURCHASE AGREEMENT

CHAPTER 10: SPECIAL TYPES OF CONTRACTS  (back to top)

10.1 COMMERCIAL CONTRACTS
      10.101 Introduction
      10.102 Creating the Contract
      10.103 The Parol Evidence Rule
      10.104 Performance
      10.105 Warranties

10.2 CONSTRUCTION CONTRACTS
      10.201 Introduction
      10.202 American Institute of Architects Form Contracts
      10.203 Provisions Common in Owner-Contractor Contracts
      10.204 Subcontractor Provisions
      10.205 Delay in Performance
      10.206 Conclusion

10.3 CONSUMER CONTRACTS
      10.301 Introduction
      10.302 Common Law
      10.303 Statutes Affecting Consumer Contracts
      10.304 Virginia Recovery Funds
      10.305 Consumer-Related Business Promotions
      10.306 Contractual Merger and Disclaimer
      10.307 Misrepresentations and Other Offenses
      10.308 Collections
      10.309 Residential Leases
      10.310 Residential Real Estate Contracts
      10.311 Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act
      10.312 Mortgage Lending Contracts
      10.313 Real Estate Foreclosures

10.4 ELECTRONIC CONTRACTS
      10.401 Introduction
      10.402 "Writing" Defined
      10.403 Uniform Electronic Transactions ACT (UETA)
      10.404 The Statute of Frauds
      10.405 Clickwrap Contracts
      10.406 Browsewrap Contracts
      10.407 Uniform Computer Information Transactions Act
      10.408 Proposed Revisions to Article 2 of the Uniform Commercial Code
      10.409 Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act

10.5 EMPLOYMENT CONTRACTS
      10.501 At-Will Doctrine
      10.502 Exceptions to the At-Will Doctrine
      10.503 Employment Agreement Drafting Tips

10.6 GOVERNMENT CONTRACTS
      10.601 Introduction
      10.602 Federal Government Contracting
      10.603 Virginia Public Contracts

10.7 INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY CONTRACTS: A BRIEF OVERVIEW
      10.701 Introduction
      10.702 License Agreements--Common Elements
      10.703 Evaluation Agreements
      10.704 Employee Invention and Nondisclosure Agreements
      10.705 Uniform Computer Information Transactions Act
      10.706 Patentability and Protection of Business Method Processes

10.8 LENDING AGREEMENTS
      10.801 Introduction
      10.802 Interest and Usury
      10.803 Lending Agreements as Negotiable Instruments
      10.804 Security Interests
      10.805 Guarantors and Co-Obligors
      10.806 Seals

10.9 REAL ESTATE CONTRACTS
      10.901 Introduction
      10.902 Formation and Validity of the Contract
      10.903 Consideration
      10.904 Description of Real Property
      10.905 Description of Personal Property
      10.906 Contract Conditions

APPENDIX 10-1: EXCLUSIVE PATENT LICENSE AGREEMENT

APPENDIX 10-2: LICENSE AGREEMENT

APPENDIX 10-3: SOFTWARE LICENSE AGREEMENT

APPENDIX 10-4: TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT AGREEMENT

APPENDIX 10-5: CONFIDENTIALITY AGREEMENT FOR PRODUCT EVALUATION

APPENDIX 10-6: PROPRIETARY INFORMATION, INVENTIONS, AND NON-SOLICITATION AGREEMENT

INDEX

Volume II


CHAPTER 11: GENERAL DRAFTING PRINCIPLES  (back to top)

11.1 GOALS AND STRATEGIES
      11.101 Environmental Conditions
      11.102 Zoning
      11.103 Foundation
      11.104 Local Design Approval
      11.105 Choice of Building Materials
      11.106 Form
      11.107 Function

11.2 FUNCTION
      11.201 Identification of the Parties
      11.202 Clearly Stated Mutual Obligations
      11.203 Allocation of Risk

11.3 TOP TEN DRAFTING TECHNIQUES
      11.301 Active Voice
      11.302 Remedies Other than Termination
      11.303 Inconsistencies
      11.304 Whether Multiple Parties' Responsibilities Are Joint or Several
      11.305 Exhibits When Client Input Is Needed
      11.306 Successors and Assigns
      11.307 Notice, Notice, Notice
      11.308 Choice of Law and Choice of Forum Provisions, Especially in International Contracts
      11.309 Written Amendments
      11.310 Defined Terms

APPENDIX 11-1: SAMPLE INTERNATIONAL DISTRIBUTION AGREEMENT WITH COMMENTARY

APPENDIX 11-2: STOCK PURCHASE AGREEMENT

APPENDIX 11-3: REAL ESTATE PURCHASE AGREEMENT

APPENDIX 11-4: PURCHASE AND SALE AGREEMENT

APPENDIX 11-5: SAMPLE OPERATING AGREEMENT WITH COMMENTARY FOR A LIMITED LIABILITY COMPANY

APPENDIX 11-6: EMPLOYMENT AGREEMENT

APPENDIX 11-7: SAMPLE SHAREHOLDERS' AGREEMENT WITH COMMENTARY

APPENDIX 11-8: PROMISSORY NOTE

APPENDIX 11-9: GUARANTY

APPENDIX 11-10: SECURITY AGREEMENT

APPENDIX 11-11: STOCK PLEDGE AGREEMENT

APPENDIX 11-12: LIQUIDATED DAMAGES PROVISION (CONSTRUCTION CONTRACT)

APPENDIX 11-13: LIMITATION OF THIRD-PARTY BENEFIT PROVISION

APPENDIX 11-14: SEVERABILITY PROVISION

APPENDIX 11-15: MERGER PROVISION

APPENDIX 11-16: SURVIVAL PROVISION

CHAPTER 12: REMEDIES FOR BREACH OF CONTRACT  (back to top)

12.1 INTRODUCTION

12.2 ELECTION OF REMEDIES
      12.201 Tort Versus Contract
      12.202 Law Versus Equity
      12.203 Cases Decided Under Former Bifurcated System of Law and Equity
      12.204 Irreconcilable Claims and Double Recovery

12.3 DAMAGES
      12.301 In General
      12.302 Direct Damages
      12.303 Consequential Damages
      12.304 Damages Under the Virginia Uniform Commercial Code
      12.305 Lost Profits
      12.306 Nominal Damages
      12.307 Contractual Modification, Limitation, or Exclusion of Damages and Remedies
      12.308 Liquidated Damages Clauses
      12.309 Mitigation of Damages and the Doctrine of Avoidable Consequences
      12.310 Punitive Damages
      12.311 Purely Economic Losses and the "Economic Loss Rule"
      12.312 Contract Provisions Permitting Recovery of Attorney Fees and Litigation Expenses
      12.313 The "First in Fault Rule" as a Bar to Recovery of Damages for Breach

12.4 SPECIFIC PERFORMANCE
      12.401 In General
      12.402 Specific Performance Under the UCC
      12.403 Specific Performance of Real Estate Contracts
      12.404 Specific Performance of Other Types of Contracts
      12.405 Establishing the Right to Specific Performance
      12.406 Effect of Agreement That Specific Performance Is Appropriate Remedy
      12.407 Effect of Liquidated Damages Clauses on Right to Demand Specific Performance

12.5 INJUNCTIONS
      12.501 In General
      12.502 Statutory Authority to Award Injunctions
      12.503 Temporary and Permanent Injunctions
      12.504 Standards for Granting Injunctive Relief
      12.505 Procedural Issues in Obtaining Injunctive Relief
      12.506 Injunctions Under Specific Statutes
      12.507 Injunctions to Enforce Non-Competition Agreements in Employment Contracts

12.6 RESCISSION
      12.601 In General
      12.602 Rescission Versus Specific Performance
      12.603 Grounds for Rescission
      12.604 Rescission of Sales Contracts Under the UCC
      12.605 Rescission as a Remedy for Creditors
      12.606 Rescission of Settlement Agreements
      12.607 Rescission as a Remedy for Breach of Contract
      12.608 Relief Awarded When Rescission Is Granted
      12.609 Waiver of Right to Seek Rescission

12.7 RESTITUTION
      12.701 In General
      12.702 Return of Specific Property or Money Held by the Defendant
      12.703 Payment of Money Damages as Compensation to the Plaintiff
      12.704 Return of the Full Value of the Unjust Benefit Gained by the Defendant
      12.705 Imposition of a Constructive Trust

12.8 REFORMATION
      12.801 In General
      12.802 Standard of Proof
      12.803 Ambiguity and the Parol Evidence Rule
      12.804 Pleading
      12.805 Parties
      12.806 The Doctrine of Laches

12.9 DECLARATORY JUDGMENTS
      12.901 In General
      12.902 Right to Seek Additional Relief
      12.903 Right to a Jury Trial

12.10 INDEMNITY

12.11 ARBITRATION AGREEMENTS

12.12 DAMAGES FOR TORTIOUS INTERFERENCE WITH A CONTRACT

12.13 ACTUAL AND CONSTRUCTIVE FRAUD IN THE INDUCEMENT
      12.1301 In General
      12.1302 Elements of a Claim for Actual Fraud
      12.1303 Elements of a Claim for Constructive Fraud
      12.1304 Damages

CHAPTER 13: RESOLVING CONTRACT DISPUTES THROUGH ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION  (back to top)

13.1 AN OVERVIEW OF ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION
      13.101 In General
      13.102 The Problem With Litigation
      13.103 The Case for ADR

13.2 ADR PROCESSES
      13.201 Primary, Hybrid, and Other ADR Processes
      13.202 Primary ADR Processes
      13.203 Comparison of Litigation and the Primary ADR Processes
      13.204 Hybrid ADR Processes
      13.205 Other ADR Processes

13.3 REASONS TO INCLUDE A PREDISPUTE ADR CLAUSE
      13.301 More Effective Dispute Resolution Processes
      13.302 The Fear Factor
      13.303 The Inevitability of Conflict

13.4 CHECKLIST FOR DRAFTING AN ADR CLAUSE
      13.401 Is the ADR Clause Enforceable?
      13.402 Should a Standard Boilerplate ADR Clause Be Used?
      13.403 Should a Multi-Step ADR Process Be Used?
      13.404 What Are the Key Issues in Drafting an ADR Clause?

CHAPTER 14: LITIGATING A CONTRACT CASE  (back to top)

14.1 INTRODUCTION

14.2 ESTABLISHING A LITIGATION FILING SYSTEM

14.3 DRAFTING INITIAL PLEADINGS
      14.301 In General
      14.302 The Plaintiff's Initial Pleadings
      14.303 Causes of Action
      14.304 The Defendant's Responsive Pleadings
      14.305 Pretrial Motions

14.4 THE DISCOVERY PROCESS
      14.401 In General
      14.402 Requests for Admissions
      14.403 Requests for Stipulations
      14.404 Rule Revisions Relating to Discovery

14.5 NECESSARY OR INDISPENSABLE PARTIES

14.6 TRIAL PREPARATION
      14.601 Creating a Working Narrative
      14.602 Applying the Evidence to the Narrative
      14.603 Using Enlargements
      14.604 Creating Trial Preparation Checklists
      14.605 Compiling Bench Books

14.7 TRIAL
      14.701 In General
      14.702 Opening Statement
      14.703 Witnesses
      14.704 Introduction of Documents
      14.705 Objections
      14.706 Closing Argument

14.8 CLOSING ARGUMENT

APPENDIX 14-1: FILE MANAGEMENT

APPENDIX 14-2: TRIAL CHECKLIST

APPENDIX 14-3: SECOND CHAIR TRIAL CHECKLIST

APPENDIX 14-4: COMPLAINT--NOTE AND GUARANTY

APPENDIX 14-5: COMPLAINT--SPECIFIC PERFORMANCE AND DAMAGES

APPENDIX 14-6: COMPLEX CONTRACT ACTION

TABLE OF AUTHORITIES

INDEX

Authors

EDITOR:
John V. Little, Michie Hamlett Lowry Rasmussen & Tweel PLLC, Charlottesville

AUTHORS:
Francis H. Casola, Woods Rogers PLC, Roanoke
Thomas R. Folk, Reed Smith LLP, Falls Church
Stephen T. Fowler, Reed Smith LLP, Falls Church
Peter L. Henderer, McCandlish Holton, P.C., Richmond
Lynn Morris Kachel, Rockville
John A. C. Keith, Blankingship & Keith, P.C., Fairfax
Thomas A. Leggette, Leggette Law Firm, PLC, Roanoke
Mark D. Loftis, Woods Rogers PLC, Roanoke
Edward B. Lowry, Michie Hamlett Lowry Rasmussen & Tweel PLLC, Charlottesville
Charles V. McPhillips, Kaufman & Canoles, P.C., Norfolk
Carrie Hallberg O’Malley, Hirschler Fleischer, P.C., Fredericksburg
Eric C. Perkins, Perkins Law PLLC, Richmond
Jane Whitt Sellers, McGuireWoods LLP, Richmond
Michael H. Terry, Hirschler Fleischer, P.C., Richmond
Anne M. Vaughan, Hirschler Fleischer, P.C., Richmond

Prices

PLEASE NOTE: A 2016 edition of this publication is available in print, CD, USB flash drive, and immediate download. Click here for newest edition.

Print - $45
Purchase Options
  • Add to Cart

CONTACT US

Our Address

  • 105 Whitewood Road
    Charlottesville, VA 22901

JOIN OUR MAILING LIST:

  • Virginia CLE® is the non-profit educational division of the Virginia Law Foundation.

© 2016 Virginia Law Foundation