The Virginia Lawyer: A Deskbook for Practitioners (OLD EDITION)

Publication Date: 2011 with 2013 Update (View new edition.)
Electronic Forms: 150+
Available Formats: Print (1,716 pages, looseleaf, 2 volumes, forms CD)
Product #: 885

Information

PLEASE NOTE: A 2015 edition of this publication is available in print, CD, USB flash drive, and immediate download. Click here for newest edition.

Whether you are new to the practice of law or are an experienced attorney whose long-time client has called with a question outside your usual area of practice, The Virginia Lawyer: A Deskbook for Practitioners quickly brings you up to speed in a wide array of practice areas. This two-volume publication is ideal reference if you are considering expansion into a new practice area or training a new associate.

The Virginia Lawyer covers the substance and procedure of the most significant areas of Virginia practice. It will quickly focus your research on issues and pitfalls, providing a baseline of knowledge from experienced practitioners in each area. It also provides guidance on successfully managing your law office and ensuring that professional ethics requirements are handled seamlessly as part of your day-to-day practice.

Published in cooperation with The Virginia Bar Association.

Table of Contents

PLEASE NOTE: A 2015 edition of this publication is available in print, CD, USB flash drive, and immediate download. Click here for newest edition.

TABLE OF CONTENTS (2011/2013 Edition)
Chapters and Authors 
Acknowledgments
About the Editors and Authors
Preface


CHAPTER LIST
1. Managing Your Law Practice
2. Professional Responsibility
3. Litigation: Civil And Criminal
4. Employment Law: Employee Rights And Employer Responsibilities
5. Business Law
6. Family Law
7. The Law Of Defamation
8. Intellectual Property
9. Representing Debtors And Creditors
10. Consumer Law
11. Real Estate Practice
12. Eminent Domain
13. Estate Planning And Administration
14. Incapacitated Adults: Guardianship And Conservatorship
15. Administrative Law
Volume 1

CHAPTER 1: MANAGING YOUR LAW PRACTICE   (back to top)

1.1 STARTING A LAW PRACTICE
    1.101 Introduction
    1.102 Business Plan
    1.103 Advisors and Mentors
    1.104 Selection of Practice Entity
    1.105 Office Space
    1.106 Office Equipment
    1.107 Office Staff
    1.108 Communications with Clients and Nonclients
    1.109 Developing the Practice
    1.110 Advertising
    1.111 Year-End Review
    
1.2 LAW OFFICE TECHNOLOGY
    1.201 In General
    1.202 Shielding Against Malpractice
    1.203 Improving Office Efficiencies
    1.204 Market Forces for Efficiencies
    1.205 The Nuts and Bolts of Bits and Bytes
    1.206 Buying Options
    1.207 Operating Systems
    1.208 Networks
    1.209 Software

1.3 PROFESSIONAL LIABILITY AND OTHER INSURANCE
    1.301 In General
    1.302 Types of Malpractice Carriers
    1.303 Considerations When Buying Malpractice Coverage
    1.304 Other Insurance

1.4 CASE MANAGEMENT
    1.401 Interviewing Prospective Clients
    1.402 Conflicts Checks
    1.403 Retainer Agreements
    1.404 Declination Letters

1.5 CLIENT COMMUNICATIONS

1.6 DOCKET CONTROL
    1.601 Monitoring Workload
    1.602 Organizing Case Files
    1.603 Tracking Case Files
    1.604 Closing Case Files

1.7 TICKLER SYSTEMS
    1.701 Determining Deadlines
    1.702 Calendar Solutions

1.8 FEES
    1.801 Reasonableness
    1.802 Contingent Fees
    1.803 Fiduciary Compensation
    1.804 Hourly Fees
    1.805 Hybrid and Other Fees
    1.806 Fee Agreements
    1.807 Collecting Fees
    1.808 Termination of Employment
    1.809 Disposition of Client Files
    
1.9 BILLING PRACTICES AND PROCEDURES
    1.901 Timekeeping
    1.902 Billing and Collecting Fees
    
1.10 TRUST ACCOUNTS
    1.1001 Duty to Safeguard Client’s Funds and Property
    1.1002 Rule 1.15 Generally
    1.1003 Scope of Rule 1.15
    1.1004 Other Property
    1.1005 Types of Trust Accounts
    1.1006 Interest and Other Investments
    1.1007 Record-Keeping and Accounting
    1.1008 Deposits into Trust Accounts
    1.1009 Withdrawals from Trust Accounts
    1.1010 Liability for Violations

1.11 PLANNING FOR THE SUCCESSION OF A LAW PRACTICE
    1.1101 Notifying Clients
    1.1102 Expert Advice
    1.1103 Sale of Practice

APPENDIX 1-1: NONENGAGEMENT LETTER

APPENDIX 1-2: FILL-IN-THE-BLANKS REPRESENTATION AGREEMENT

APPENDIX 1-3: ENGAGEMENT AGREEMENT IN SHORT LETTER FORMAT

APPENDIX 1-4: PERSONAL INJURY PLAINTIFF—LONG FORM (CONTINGENCY FEE)

APPENDIX 1-5: CLOSING LETTER

APPENDIX 1-6: ESCROW ACCOUNT RECORD-KEEPING AND ACCOUNTING FORMS

CHAPTER 2: PROFESSIONAL RESPONSIBILITY   (back to top)

2.1 OVERVIEW: RESOURCES FOR LEGAL ETHICS ISSUES
    2.101 In General
    2.102 Resources

2.2 ADVERTISING AND SOLICITATION
    2.201 Basic Rule
    2.202 Mail and Email
    2.203 In-Person Solicitation
    2.204 Specialization
    2.205 Law Firm Names and Trade Names
    2.206 Lawyer Referral Services
    2.207 Summary of Advisory Opinions Issued by the Standing Committee on Lawyer Advertising and Solicitation
    
2.3 CREATING THE ATTORNEY-CLIENT RELATIONSHIP AND DETERMINING REASONABLE FEE AGREEMENTS
    2.301 Avoiding Unintended Professional Relationships
    2.302 Fee Agreements and Arrangements

2.4 MAINTAINING THE RELATIONSHIP WITH THE CLIENT
    2.401 The Duty to Communicate
    2.402 The Duty to Abide by the Client’s Decisions
    2.403 The Duty to Attend to Client Matters Promptly

2.5 PROFESSIONAL INDEPENDENCE AND LOYALTY TO CLIENTS: AVOIDING CONFLICTS OF INTEREST
    2.501 Basic Rule
    2.502 Potential Conflicts of Interest
    2.503 Per Se Conflicts
    2.504 Concurrent Representation of Adverse Clients in Unrelated Matters
    2.505 Representing Clients Adverse to Former Clients
    2.506 Representing Multiple Clients in a Single Matter
    2.507 Representing Entities and Organizations
    2.508 Successive Government and Private Employment
    2.509 Providing Limited Pro Bono Services
    2.510 Conflicts Between Insurer and Insured
    2.511 Petitioning for Guardianship for Impaired Client
    2.512 Conflicts Involving Governmental Entities, Public Officials, and Government Lawyers
    2.513 Joint Representation of Husband and Wife in an Uncontested Divorce or Property Settlement
    2.514 Client Referred from Mediation to Legal Representation
    2.515 Prospective Clients

2.6 CONFIDENTIALITY: PROTECTING CLIENT CONFIDENCES AND SECRETS
    2.601 In General
    2.602 Disclosures Permitted by Rule 1.6(b)
    2.603 Mandatory Disclosures Under Rule 1.6(c)
    2.604 Disclosure Obligations for Attorneys Appearing Before the Securities and Exchange Commission
    2.605 Attorney-Client Privilege Waived by Inadvertent Disclosure
    
2.7 SAFEKEEPING PROPERTY AND TRUST ACCOUNTING
    2.701 Rules Governing Trust Accounts and Interest on Lawyers Trust Accounts
    2.702 IOLTA Accounts
    2.703 Non-IOLTA Accounts
    2.704 Approved Financial Institutions
    2.705 Funds Deposited in the Trust Account
    2.706 Notification of Receipt of Funds
    2.707 Accounting
    2.708 Prompt Payment or Delivery of Funds
    2.709 Recordkeeping Requirements
    2.710 Required Accounting Procedures
    2.711 Disbursement on Uncollected Funds Improper
    2.712 Lawyer’s Responsibility for Nonlawyer Support Staff
    2.713 Risk Management and Good Practices

2.8 FAIRNESS IN DEALING WITH OPPOSING AND THIRD PARTIES
    2.801 Receiving Inadvertently Transmitted Confidential Information
    2.802 Using Surreptitious Means to Acquire Information During Investigations
    2.803 Communicating with Persons Represented by Counsel
    2.804 Communicating with Adversary’s Expert
    2.805 Communicating with Adversary’s Health Care Provider
    2.806 Dealing with Unrepresented Persons

2.9 SUMMARY AND REVIEW: AVOIDING BAR COMPLAINTS
    2.901 Common Complaints Against Lawyers
    2.902 Avoiding Complaints
    
CHAPTER 3: LITIGATION: CIVIL AND CRIMINAL   (back to top)

3.1 CIVIL PRACTICE IN THE GENERAL DISTRICT COURTS
    3.101 Jurisdiction
    3.102 Venue and Service of Process
    3.103 Institution of an Action
    3.104 Specific Actions
    3.105 Procedure in the General District Court
    3.106 Finality of Judgment
    3.107 Satisfaction of Judgment
    3.108 Substitution of Counsel
    3.109 Withdrawal as Counsel
    
3.2 CIVIL PRACTICE—COURTS OF RECORD
    3.201 Introduction
    3.202 Proper Venue
    3.203 Complaint
    3.204 Service of Process
    3.205 Defensive Pleadings
    3.206 Discovery
    3.207 Pretrial Motions
    3.208 Scheduling Cases for Trial
    3.209 Witnesses
    3.210 Court Reporter
    3.211 Initial Stage of Trial
    3.212 Evidence
    3.213 Motions During Trial
    3.214 Nonsuit
    3.215 Instructions and Argument
    3.216 Verdicts and Motions After Verdict
    3.217 Final Disposition of the Case
    3.218 Appellate Practice Rules
    3.219 Settlement of Cases
    3.220 Financial Settlement with Client

3.3 CRIMINAL DEFENSE
    3.301 Introduction to the Criminal Process
    3.302 Pretrial Proceedings
    3.303 The Trial

3.4 JUVENILE LAW
    3.401 Introduction
    3.402 Pretrial Proceedings
    3.403 Adjudicatory Hearing
    3.404 Disposition Hearing

3.5 ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION
    3.501 Dispute Resolution Options
    3.502 Primary ADR Processes
    3.503 Comparison of Litigation and the Primary ADR Processes
    3.504 Hybrid ADR Processes
    3.505 Other ADR Processes
    3.506 Benefits of Using ADR
    3.507 The Lawyer’s Role in ADR
    3.508 Advising the Client About ADR
    3.509 Explaining the Processes
    3.510 Case Selection for ADR
    3.511 Preparing the Client for Mediation
    3.512 Persuading the Opposing Party to Mediate
    3.513 Timing of ADR
    3.514 Selecting a Mediator
    3.515 Participation in ADR
    3.516 Reviewing the Agreement

APPENDIX 3-1: LIST OF STANDARD GENERAL DISTRICT COURT FORMS

APPENDIX 3-2: COMPLAINT—VEHICLE ACCIDENT

APPENDIX 3-3: COMPLAINT—BODILY INJURY

APPENDIX 3-4: ORDER APPOINTING DEFENDANT’S ATTORNEY AS GUARDIAN AD LITEM

APPENDIX 3-5: ORDER EXTENDING TIME TO FILE RESPONSIVE
PLEADINGS

APPENDIX 3-6: RESPONSIVE PLEADING

APPENDIX 3-7: DEMURRER

APPENDIX 3-8: MOTION OF DEFENDANT FOR A BILL OF PARTICULARS

APPENDIX 3-9: SPECIAL PLEA OF THE STATUTE OF LIMITATIONS

APPENDIX 3-10: ANSWER

APPENDIX 3-11: MOTION FOR SUMMARY JUDGMENT

APPENDIX 3-12: PRAECIPE

APPENDIX 3-13: REQUEST TO CLERK TO ISSUE SUBPOENAS

APPENDIX 3-14: JUDGMENT ORDER—BENCH TRIAL

APPENDIX 3-15: JUDGMENT ORDER—JURY VERDICT FOR PLAINTIFF

APPENDIX 3-16: JUDGMENT ORDER—JURY VERDICT FOR DEFENDANT

APPENDIX 3-17: DISMISSAL ORDER

APPENDIX 3-18: RELEASE OF ALL CLAIMS

APPENDIX 3-19: MOTION TO APPROVE COMPROMISE SETTLEMENT—
MINOR PLAINTIFF

APPENDIX 3-20: ANSWER OF DEFENDANT OFFERING COMPROMISE

APPENDIX 3-21: ANSWER OF THE GUARDIAN AD LITEM

APPENDIX 3-22: ORDER APPROVING SETTLEMENT

APPENDIX 3-23: RECEIPTS

APPENDIX 3-24: JUDGMENT ORDER—WRONGFUL DEATH SETTLEMENT

CHAPTER 4: EMPLOYMENT LAW: EMPLOYEE RIGHTS AND EMPLOYER RESPONSIBILITIES  (back to top)

4.1 INTRODUCTION
    4.101 In General
    4.102 History of Employment at Will in Virginia
    
4.2 FEDERAL CIVIL RIGHTS STATUTES
    4.201 In General
    4.202 42 U.S.C. § 1981
    4.203 42 U.S.C. § 1983
    4.204 Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964
    
4.3 THE VIRGINIA HUMAN RIGHTS ACT

4.4 AGE DISCRIMINATION IN EMPLOYMENT ACT (ADEA)

4.5 AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA)
    4.501 Scope
    4.502 Aspects of Employment Covered
    4.503 “Qualified Individuals”
    4.504 Duty of Reasonable Accommodation
    4.505 Undue Hardship
    4.506 Remedies
    4.507 Business Necessity Defense

4.6 VIRGINIANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (VDA)

4.7 FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT (FLSA)
    4.701 In General
    4.702 Wage and Hour Law
    4.703 Coverage
    4.704 Exceptions
    4.705 Exemptions from Minimum Wage and Overtime
    4.706 Job Requirements Cannot Reduce Pay
    4.707 Overtime Compensation
    4.708 Time Worked
    4.709 Workweek
    4.710 Record-Keeping and Posting
    4.711 Retaliation
    4.712 Audits; Actions Against State Employers
    4.713 State Wage and Hour Law
    4.714 State Wage Payment Laws
    4.715 Child Labor

4.8 THE FEDERAL EQUAL PAY ACT (EPA)
    4.801 Sex-Based Wage Disparities
    4.802 Employers and Employees Covered
    4.803 Definition of Equal Work
    4.804 Components of Equal Work
    4.805 Retaliation
    4.806 Employers’ Defenses
    
4.9 THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT (FMLA)
    4.901 In General
    4.902 Coverage
    4.903 Eligible Employees
    4.904 Events That Trigger Entitlement to FMLA Leave
    4.905 Notice from Employee
    4.906 Length and Timing of FMLA Leave
    4.907 Paid or Unpaid Leave
    4.908 Employee’s Right to Return to Work
    4.909 Returning Employee’s Rights
    4.910 Notice to Employees
    4.911 Health Benefits Continuation
    4.912 Other Benefits Required to Be Continued
    4.913 Medical Certifications
    4.914 Employer Records
    4.915 Other Employee Rights

4.10 UNIFORMED SERVICES EMPLOYMENT AND REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS ACT (USERRA)
    4.1001 In General
    4.1002 Coverage
    4.1003 Notice to Employer
    4.1004 Cost of Benefits
    4.1005 Waiver of Benefits
    4.1006 Health Benefits
    4.1007 Use of Paid Leave
    4.1008 Reemployment
    4.1009 Dishonorable Discharge
    4.1010 Documentation
    4.1011 Time Limits for Reporting or Application
    4.1012 Effect of Untimely Reporting or Application
    4.1013 Reemployment Position
    4.1014 Reemployment Benefits
    4.1015 Compliance Problems
    4.1016 Reinstatement of Health Benefits
    4.1017 Retention Rights

4.11 OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACTS, FEDERAL AND STATE (OSHA)
    4.1101 In General
    4.1102 State Enforcement
    4.1103 Employer Coverage
    4.1104 Employers’ Primary Obligations
    4.1105 Other Rights, Responsibilities, and Duties
    4.1106 Elements of an OSHA Violation
    4.1107 Defenses
    4.1108 Warrants
    4.1109 Citations
    4.1110 Contesting Citations
    4.1111 Employee Coverage and Nondiscrimination Rules
    4.1112 Work Refusals
    4.1113 Procedure for Discrimination Cases
    4.1114 Penalties and Remedies

4.12 UNIONS
    4.1201 In General
    4.1202 Protected Concerted Activity and Union Organizing
    4.1203 Preelection Campaigning
    4.1204 Access to Employer’s Property
    4.1205 Duty to Bargain
    4.1206 Purchases, Acquisitions, and the Obligation to Recognize the Union
    4.1207 Unfair Labor Practice Charges

4.13 WORKERS’ COMPENSATION
    4.1301 Exclusive Remedy
    4.1302 Respondeat Superior

4.14 SOCIAL-MEDIA POLICIES
    4.1401 Potential Risks Related to Social-Media Use
    4.1402 Employees’ Use
    4.1403 Supervisors’ Use
    4.1404 Potential Risks Relating to Social-Media Regulation
    4.1405 Employment Law Statutes
    4.1406 Key Social-Media Policy Provisions

CHAPTER 5: BUSINESS LAW   (back to top)

5.1 COMPARISON OF BUSINESS ENTITIES
    5.101 Introduction
    5.102 Sole Proprietorships
    5.103 Corporations
    5.104 General Partnerships
    5.105 Limited Partnerships
    5.106 Registered Limited Liability Partnerships
    5.107 Limited Liability Companies
    5.108 Business Trusts

5.2 CORPORATIONS
    5.201 The Virginia Stock Corporation Act
    5.202 Articles of Incorporation
    5.203 Capitalization; Shares of Stock
    5.204 Directors, Officers, and Agents
    5.205 Filing and Fees
    5.206 Post-Incorporation Organization
    5.207 Annual Reports and Fees
    5.208 Domestication and Conversion
    5.209 Benefit Corporations

5.3 PARTNERSHIPS
    5.301 Nature of Partnerships
    5.302 Relations of Partners to Third Parties
    5.303 Relationship of Partners to Each Other and to the Partnership
    5.304 Limited Liability Partnerships
    5.305 Professional Service Limited Liability Partnerships
    
5.4 LIMITED LIABILITY COMPANIES
    5.401 In General
    5.402 Nature of the LLC
    5.403 Terminology
    5.404 Structuring Issues
    5.405 Nontax Issues
    5.406 Tax Issues
    5.407 Default Rules
    5.408 Articles of Organization
    5.409 Annual Registration Fee and Report
    5.410 Ownership and Members
    5.411 Operating Agreement
    5.412 Management Structure
    5.413 Financial Arrangements
    5.414 Assignments of Membership Interests

5.5 CONTRACT DRAFTING PRINCIPLES
    5.501 Goals and Strategies
    5.502 Function of the Contract
    5.503 Top Ten Drafting Techniques

5.6 ANTITRUST CONSIDERATIONS
    5.601 Overview
    5.602 Competition During the Pendency of a Transaction
    5.603 Document Creation
    5.604 Information Sharing
    5.605 Drafting Considerations

APPENDIX 5-1: ARTICLES OF TRUST OF A DOMESTIC BUSINESS TRUST

APPENDIX 5-2: ARTICLES OF INCORPORATION WITH INDEMNITY
PROVISIONS

APPENDIX 5-3: SCC FORM 619—ARTICLES OF INCORPORATION OF A
VIRGINIA STOCK CORPORATION

APPENDIX 5-4: SCC FORM 631/830—APPLICATION FOR RESERVATION OR FOR
RENEWAL OF RESERVATION OF CORPORATE NAME

APPENDIX 5-5: SUBSCRIPTION LETTER

APPENDIX 5-6: SCC FORM 636/835—STATEMENT OF RESIGNATION OF
REGISTERED AGENT

APPENDIX 5-7: UNANIMOUS WRITTEN CONSENT IN LIEU OF
ORGANIZATIONAL MEETING

APPENDIX 5-8: CORPORATION BYLAWS

APPENDIX 5-9: PARTNERSHIP AGREEMENT

APPENDIX 5-10: SCC FORM UPA-132—STATEMENT OF REGISTRATION AS A
VIRGINIA REGISTERED LIMITED LIABILITY PARTNERSHIP

APPENDIX 5-11: SCC FORM UPA-136—STATEMENT OF AMENDMENT OF A
STATEMENT OF REGISTRATION OF A VIRGINIA OR FOREIGN
REGISTERED LIMITED LIABILITY PARTNERSHIP

APPENDIX 5-12: SCC FORM UPA-137—STATEMENT OF CANCELLATION OF A
STATEMENT OF REGISTRATION OF A VIRGINIA REGISTERED
LIMITED LIABILITY PARTNERSHIP

APPENDIX 5-13: OPERATING AGREEMENT WITH BUY-SELL PROVISION
AND OPTIONAL MANAGER-MANAGEMENT PROVISIONS

APPENDIX 5-14: ARTICLES OF ORGANIZATION

APPENDIX 5-15: SCC FORM LLC-1010.1—ARTICLES OF ORGANIZATION FOR CONVERSION OF A DOMESTIC OR FOREIGN PARTNERSHIP OR
LIMITED LIABILITY COMPANY

APPENDIX 5-16: IDENTIFICATION OF PARTIES

APPENDIX 5-17: COVENANT NOT TO COMPETE

APPENDIX 5-18: DISTRIBUTOR’S ASSURANCES TO SUPPLIER

APPENDIX 5-19: STATED OBLIGATIONS

APPENDIX 5-20: LIMITATION OF LIABILITY; INDEMNIFICATION

APPENDIX 5-21: INDEMNIFICATION

APPENDIX 5-22: INSURANCE

APPENDIX 5-23: REPRESENTATIONS AND WARRANTIES

APPENDIX 5-24: SURVIVAL PROVISION

APPENDIX 5-25: COVENANTS

APPENDIX 5-26: CONDITIONS

APPENDIX 5-27: DISPUTE RESOLUTION

CHAPTER 6: FAMILY LAW   (back to top)

6.1 INTRODUCTION

6.2 DIVORCE A VINCULO MATRIMONII
    6.201 Jurisdiction
    6.202 Venue
    6.203 Special Parties
    6.204 Grounds of Divorce
    6.205 Initial Pleadings in Divorce
    6.206 Pendente Lite Relief
    6.207 Motions
    6.208 Information-Gathering and Discovery
    6.209 Evidentiary Issues
    6.210 Equitable Distribution
    6.211 Spousal Support
    6.212 Child Custody and Visitation
    6.213 Child Support
    6.214 Attorney Fees and Costs
    6.215 Property Settlement Agreements
    6.216 Corroboration of Grounds for Divorce
    6.217 Final Decree of Divorce (a vinculo matrimonii)
    6.218 Legal Effects of Divorce

6.3 DIVORCE FROM BED AND BOARD (A MENSA ET THORO)
    6.301 In General
    6.302 Grounds of Divorce from Bed and Board (a mensa et thoro)
    6.303 Pleadings
    6.304 When to Seek Divorce from Bed and Board
    6.305 Legal Effects of Divorce from Bed and Board
    6.306 Merger of Divorce from Bed and Board into Final Divorce

6.4 ACTIONS TO AFFIRM OR ANNUL MARRIAGE
    6.401 Actions to Affirm Marriage
    6.402 Actions to Annul Marriage

6.5 ACTIONS FOR SEPARATE MAINTENANCE
    6.501 In General
    6.502 Pleadings

6.6 JUVENILE AND DOMESTIC RELATIONS DISTRICT COURT
    6.601 In General
    6.602 Seminars and Educational Programs
    6.603 Jurisdiction
    6.604 Venue
    6.605 Pleadings
    6.606 Service of Process and Notice
    6.607 Discovery
    6.608 Evidentiary Issues
    6.609 Attorney Fees
    6.610 Spousal Support
    6.611 Virginia Military Parents Equal Protection Act
    6.612 Custody and Visitation
    6.613 Child Support
    6.614 Uniform Interstate Family Support Act (UIFSA)

6.7 APPEAL FROM JUVENILE AND DOMESTIC RELATIONS DISTRICT COURT TO CIRCUIT COURT
    6.701 In General
    6.702 Time Limitations
    6.703 Effect of Appeal on Juvenile and Domestic Relations District Court
    Order

6.8 MODIFICATION OF AWARDS
    6.801 Equitable Distribution
    6.802 Spousal Support
    6.803 Child Custody and Visitation
    6.804 Child Support

6.9 ENFORCEMENT OF AWARDS
    6.901 Equitable Distribution
    6.902 Spousal Support
    6.903 Child Custody and Visitation
    6.904 Child Support

6.10 ADOPTION
    6.1001 Introduction
    6.1002 Legal Basis for Adoption
    6.1003 Jurisdiction
    6.1004 Venue
    6.1005 Proceedings in Juvenile and Domestic Relations District Court
    6.1006 Proceedings in the Circuit Court
    6.1007 Agency Placement Adoption
    6.1008 Parental Placement Adoption
    6.1009 Stepparent Adoption
    6.1010 “Close Relative” Adoption
    6.1011 Adult Adoption
    6.1012 Foster Care Placement Adoption
    6.1013 Special Needs Adoption
    6.1014 Interstate Adoption
    6.1015 Intercountry Adoption
    6.1016 Final Order of Adoption
    6.1017 Legal Effects of Adoption

APPENDIX 6-1: ACCEPTANCE OF SERVICE OF PROCESS AND WAIVER OF FUTURE SERVICE OF PROCESS AND NOTICE

APPENDIX 6-2: COMPLAINT FOR DIVORCE A MENSA ET THORO

APPENDIX 6-3: COMPLAINT—ONE YEAR SEPARATION—INCORPORATING AGREEMENT

APPENDIX 6-4: COMPLAINT—ONE YEAR SEPARATION—NO AGREEMENT— COLLATERAL ISSUES PLEADED

APPENDIX 6-5: DECREE—SEPARATION OF ONE YEAR

APPENDIX 6-6: PRIVATE ADDENDUM TO FINAL DECREE OF DIVORCE

APPENDIX 6-7: CLAUSE GRANTING SOLE CUSTODY—SPECIFIED VISITATION APPENDIX 6-8: ORDER OF SUPPORT—CHILD AND SPOUSAL (COMPUTER GENERATED)

APPENDIX 6-8: ORDER OF SUPPORT—CHILD AND SPOUSAL (COMPUTER GENERATED

APPENDIX 6-9: PETITION FOR ADOPTION

APPENDIX 6-10: INTERLOCUTORY ORDER

APPENDIX 6-11: ORDER OF REFERENCE

APPENDIX 6-12: FINAL ORDER OF ADOPTION

APPENDIX 6-13: FINAL ORDER OF ADOPTION AFTER INTERLOCUTORY ORDER

CHAPTER 7: THE LAW OF DEFAMATION   (back to top)

7.1 INTRODUCTION

7.2 NATURE OF THE COMMUNICATION
    7.201 In General
    7.202 Civil Versus Criminal Defamation
    7.203 Libel Versus Slander
    7.204 Liability for Third Party’s Defamation
    7.205 United Kingdom Law

7.3 PUBLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATION
    7.301 In General
    7.302 Intra-Corporate Communication
    7.303 Other Publication Issues
    7.304 Repetition by the Alleged Defamer
    7.305 Republication by Others
    7.306 Failure to Act as Actionable “Publication”
    7.307 Role of Court and Jury

7.4 INTERPRETING THE COMMUNICATION
    7.401 Basic Rules
    7.402 Print Media
    7.403 Role of Court and Jury
    
7.5 FACT VERSUS OPINION
    7.501 In General
    7.502 Federal Constitutional Protection
    7.503 Virginia Constitutional Protection
    7.504 Four-Part Test
    7.505 Difficulty of Drawing the Line
    7.506 Relationship Between Opinion and Facts
    7.507 Ironic Nature of the Opinion Doctrine
    7.508 Recent Virginia Supreme Court Cases
    7.509 Examples of Actionable Statements of Fact
    7.510 Examples of Nonactionable Opinion
    7.511 Workplace Defamation
    7.512 Rhetorical Hyperbole
    7.513 Role of Court and Jury

7.6 DEFAMATORY MEANING
    7.601 In General
    7.602 Per Se Versus Per Quod Defamation
    7.603 Elements
    7.604 Difficulty of Drawing the Line
    7.605 Examples of Communications Capable of Defamatory Meaning
    7.606 Examples of Communications Not Capable of Defamatory Meaning
    7.607 Job Evaluations and Terminations
    7.608 Role of Court and Jury

7.7 TRUTH VERSUS FALSITY
    7.701 In General
    7.702 Burden of Proof
    7.703 “Substantial Truth”
    7.704 Examples of Technically False but “Substantially True” Statements
    7.705 True Statements with Defamatory Implications
    7.706 Truthful Transmission of a Third Party’s Defamation Without Endorsement
    7.707 True Statements Believed to Be False
    7.708 Binding Nature of Plaintiff’s Admission of Truth
    7.709 Role of Court and Jury

7.8 DEFAMATION BY IMPLICATION
    7.801 In General
    7.802 Virginia Approach
    7.803 Examples of Statements Carrying Defamatory Implication
    7.804 Intent
    7.805 Role of Court and Jury

7.9 DEFAMATION PER SE
    7.901 In General
    7.902 Categories
    7.903 Special Damages
    7.904 Examples of Communications Constituting Defamation Per Se
    7.905 Examples of Communications Not Constituting Defamation Per Se
    7.906 Confusion About the Per Se Doctrine
    7.907 Workplace Defamation
    7.908 Defamation of Corporations
    7.909 Continuing Importance of the Doctrine
    7.910 Role of Court and Jury

7.10 WORK-RELATED DEFAMATION
    7.1001 In General
    7.1002 Federal Labor Law Preemption
    7.1003 Federal ERISA Preemption
    7.1004 OSHA Preemption
    7.1005 Workers’ Compensation Law
    7.1006 Arbitration Agreements
    7.1007 Compulsory Counterclaims
    7.1008 Other Issues

7.11 RELATIONSHIP TO OTHER CLAIMS
    7.1101 In General
    7.1102 Constitutional Torts
    7.1103 Insulting Words
    7.1104 Right to Privacy and “False Light”
    7.1105 Misappropriation of Name or Likeness for Commercial Purposes
    7.1106 Other Common Law Tort Claims by Public Plaintiffs
    7.1107 Intentional Infliction of Emotional Distress
    7.1108 Intentional Interference with Contract
    7.1109 Torts Focusing on the Newsgathering Process
    7.1110 Statutory Conspiracy
    7.1111 Contracts
    7.1112 RICO Claims

7.12 STATUTE OF LIMITATIONS
    7.1201 In General
    7.1202 Publication
    7.1203 “Single Publication” Rule
    7.1204 Accrual Based on Extrinsic Events
    7.1205 Republication
    7.1206 Actions Based on Third Party’s Communication
    7.1207 Pleading Exact Words as Creating a New Cause of Action
    7.1208 Tolling of the Statute of Limitations
    7.1209 Simultaneous Criminal and Civil Cases
    7.1210 Choice of Law
    7.1211 Role of Court and Jury

7.13 SUBJECT OF THE COMMUNICATION
    7.1301 Introduction
    7.1302 “Of and Concerning” Test
    7.1303 Categories of Subjects
    7.1304 Public Versus Private
    7.1305 Corporate Plaintiffs
    7.1306 “Libel-Proof” Doctrine and Related Concepts
    7.1307 Product Disparagement
    7.1308 Slander of Title
    7.1309 Food Disparagement
    7.1310 Role of Court and Jury

7.14 ABSOLUTE PRIVILEGE
    7.1401 In General
    7.1402 Governments and Their Employees
    7.1403 Statutory Absolute Privilege
    7.1404 Church Matters
    7.1405 Legislators
    7.1406 Mandated Statements
    7.1407 Charitable Immunity
    7.1408 Judicial Proceedings
    7.1409 Quasi-Judicial Proceedings
    7.1410 Context of the Statements: Peripheral Communications
    7.1411 Legislative Proceedings
    7.1412 Role of Court and Jury

7.15 QUALIFIED PRIVILEGE
    7.1501 In General
    7.1502 Statutory Qualified Privilege
    7.1503 Common Law Qualified Privilege Generally
    7.1504 Abuse of the Privilege
    7.1505 Fair Reports of Public Records
    7.1506 Comment on Matters of Public Concern
    7.1507 Role of Court and Jury

7.16 FAULT: DEFINING THE STANDARDS
    7.1601 Introduction
    7.1602 Constitutional Malice
    7.1603 Negligence

7.17 FAULT: PUBLIC PLAINTIFFS
    7.1701 In General
    7.1702 History
    7.1703 New York Times Doctrine
    7.1704 Defamatory Implication
    7.1705 Defendants Who Deny Making the Alleged Statements
    7.1706 Burden of Proof
    7.1707 Role of Court and Jury
    
7.18 FAULT: PRIVATE PLAINTIFFS
    7.1801 In General
    7.1802 The Virginia Standard Generally
    7.1803 Applying the Standard
    7.1804 Role of Court and Jury
    
7.19 IMPUTED LIABILITY
    7.1901 In General
    7.1902 Corporations
    7.1903 Agent’s Individual Liability
    7.1904 Principal’s Primary Liability for Third Party’s Defamation
    7.1905 Compensatory Damages
    7.1906 Punitive Damages
    7.1907 Role of Court and Jury

7.20 DAMAGES
    7.2001 In General
    7.2002 Presumed Damages
    7.2003 Compensatory Damages
    7.2004 Punitive Damages
    7.2005 Statutory Mitigation

7.21 LITIGATION: PRELIMINARY ISSUES
    7.2101 In General
    7.2102 Arbitration
    7.2103 Exhaustion of Remedies
    7.2104 Standing
    7.2105 Suing the Right Defendant
    7.2106 Subject Matter Jurisdiction: Federal Courts
    7.2107 Subject Matter Jurisdiction: State Courts
    7.2108 Personal Jurisdiction
    7.2109 Long-Arm Jurisdiction: Traditional Rules
    7.2110 Long-Arm Jurisdiction: Internet Defamation
    7.2111 Venue
    7.2112 Choice of Laws
    
7.22 LITIGATION: INITIAL PLEADINGS AND SUMMARY DISPOSITIONS
    7.2201 In General
    7.2202 Initial Pleading: Identifying the Exact Defamatory Statement
    7.2203 Initial Pleading: Other Specificity Requirements
    7.2204 Statutory Provisions
    7.2205 Court as Gatekeeper
    7.2206 Demurrers
    7.2207 New Federal Standard for Motion to Dismiss
    7.2208 Preserving Defenses After Unsuccessful Demurrer
    7.2209 Repleading
    7.2210 Nonsuits
    7.2211 Motions to Strike
    7.2212 Amendments
    7.2213 Summary Judgment

7.23 LITIGATION: OTHER ISSUES
    7.2301 In General
    7.2302 Discovery
    7.2303 Dilemma Facing Defendants Who Deny Making the Defamatory Statements
    7.2304 Reporter’s Privilege
    7.2305 Judicial Estoppel
    7.2306 Collateral Estoppel
    7.2307 Injunctions
    7.2308 Consent
    7.2309 Evidentiary Issues
    7.2310 Sanctions
    7.2311 Jury Instructions
    7.2312 Offset
    7.2313 Rule 50 Motions
    7.2314 Remittitur
    7.2315 New Trials
    7.2316 Avoiding Constitutional Issues

7.24 LITIGATION: APPEALS
    7.2401 In General
    7.2402 Standard of Review
    7.2403 Damages
    7.2404 Remittitur

7.25 PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS
    7.2501 In General
    7.2502 Mirage of Substantial Damages
    7.2503 “Skeletons in the Closet”
    7.2504 Media Defendants’ Ability to Declare a Victory
    7.2505 Conclusion

INDEX

Volume 2


CHAPTER 8: INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY  (back to top)

8.1 TRADE SECRETS
    8.101 Introduction
    8.102 What Is a Trade Secret?
    8.103 Protecting and Maintaining Trade Secrets
    8.104 Limiting Disclosure of Trade Secrets
    8.105 Nondisclosure Agreements
    8.106 Misappropriation of Trade Secrets
    8.107 Remedies for Misappropriation of Trade Secrets
    8.108 Defenses to Misappropriation of Trade Secrets
    8.109 Duration of Trade Secret Protection
    8.110 Trade Secrets Versus Other Forms of Intellectual Property

8.2 COPYRIGHTS
    8.201 Introduction
    8.202 What Is a Copyright?
    8.203 Creation and Ownership of Copyrighted Works
    8.204 When Copyright Protection Begins
    8.205 Copyright Notice
    8.206 Moral Rights
    8.207 Copyright Registration
    8.208 Copyright Registration Procedures
    8.209 Benefits of Copyright Registration
    8.210 Registration of Compilations
    8.211 Term of Copyright
    8.212 Copyright Searching
    8.213 Copyright Licenses, Transfers, and Assignments
    8.214 Uniform Computer Information Transactions Act
    8.215 Security Interests in Copyrights
    8.216 Copyright Infringement
    8.217 Digital Millennium Copyright Act
    8.218 Defenses to Copyright Infringement
    8.219 Remedies for Copyright Infringement
    8.220 Copyright Versus Other Forms of Intellectual Property Protection
    8.221 Foreign Copyright Protection
    8.222 Company Logos

8.3 TRADEMARKS
    8.301 Introduction
    8.302 What Is a Trademark?
    8.303 Types of Marks
    8.304 Selecting a Trademark
    8.305 Spectrum of Distinctiveness
    8.306 Ownership and Use of Trademarks
    8.307 Converging Use of Trademarks
    8.308 Registration of Trademarks
    8.309 Federal Trademark Examination Process
    8.310 Publication Period for Federal Trademarks
    8.311 Issuance of Federal Registration
    8.312 Issuance of Federal Notice of Allowance
    8.313 Federal Trademark Registration Symbol
    8.314 Benefits of Federal Trademark Registration
    8.315 Federal Trademark Maintenance and Renewal Filings
    8.316 International Trademark Registration: The Madrid Protocol
    8.317 Virginia Trademark Registration Process
    8.318 Benefits of State Trademark Registration
    8.319 Virginia Trademark Renewal Filings
    8.320 Maintaining Trademark Rights
    8.321 Term of Trademark Rights
    8.322 Transfer, Assignment, and Licensing of Trademarks
    8.323 Trademark Infringement Generally
    8.324 Trademark Trial and Appeals Board
    8.325 Trademark Infringement in the Fourth Circuit
    8.326 Trademark Infringement in Virginia
    8.327 Defenses to Trademark Infringement
    8.328 Anticybersquatting Consumer Protection Act
    8.329 Remedies for Trademark Infringement
    8.330 Alternative Dispute Resolution
    8.331 Trademark Dilution
    8.332 Remedies for Trademark Dilution
    8.333 Trademark Versus Other Forms of Intellectual Property Protection

8.4 PATENTS
    8.401 Introduction
    8.402 What Is a Patent?
    8.403 Invention Creation and Patent Ownership
    8.404 Preservation of Patent Rights
    8.405 Who May File a Patent Application?
    8.406 Patent Examination Process
    8.407 Benefits of Patenting
    8.408 Categories of United States Patents
    8.409 Types of Patent Applications
    8.410 Patentability of Inventions
    8.411 Patent Term
    8.412 Patent Marking
    8.413 Patent Licensing
    8.414 Security Interests in Patents
    8.415 Intellectual Property Valuation
    8.416 Patent Infringement
    8.417 Test for Infringement
    8.418 Remedies for Infringement
    8.419 Defenses to Patent Infringement
    8.420 Patent Versus Other Forms of Intellectual Property Protection

APPENDIX 8-1: INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY ASSIGNMENT AGREEMENT FOR NEWLY HIRED EMPLOYEES

APPENDIX 8-2: MUTUAL NONDISCLOSURE AGREEMENT (TRANSACTIONAL)

APPENDIX 8-3: NONDISCLOSURE AGREEMENT (DEVELOPMENT OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY)

APPENDIX 8-4: COPYRIGHT ASSIGNMENT AGREEMENT (SOFTWARE)

APPENDIX 8-5: COPYRIGHT REGISTRATION APPLICATION FOR A NONDRAMATIC LITERARY WORK (FORM TX)

APPENDIX 8-6: CLICKWRAP LICENSE AGREEMENT FOR INTERNET ACCESSIBLE SOFTWARE

APPENDIX 8-7: COPYRIGHT ASSIGNMENT AGREEMENT (PLAY)

APPENDIX 8-8: SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT AND CONSULTING AGREEMENT

APPENDIX 8-9: TRADEMARK CERTIFICATE OF REGISTRATION

APPENDIX 8-10: TRADEMARK CEASE AND DESIST LETTER

APPENDIX 8-11: TRADEMARK ASSIGNMENT AGREEMENT

APPENDIX 8-12: REGISTERED UTILITY PATENT

APPENDIX 8-13: SIMPLE INVENTION RIGHTS ASSIGNMENT BY EMPLOYEE TO EMPLOYER

CHAPTER 9: REPRESENTING DEBTORS AND CREDITORS   (back to top)

9.1 FAIR DEBT COLLECTION PRACTICES ACT
    9.101 In General
    9.102 Applicability
    9.103 Required Disclosures
    9.104 Time Limits
    9.105 Restrictions on Communications
    9.106 Harassment or Abuse
    9.107 False or Misleading Representations
    9.108 Application of Payments
    9.109 Venue
    9.110 Enforcement
    9.111 Bankruptcy Cases

9.2 BRINGING SUIT TO COLLECT A DEBT
    9.201 Introduction
    9.202 Choice of State or Federal Court
    9.203 Choice of Circuit or General District Court
    9.204 Venue
    9.205 Identifying the Parties
    9.206 Service of Process
    9.207 Civil Warrant or Motion for Judgment Under Section 8.01-28
    9.208 Confession of Judgment
    9.209 Suit for Money Judgment in General District Court
    9.210 Courtroom Proceedings in General District Court
    9.211 Actions in Circuit Court

9.3 ENFORCEMENT OF JUDGMENT LIENS
    9.301 Introduction
    9.302 Enforcing an Equitable Decree
    9.303 Perfecting a Judgment Lien on Real Estate
    9.304 Execution Against Tangible Personal Property
    9.305 Execution Against Intangible Personal Property
    9.306 Garnishment
    9.307 Interrogatories to a Debtor
    9.308 Creditor’s Suit to Enforce a Judgment Lien
    9.309 Suspension of Driving Privileges

9.4 ENFORCEMENT OF SECURITY INTERESTS
    9.401 In General
    9.402 Importance of the Security Agreement
    9.403 Possession
    9.404 Bankruptcy
    9.405 Duties of a Secured Party in Possession
    9.406 Sale or Other Disposition
    9.407 Private Sale
    9.408 Public Sale
    9.409 Acceptance of Collateral in Full or Partial Satisfaction of Obligation
    9.410 Disposition of Consumer Goods and Investment Securities
    9.411 Application of Proceeds of Sale or Other Disposition
    9.412 Right of Redemption
    9.413 Debtor’s Remedies for Improper Disposition
    9.414 “Lender Liability” Issues

9.5 REAL PROPERTY FORECLOSURES
    9.501 Deed of Trust
    9.502 Trustee
    9.503 How the Lien Is Established
    9.504 Priorities
    9.505 Right of Redemption
    9.506 The Decision to Foreclose
    9.507 Gathering Documentation
    9.508 Notice of Sale
    9.509 Substitute Trustee
    9.510 Review of Liens and Other Matters
    9.511 Mechanics’ Liens
    9.512 Title Company’s Liability for Title Reports
    9.513 Federal Tax Lien
    9.514 Advertisement of Sale
    9.515 Conduct of Sale
    9.516 Settlement
    9.517 Accounting
    9.518 Deed in Lieu of Foreclosure
    9.519 Recent Legislation
    9.520 Conclusion

APPENDIX 9-1: COVER LETTER

APPENDIX 9-2: FAIR DEBT COLLECTION PRACTICES ACT (FDCPA) NOTICE

APPENDIX 9-3: AFFIDAVIT OF SERVICE BY SPECIAL PROCESS SERVER

APPENDIX 9-4: NOTICE AND MOTION FOR JUDGMENT

APPENDIX 9-5: BILLS OF PARTICULARS

APPENDIX 9-6: NOTICE OF LIEN

APPENDIX 9-7: COMPLAINT

APPENDIX 9-8: NOTICE—MOTION FOR APPOINTMENT OF COMMISSIONER IN CHANCERY

APPENDIX 9-9: DECREE OF REFERENCE APPOINTING A COMMISSIONER IN CHANCERY

APPENDIX 9-10: NOTICE THAT COMMISSIONER IN CHANCERY WILL FILE REPORT

APPENDIX 9-11: REPORT OF COMMISSIONER IN CHANCERY

APPENDIX 9-12: DECREE FOLLOWING COMMISSIONER’S REPORT (APPROVING THE REPORT, APPOINTING A SPECIAL COMMISSIONER, AND ORDERINGSALE OF THE PROPERTY)

APPENDIX 9-13: ADVERTISEMENT OF SALE

APPENDIX 9-14: NOTICE—MOTION TO CONFIRM SALE

APPENDIX 9-15: DECREE CONFIRMING SALE

APPENDIX 9-16: SUPPLEMENTAL REPORT OF COMMISSIONER IN
CHANCERY

APPENDIX 9-17: NOTICE—MOTION TO CONFIRM REPORT OF SPECIAL
COMMISSIONER

APPENDIX 9-18: REPORT OF SPECIAL COMMISSIONER

APPENDIX 9-19: SPECIAL WARRANTY DEED

APPENDIX 9-20: SECOND REPORT OF SPECIAL COMMISSIONER

APPENDIX 9-21: DECREE CONFIRMING REPORT AND DISCHARGING
SPECIAL COMMISSIONER

APPENDIX 9-22: “DEFAULT” PROVISION FOR SECURITY AGREEMENT

APPENDIX 9-23: PROVISION FOR SECURITY AGREEMENT COVERING
ACCOUNTS, CHATTEL PAPER, OR INSTRUMENTS

APPENDIX 9-24: PROVISION FOR AGREEMENT REQUIRING THE
COLLATERAL TO BE ASSEMBLED AT A GIVEN LOCATION

APPENDIX 9-25: ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF DEFAULT AND WAIVER OF
RIGHTS OF REDEMPTION AND NOTIFICATION OF SALE

APPENDIX 9-26: PROVISION FOR AGREEMENT ALLOWING THE SECURED
PARTY TO ENTER THE DEBTOR’S PREMISES

APPENDIX 9-27: VERIFIED PETITION FOR ENTRY OF AN ORDER OF
SEIZURE IN DETINUE

APPENDIX 9-28: ORDER OF SEIZURE IN DETINUE

APPENDIX 9-29: NOTICE OF SALE OR OTHER DISPOSITION

APPENDIX 9-30: ACCELERATION LETTER WITH 30-DAY FDCPA (FIRST
COMMUNICATION) LANGUAGE

APPENDIX 9-31: AFFIDAVIT OF NONMILITARY STATUS

APPENDIX 9-32: LOST NOTE AFFIDAVIT

APPENDIX 9-33: LOST NOTE LETTER

APPENDIX 9-34: ENGAGEMENT LETTER

APPENDIX 9-35: NOTICE OF SALE LETTER

APPENDIX 9-36: NOTICE TO CONDOMINIUM OWNERS’ ASSOCIATION

APPENDIX 9-37: TRUSTEES’ APPOINTMENT DEED

APPENDIX 9-38: PETITION FOR AID AND DIRECTION

APPENDIX 9-39: REQUEST FOR TITLE REPORT (AND COMMITMENT)

APPENDIX 9-40: NOTICE TO INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE

APPENDIX 9-41: INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE RIGHT OF REDEMPTION APPENDIX 9-42: NOTICE OF TRUSTEES’ SALE—RESIDENTIAL

APPENDIX 9-43: SUBJECT TO PROVISION (CONDOMINIUM)

APPENDIX 9-44: AS IS DISCLAIMER

APPENDIX 9-45: FORFEITURE AND NEXT HIGHEST BIDDER PROVISION

APPENDIX 9-46: CLOSING PROVISIONS

APPENDIX 9-47: MEMORANDUM OF SALE

APPENDIX 9-48: TRUSTEE’S DEED

APPENDIX 9-49: LETTER TO COMMISSIONER OF ACCOUNTS

APPENDIX 9-50: FORECLOSURE CHECKLIST

CHAPTER 10: CONSUMER LAW   (back to top)

10.1 VIRGINIA LAW
    10.101 Introduction
    10.102 Regulation of Interest Rates and Other Charges
    10.103 Virginia Laws Relating to Mortgage Loans
    10.104 Requirements of Chapter 15 of Title 6.2, “Consumer Finance Companies
    10.105 Miscellaneous Laws Relating to Consumer Credit Transactions and Consumer Protection
    10.106 Privacy
    10.107 Electronic Commerce

10.2 FEDERAL LAW
    10.201 Introduction
    10.202 Truth in Lending
    10.203 Equal Credit Opportunity Act
    10.204 Fair Credit Reporting Act
    10.205 Fair Debt Collection Practices Act
    10.206 Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act
    10.207 Electronic Fund Transfer Act
    10.208 Magnuson-Moss Warranty: Federal Trade Commission Improvement Act
    10.209 Interstate Land Sales Full Disclosure Act
    10.210 Flood Disaster Protection
    10.211 The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act: A Federal Law Protecting the Privacy of Consumer Financial Information
    10.212 Right to Financial Privacy Act
    10.213 Preservation of Consumers’ Claims and Defenses
    10.214 Credit Practices Rule
    10.215 Cooling-Off Period for Door-to-Door Sales
    10.216 Miscellaneous

CHAPTER 11: REAL ESTATE PRACTICE   (back to top)

11.1 RESIDENTIAL REAL ESTATE CLOSINGS
    11.101 Legislation Affecting Real Estate Closings
    11.102 Representing the Purchaser
    11.103 The Closing
    11.104 Post-Closing
    11.105 Representing the Seller

11.2 RESIDENTIAL LEASES
    11.201 Common Law Principles
    11.202 Exceptions to Common Law Principles
    11.203 The Virginia Residential Landlord and Tenant Act
    11.204 Rental Agreements
    11.205 Landlord Obligations Under VRLTA
    11.206 Tenant Obligations
    11.207 Tenant Remedies
    11.208 Landlord Remedies
    11.209 Retaliatory Action
    11.210 Manufactured Home Lot Rental Act
    11.211 Residential Lead-Based Paint Regulations

APPENDIX 11-1: SETTLEMENT STATEMENT—HUD-1

APPENDIX 11-2: RESIDENTIAL PROPERTY DISCLOSURE STATEMENT

APPENDIX 11-3: PURCHASER’S REPRESENTATION INFORMATION AND CHECKLIST

APPENDIX 11-4: RESIDENTIAL CONTRACT OF PURCHASE—VBA FORM

APPENDIX 11-5: SAMPLE OWNERS’ AFFIDAVIT AS TO MECHANICS’ LIENS AND POSSESSION

APPENDIX 11-6: VIRGINIA ASSOCIATION OF REALTORS RESIDENTIAL CONTRACT OF PURCHASE

APPENDIX 11-7: AFFIDAVIT THAT TRANSFEROR IS NOT FOREIGN
NONINDIVIDUAL FOR PURPOSE OF WITHHOLDING OF TAX

APPENDIX 11-8: AFFIDAVIT THAT TRANSFEROR IS NOT FOREIGN
INDIVIDUAL FOR PURPOSE OF WITHHOLDING OF TAX

APPENDIX 11-9: FORM R-5

APPENDIX 11-10: FORM R-5E

APPENDIX 11-11: CERTIFICATE OF RESIDENCY

APPENDIX 11-12: FORM 1099-S

APPENDIX 11-13: SELLER’S REPRESENTATION INFORMATION AND
CHECKLIST

APPENDIX 11-14: RESIDENTIAL LEASE AGREEMENT—VRLTA FORM

APPENDIX 11-15: GENERAL WARRANTY DEED: VBA FORM

APPENDIX 11-16: SUMMONS FOR UNLAWFUL DETAINER

APPENDIX 11-17: REQUEST FOR WRIT OF POSSESSION IN UNLAWFUL
DETAINER PROCEEDINGS

APPENDIX 11-18: DISTRESS PETITION

APPENDIX 11-19: COVER SHEET FOR FILING CIVIL ACTIONS

CHAPTER 12: EMINENT DOMAIN   (back to top)

12.1 SCOPE OF CHAPTER

12.2 OVERVIEW
    12.201 History
    12.202 Fundamental Principles of Government Takings
    12.203 United States Constitution
    12.204 Virginia Constitution

12.3 LIMITATIONS ON POWER
    12.301 Limitations on Public Use
    12.302 Limitations on Delegation of Power

12.4 PROCEDURE
    12.401 In General
    12.402 Right of Entry for Preliminary Site Inspections
    12.403 Disputes Regarding Entry
    12.404 Jurisdictional Prerequisites for Condemnation Petitions
    12.405 Quick-Take
    12.406 Commencement of Quick-Take Proceedings
    12.407 Jurisdiction of Condemnation Proceedings
    12.408 Petition for Condemnation
    12.409 Answer and Defenses to the Take
    12.410 Failure to File an Answer
    12.411 Owner Under Legal Disability
    12.412 Amendments to Pleadings
    12.413 Intervention of Interested Parties
    12.414 Participation of Tenants in Proceedings to Determine Just Compensation
    12.415 Pretrial Settlement Conference
    12.416 Jurisdictional Hearing
    12.417 Disputes over Ownership
    12.418 Right of Entry After Filing a Petition for Condemnation
    12.419 Selection of Jury
    12.420 Appointment of Commissioners
    12.421 Exceptions to Jurors’ Report
    12.422 Judgment and Post-Judgment Procedures
    12.423 Distribution of Money Paid into Court
    12.424 Interest on the Award of Just Compensation
    12.425 Recovery of Costs and Fees
    12.426 Real Property Acquisition Policies
    12.427 Reimbursement of Attorney Fees in Special Cases: Condemnation, Abandonment, Dismissal, and Inverse
    Condemnation

12.5 COUNTIES, CITIES, AND TOWNS
    12.501 In General
    12.502 Condemnation Resolutions
    12.503 County’s Use of Quick-Take Procedures
    12.504 Special Procedures for Establishing or Altering Roads and Bridges

12.6 VIRGINIA DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
    12.601 In General
    12.602 Negotiations Before Condemnation
    12.603 Valuation Criteria for Enhancement or Damage to the Residue
    12.604 Draw Down of Funds on Deposit
    12.605 Remedy for VDOT’s Failure to Initiate Condemnation Proceedings
    12.606 Interest on Awards or Draw Downs
    12.607 Owner Reacquisition of Property
    
12.7 REDEVELOPMENT AND HOUSING AUTHORITIES
    12.701 In General
    12.702 Conservation Plans
    12.703 Industrial Development
    12.704 Time Limitations on Redevelopment Plans

12.8 VALUATION
    12.801 Introduction
    12.802 Fair Market Value
    12.803 Alternate Valuations
    12.804 Valuation Formula
    12.805 Highest and Best Use
    12.806 Use and Marketability
    12.807 Enhancement Benefits
    12.808 Project Influence on Appreciation and Depreciation
    12.809 Unity of Parcels
    12.810 Probability of Rezoning
    12.811 Raw, Unimproved, or Undeveloped Land
    12.812 Valuation of Property as a Whole
    12.813 Special Purpose Properties
    12.814 Fixtures and Improvements
    12.815 Timber, Crops, and Minerals
    12.816 Business Losses
    12.817 Lost Profits
    12.818 Temporary Takings
    12.819 Damages Without Comparable Sales
    12.820 Contractor Negligence
    12.821 Standards of Compensability
    12.822 Cost to Cure
    12.823 Compensability of Specific Elements of Damage or Loss
    12.824 Access to and from the Property
    12.825 Inconvenience
    12.826 Evidence
    12.827 Owner’s Testimony
    12.828 The Appraiser
    12.829 Predicate Witnesses
    12.830 Speculative or Remote Valuation
    
12.9 INVERSE CONDEMNATION
    12.901 Traditional Inverse Condemnation
    12.902 Statute of Limitations
    12.903 Kitchen v. City of Newport News
    
12.10 REGULATORY TAKINGS
    12.1001 In General
    12.1002 Substantive Due Process

12.11 TAX ASPECTS OF CONDEMNATION PROCEEDS

12.12 PRECONDEMNATION ADVICE FOR OWNERS

12.13 RELOCATION ASSISTANCE
    12.1301 In General
    12.1302 Reimbursement for Moving Residential Personal Property
    12.1303 Supplement for Purchase of Comparable Housing
    12.1304 Supplemental Payment for Replacement Rental Housing
    12.1305 Lump-Sum Payment to Business for Moving Expenses
    12.1306 Business Reestablishment Expenses
    12.1307 Payment to Businesses for Loss of Tangible Personal Property
    12.1308 Last Resort Housing

APPENDIX 12-1: GOVERNMENT AGENCIES AND PUBLIC UTILITIES WITH
POWER OF EMINENT DOMAIN AND THEIR AUTHORIZING LEGISLATIVE ACTS

APPENDIX 12-2: CERTIFICATE OF PARTIAL SATISFACTION

APPENDIX 12-3: TRUSTEE(S) AND BENEFICIARY CONSENT

APPENDIX 12-4: SUBORDINATION AGREEMENT

APPENDIX 12-5: PETITION PURSUANT TO SECTION 33.1-124 OF THE VIRGINIA CODE (BEFORE SUIT FILED)

APPENDIX 12-6: ORDER ENTERED PURSUANT TO SECTION 33.1-124 OF THE
VIRGINIA CODE (BEFORE SUIT FILED)

APPENDIX 12-7: PETITION PURSUANT TO SECTION 33.1-124 OF THE
VIRGINIA CODE (AFTER SUIT FILED)

APPENDIX 12-8: ORDER PURSUANT TO SECTION 33.1-124 OF THE
VIRGINIA CODE (AFTER SUIT FILED)

CHAPTER 13: ESTATE PLANNING AND ADMINISTRATION   (back to top)

13.1 INTRODUCTION TO ESTATE PLANNING

13.2 STARTING THE PROCESS
    13.201 Initial Contact
    13.202 Scheduling the Interview

13.3 COLLECTING INFORMATION
    13.301 What Information to Ask for
    13.302 How to Ask for Information

13.4 RECOGNIZING ETHICAL DILEMMAS

13.5 CONDUCTING THE INTERVIEW

13.6 MAPPING THE PLAN

13.7 FORMS OF OWNERSHIP
    13.701 Fee Simple
    13.702 Tenants in Common
    13.703 Joint Tenants with Right of Survivorship
    13.704 Tenants by the Entirety
    13.705 Community Property
    13.706 Payable on Death Accounts
    13.707 Transfer on Death Accounts

13.8 SPOUSE’S ELECTIVE SHARE
    13.801 In General
    13.802 Description and Timing
    13.803 Property Included in the Augmented Estate
    13.804 Excluded Property
    13.805 Meaning of “Property”
    13.806 How the Augmented Estate Is Satisfied
    
13.9 OTHER STATUTORY ALLOWANCES
    13.901 Family Allowance
    13.902 Exempt Property
    13.903 Homestead Allowance
    
13.10 REASONS FOR HAVING A WILL
    13.1001 Control over Disposition of Property
    13.1002 Reduction of Estate Taxes
    13.1003 Control over Naming Fiduciaries
    
13.11 TYPES OF TRUSTS
    13.1101 In General
    13.1102 Revocable and Irrevocable Trusts Compared
    13.1103 Inter Vivos and Testamentary Trusts Compared
    13.1104 Probate Fees and Administration Expenses
    13.1105 Federal Income Taxes: Grantor Versus Nongrantor Trusts

13.12 USES OF TRUSTS
    13.1201 Avoiding Probate
    13.1202 Managing Assets
    13.1203 Tax Savings
    13.1204 Providing for Minors and Other Persons Under a Disability
    13.1205 Providing for Spendthrifts
    
13.13 ALTERNATIVES TO TRUSTS
    13.1301 Uniform Transfers to Minors Act
    13.1302 Uniform Custodial Trust Act
    13.1303 POD Bank Accounts, Savings Accounts and United States Savings Bonds; TOD Investments
    13.1304 Survivorship

13.14 PLANNING FOR MARRIED COUPLES
    13.1401 Marital Agreements
    13.1402 Providing for a Spouse While Controlling the Disposition of the
    Remainder

13.15 DRAFTING WILLS AND TRUSTS
    13.1501 Will Statutes
    13.1502 Will Forms
    13.1503 Living Trusts
    13.1504 Revocable Trust Form

13.16 POWERS OF ATTORNEY
    13.1601 In General
    13.1602 Types of Powers of Attorney
    13.1603 Construction of Powers of Attorney
    13.1604 “Durable” Powers of Attorney
    13.1605 Contingent Powers of Attorney Versus Delivery in Escrow
    13.1606 Ending the Power of Attorney
    13.1607 Relationship Between Guardian and Agent Under Durable Power of Attorney or Advance Directive
    13.1608 Final Directives: Health Care Powers of Attorney, Advance Directives, and Do Not Resuscitate Orders

13.17 CHOOSING FIDUCIARIES
    13.1701 In General
    13.1702 Executors
    13.1703 Trustees, Guardians, and Attorneys-in-Fact
    13.1704 Co-Fiduciaries
    13.1705 Other Considerations

13.18 EXECUTING AND SAFEKEEPING DOCUMENTS
    13.1801 Reviewing Documents
    13.1802 Execution of Wills
    13.1803 Execution of Other Estate Planning Documents
    13.1804 Safekeeping of the Documents
    13.1805 Terminating the Representation

13.19 INITIATING THE ESTATE ADMINISTRATION PROCESS
    13.1901 Introduction and Definitions
    13.1902 Ethical Considerations
    13.1903 Personal Decisions After Death
    
13.20 PROBATE AND QUALIFICATION
    13.2001 Jurisdiction
    13.2002 Who May Qualify as Personal Representative
    13.2003 Requirements for Probate of a Will
    13.2004 Methods of Probate
    13.2005 Probate of Lost or Destroyed Will
    13.2006 Probate of Later Will
    13.2007 Probate of Foreign Will
    13.2008 Compelling Production of Will
    13.2009 Destroying or Concealing Will
    13.2010 Practical Aspects of Ex Parte Probate and Qualification Before Clerk
    13.2011 Probate and Qualification Order

13.21 ADMINISTRATION AFTER PROBATE
    13.2101 In General
    13.2102 Powers and Duties of Personal Representatives
    13.2103 Notice of Probate
    13.2104 Collection of Assets
    13.2105 Filing the Inventory
    13.2106 Managing and Administering Assets
    13.2107 Filing Tax Returns
    13.2108 Commissioner of Accounts

13.22 WINDING UP AND SETTLEMENT OF THE ESTATE
    13.2201 Debts and Demands
    13.2202 Distribution of Assets
    13.2203 Filing the Accounting
    13.2204 Distribution of Final Assets

APPENDIX 13-1: INTIAL LETTER TO CLIENT

APPENDIX 13-2: ENGAGEMENT LETTER

APPENDIX 13-3: SHORT-FORM QUESTIONNAIRE

APPENDIX 13-4: NON-TAX WILL FOR SINGLE PERSON WITH TRUST FOR YOUNG BENEFICIARIES

APPENDIX 13-5: NON-TAX WILL WITH TRUST FOR CHILDREN

APPENDIX 13-6: POUR-OVER WILL

APPENDIX 13-7: NON-TAX TRUST WITH TRUST FOR CHILDREN

APPENDIX 13-8: MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING ACCOMPANYING POWER OF ATTORNEY

APPENDIX 13-9: MEMORANDUM OF ESCROW DELIVERY OF POWER OF ATTORNEY

APPENDIX 13-10: ADVANCE MEDICAL DIRECTIVE AND AUTHORIZATION TO MAKE ANATOMICAL GIFTS

APPENDIX 13-11: GENERAL DURABLE POWER OF ATTORNEY

CHAPTER 14: INCAPACITATED ADULTS: GUARDIANSHIP AND CONSERVATORSHIP   (back to top)

14.1 INTRODUCTION

14.2 PETITION FOR APPOINTMENT
    14.201 Definitions
    14.202 Filing the Petition
    14.203 Contents of the Petition
    14.204 Notice Requirements

14.3 GUARDIAN AD LITEM
    14.301 Certification
    14.302 Role
    14.303 Respondent’s Right to Counsel and Trial
    14.304 Statutory Duties in General
    14.305 Investigation
    14.306 Personal Appearance
    14.307 Report
    14.308 Fees

14.4 EVALUATION REPORT
    14.401 In General
    14.402 Contents
    14.403 Obtaining the Evaluation

14.5 HEARING

14.6 QUALIFICATION OF GUARDIAN OR CONSERVATOR

14.7 POWERS AND DUTIES OF GUARDIAN
    14.701 Powers in General
    14.702 Effect of Prior Advance Medical Directive or Power of Attorney
    14.703 Contact with Incapacitated Person
    14.704 Mandated Reporter
    14.705 Fiduciary Capacity
    14.706 Limitations on Authority
    14.707 Annual Reports
    14.708 Fees
    14.709 Short-Term Psychiatric Hospitalization

14.8 POWERS AND DUTIES OF CONSERVATOR
    14.801 Powers in General
    14.802 Sale of Real Estate
    14.803 Estate Planning
    14.804 Mandated Reporter
    14.805 Inventory and Accountings
    14.806 Fees

14.9 RESTORATION, MODIFICATION, OR TERMINATION
    14.901 Petition
    14.902 Relief
    14.903 Procedure
    14.904 Findings
    14.905 Termination

14.10 STANDBY GUARDIAN

14.11 VIRGINIA UNIFORM ADULT GUARDIANSHIP AND PROTECTIVE PROCEEDINGS ACT
    14.1101 In General
    14.1102 Jurisdictional Rules
    14.1103 Transfer of Authority
    14.1104 Status of Orders from Other States

APPENDIX 14-1: PETITION FOR APPOINTMENT OF GUARDIAN AND CONSERVATOR

APPENDIX 14-2: EVALUATION FORM

APPENDIX 14-3: ORDER APPOINTING GUARDIAN AD LITEM

APPENDIX 14-4: NOTICE

APPENDIX 14-5: REPORT OF GUARDIAN AD LITEM

APPENDIX 14-6: ORDER APPOINTING CONSERVATOR AND GUARDIAN

CHAPTER 15: ADMINISTRATIVE LAW   (back to top)

15.1 SOURCES OF VIRGINIA ADMINISTRATIVE LAW
    15.101 Virginia Administrative Agencies Generally
    15.102 Agency Authorizing Statutes (Basic Law)
    15.103 Virginia Administrative Process Act
    15.104 Exemptions
    15.105 Case Law
    15.106 Federal Law

15.2 AGENCY RULEMAKING
    15.201 In General
    15.202 Notice of Intended Regulatory Action
    15.203 Proposed Regulations
    15.204 Fast-Track Rulemaking
    15.205 Evidentiary Hearings
    15.206 Emergency Regulations
    15.207 Formal Adoption and Filing of Regulations
    15.208 Executive Review
    15.209 Legislative Review

15.3 AGENCY PERMITTING AND ENFORCEMENT ACTIONS
    15.301 In General
    15.302 Exemptions
    15.303 Informal Fact Finding
    15.304 Formal Evidentiary Hearings
    15.305 Summary Case Decision Proceedings
    15.306 Time Limits for Issuance of Decisions
    15.307 Final Orders

15.4 JUDICIAL REVIEW
    15.401 In General
    15.402 Exemptions
    15.403 Circuit Court Review
    15.404 Scope of Judicial Review
    15.405 Court Judgments and Intermediate Relief
    15.406 Appellate Review of the Circuit Courts’ Decisions

15.5 SPECIFIC AGENCIES
    15.501 In General
    15.502 Starting Point for Analysis
    15.503 Virginia Department of Alcoholic Beverage Control (Alcoholic Beverage Control Board)
    15.504 Environmental Regulation
    15.505 Occupational Health and Safety
    15.506 Professional and Occupational Licensing
    15.507 Transportation

15.6 STATE CORPORATION COMMISSION (SCC)
    15.601 Introduction
    15.602 Exemption from the Administrative Process Act
    15.603 Sources of SCC Law
    15.604 Administrative Procedure Generally
    15.605 Forms of SCC Proceedings
    15.606 SCC Rulemaking
    15.607 SCC Adjudications
    15.608 SCC Hearing Examiners
    15.609 Judicial Review of SCC Decisions
    15.610 Subject-Matter Jurisdiction of the SCC

APPENDIX 15-1: AGENCY RULEMAKING PROCESS

APPENDIX 15-2: AGENCY ADJUDICATIONS PROCESS

TABLE OF AUTHORITIES

INDEX

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