Negotiating and Drafting Marital Agreements in Virginia (OLD EDITION)

Publication Date: 2013 (View 2016 edition.)
Electronic Forms: 93
Available Formats: Print (599 pages, looseleaf, 1 volume, forms CD)
Product #: 859

Information

PLEASE NOTE: A 2016 edition of this publication is available in print, CD, USB flash drive, and immediate download. Click here for newest edition.

Creating an agreement that protects your client’s interests when a marriage ends is essential. Drafting issues extend beyond those ordinarily categorized as family law: taxation, retirement, and bankruptcy considerations can destroy the intended division of property if they are not properly addressed. The U.S. Supreme Court’s 2013 decision in Maretta v. Hillman, appealed from the Virginia Supreme Court, is just one example of unintended consequences when a marital agreement did not sufficiently preserve the parties’ plan.

With over one hundred forms and analysis by experts in the field, this volume enables practitioners to maximize the client’s share of the marital estate and maintain ongoing relationships with their children.

Table of Contents

PLEASE NOTE: A 2016 edition of this publication is available in print, CD, USB flash drive, and immediate download. Click here for newest edition.

TABLE OF CONTENTS (2013 Edition)
Chapters and Authors 
Acknowledgments
About the Editors and Authors
Preface


CHAPTER LIST
1. The Marital Agreement: Tactics, Strategy, And Ethics
2. Nonmarital, Premarital And Reconciliation Agreements
3. Support And Property Provisions In Separation And Support Agreements
4. Custody And Visitation Agreements And Arrangements
5. Standard Provisions In Marital Agreements
6. Income Tax–Planning Considerations In Divorce And Separation
CHAPTER 1: THE MARITAL AGREEMENT: TACTICS, STRATEGY, AND ETHICS  (back to top)

1.1 THE MARITAL AGREEMENT GENERALLY
    1.101 Advantages
    1.102 Caveats

1.2 ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS
    1.201 In General
    1.202 The Virginia Rules of Professional Conduct
    1.203 Communication with the Client
    1.204 Client Confidences
    1.205 Conflicts of Interest Generally
    1.206 Identifying the Client
    1.207 Subsequent Representation
    1.208 Fees
    1.209 Representing an Impaired Client
    1.210 Misconduct

1.3 EVALUATING THE CLIENT’S POSITION
    1.301 Information to Be Obtained from the Client
    1.302 Information to Be Provided to the Client
    1.303 Maintaining Communication with the Client
    1.304 Controlling the Client

1.4 ADDITIONAL CONSIDERATIONS
    1.401 Client Activities
    1.402 Emotional Concerns
    1.403 Other Considerations

1.5 THE ESSENCE OF NEGOTIATION
    1.501 “Negotiation” Defined
    1.502 Elements of Negotiation
    1.503 Negotiating Styles and Techniques
    1.504 Creativity
    1.505 Reasonable Demands and Ultimatums
    1.506 Compromise
    1.507 Ranking the Client’s Priorities
    1.508 Conduct Conducive to Settlement
    1.509 Readiness for Trial
    1.510 Summary

1.6 STRATEGIES AND TACTICS
    1.601 Initial Contact with the Opposition
    1.602 Nature of Contact
    1.603 Additional Tactics to Break an Impasse or Gain Leverage

APPENDIX 1-1: MARITAL AGREEMENT CHECKLIST
APPENDIX 1-2: CLIENT INTERVIEW
APPENDIX 1-3: CLIENT FACT SHEET
APPENDIX 1-4: CHECKLIST OF SUPPORTING DOCUMENTS
APPENDIX 1-5: SCHEDULE OF ASSETS AND LIABILITIES
APPENDIX 1-6: MASTER INFORMATION LIST
APPENDIX 1-7: INCOME/EXPENSE EXHIBIT
APPENDIX 1-8: CHILD-REARING EXPENSES CHECKLIST
APPENDIX 1-9: CUSTODY GUIDELINES
APPENDIX 1-10: INFORMATION AND FEE AGREEMENT FOR DOMESTIC RELATIONS MATTERS
APPENDIX 1-11: CHECKLIST ON BUSINESS VALUATIONS
APPENDIX 1-12: INTEREST IN A CLOSELY HELD CORPORATION
APPENDIX 1-13: OWNERSHIP IN A CASH BUSINESS
APPENDIX 1-14: CONTRACT FOR MEDIATION
APPENDIX 1-15: MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING—SAMPLE PARAGRAPHS
APPENDIX 1-16: MOTION TO APPOINT JUDGE PRO TEMPORE
APPENDIX 1-17: STIPULATION TO APPOINT JUDGE PRO TEMPORE
APPENDIX 1-18: ORDER APPROVING APPOINTMENT OF JUDGE PRO TEMPORE
APPENDIX 1-19: SUMMARY CHECKLIST OF PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS
APPENDIX 1-20 ADDENDUM FOR PROTECTED IDENTIFYING INFORMATION—CONFIDENTIAL

CHAPTER 2: NONMARITAL, PREMARITAL AND RECONCILIATION AGREEMENTS  (back to top)

2.1 NONMARITAL AGREEMENTS
    2.101 In General
    2.102 Theories of Recovery
    2.103 Express Contract Theory
    2.104 Cohabitant Claims in Virginia
    2.105 Written Agreements Between Cohabitants

2.2 PREMARITAL AGREEMENTS
    2.201 The Virginia Premarital Agreement Act
    2.202 Case Law Under the Premarital Agreement Act
    2.203 Reasons for Premarital Agreements
    2.204 Consideration
    2.205 Requisites for Validity
    2.206 Attacks on Validity
    2.207 Void Marriages
    2.208 Contents of Agreement
    2.209 Drafting Considerations
    2.210 Marital Agreements

2.3 RECONCILIATION AGREEMENTS

APPENDIX 2-1: PARTNERSHIP AGREEMENT
APPENDIX 2-2: PREMARITAL AGREEMENT
APPENDIX 2-3: SAMPLE NON-ABROGATION PARAGRAPH FOR MARITAL AGREEMENT
APPENDIX 2-4: RECONCILIATION AGREEMENT
APPENDIX 2-5: PREMARITAL AGREEMENT—SHORT FORM

CHAPTER 3: SUPPORT AND PROPERTY PROVISIONS IN SEPARATION AND SUPPORT AGREEMENTS  (back to top)

3.1 SUPPORT AND PROPERTY PROVISIONS GENERALLY
    3.101 Preparation
    3.102 Tax Considerations
    3.103 Practical Aspects
    3.104 Undisclosed Assets
    3.105 Nonincluded Assets
    3.106 Merger Versus Nonmerger
    3.107 Effect of Reconciliation

3.2 CHILD SUPPORT PROVISIONS
    3.201 In General
    3.202 Modification by Court
    3.203 Temporary Provisions
    3.204 Amount of Child Support
    3.205 Duration of Child Support
    3.206 Modification
    3.207 Waivers, Indemnification, or Prepayment
    3.208 Enforcement
    3.209 Use of Funds and Accountability
    3.210 Dependency Tax Exemption
    3.211 College Education
    3.212 Bankruptcy
    3.213 Trust Funds
    3.214 Child Health Insurance Coverage

3.3 SPOUSAL SUPPORT PROVISIONS
    3.301 In General
    3.302 Special Considerations
    3.303 Temporary Provisions
    3.304 Waivers
    3.305 Fault Grounds
    3.306 Amount of Support
    3.307 Duration of Support
    3.308 Modification
    3.309 Enforcement.
    3.310 Cohabitation

3.4 UNITARY SUPPORT PROVISIONS
    3.401 In General
    3.402 Modification

3.5 OTHER SUPPORT CONSIDERATIONS
    3.501 Liability of the Payor’s Estate
    3.502 Automatic Modification Provisions (“Escalator Clauses”)
    3.503 Medical and Dental Expenses
    3.504 Disability Benefits Policy
    3.505 Joint Income Tax Returns
    3.506 Attorney Fees for Enforcement
    3.507 Emergency Funds
    3.508 Debts

3.6 PERSONAL AND REAL PROPERTY GENERALLY
    3.601 Judicial Authority
    3.602 Taxes
    3.603 Enforcement

3.7 REAL PROPERTY
    3.701 In General
    3.702 Transfer to One Owner
    3.703 Sale of Property
    3.704 Entireties Property
    3.705 Marital Residence

3.8 PERSONAL PROPERTY
    3.801 In General
    3.802 Division of Property
    3.803 Specific Personal Property
    3.804 Motor Vehicles
    3.805 Deferred Compensation
    3.806 Partnerships
    3.807 Corporations
    3.808 Loans
    3.809 Trusts

3.9 LIFE INSURANCE
    3.901 In General
    3.902 Where No Protection Is Needed
    3.903 Where Protection Is Needed for a Support Recipient
    3.904 The Policy Itself
    3.905 Transfer of Ownership to the Beneficiary
    3.906 Death Benefits
    3.907 Beneficiary Designation Revoked by Divorce

APPENDIX 3-1: PROVISION ALLOWING FOR LATER INSERTION OF OMITTED LANGUAGE
APPENDIX 3-2: UNDISCLOSED/NOT INCLUDED ASSETS
APPENDIX 3-3: EFFECT OF RECONCILIATION
APPENDIX 3-4: TEMPORARY CHILD SUPPORT PROVISIONS
APPENDIX 3-5: REGULAR CHILD SUPPORT PROVISIONS—INFORMATION AND GENERALLY
APPENDIX 3-6: REGULAR CHILD SUPPORT PROVISIONS—APPLICATION OF GUIDELINES
APPENDIX 3-7: REGULAR CHILD SUPPORT PROVISIONS—FINANCES OF THE PARTIES
APPENDIX 3-8: REGULAR CHILD SUPPORT PROVISIONS—AMOUNT AND DURATION
APPENDIX 3-9: CHILD SUPPORT GUIDELINES WORKSHEETS
APPENDIX 3-10: EMANCIPATION EVENT
APPENDIX 3-11: MODIFICATION PROVISIONS
APPENDIX 3-12: DEPENDENCY EXEMPTION PROVISIONS
APPENDIX 3-13: EDUCATION PAYMENT PROVISIONS
APPENDIX 3-14: EDUCATIONAL TRUST FUND PROVISIONS
APPENDIX 3-15: MEDICAL AND DENTAL PROVISIONS
APPENDIX 3-16: WAIVERS AND RESERVATIONS
APPENDIX 3-17: LUMP SUM SPOUSAL SUPPORT PROVISIONS
APPENDIX 3-18: LUMP SUM SPOUSAL SUPPORT PAYABLE MONTHLY
APPENDIX 3-19: LUMP SUM PAYABLE PARTLY UPON EXECUTION AND BALANCE MONTHLY
APPENDIX 3-20: MONTHLY FIXED SPOUSAL SUPPORT
APPENDIX 3-21: MONTHLY VARIABLE SPOUSAL SUPPORT FOR A NON-FIXED TERM
APPENDIX 3-22: MONTHLY FIXED LEVEL SPOUSAL SUPPORT FOR FIXED TERM (OF MORE THAN THREE YEARS)
APPENDIX 3-23: MONTHLY FIXED LEVEL SPOUSAL SUPPORT FOR TERM OF THREE YEARS OR LESS
APPENDIX 3-24: SPOUSAL SUPPORT FOR THREE-YEAR PERIOD—PARTIAL NON-MODIFIABILITY
APPENDIX 3-25: MONTHLY STAGGERED SPOUSAL SUPPORT FOR FIXED TERM (OF MORE THAN THREE YEARS)
APPENDIX 3-26: TAX CONSEQUENCES
APPENDIX 3-27: REINSTATEMENT ALIMONY
APPENDIX 3-28: OBLIGATION OF ESTATE
APPENDIX 3-29: SPOUSAL SUPPORT MODIFICATION PROVISIONS
APPENDIX 3-30: COHABITATION
APPENDIX 3-31: OTHER SUPPORT CONSIDERATIONS—DISABILITY
APPENDIX 3-32: OTHER SUPPORT CONSIDERATIONS—TAX RETURNS
APPENDIX 3-33: COUNSEL FEES
APPENDIX 3-34: EMERGENCY FUND
APPENDIX 3-35: DEBTS
APPENDIX 3-36: SPOUSAL SUPPORT IN LIEU OF PROPERTY
APPENDIX 3-37: TAX EFFECTS OF PROPERTY TRANSFERS
APPENDIX 3-38: REAL PROPERTY PROVISIONS
APPENDIX 3-39: PERSONAL PROPERTY PROVISIONS
APPENDIX 3-40: MOTOR VEHICLES
APPENDIX 3-41: DEFERRED COMPENSATION
APPENDIX 3-42: PARTNERSHIPS, CORPORATIONS, BUSINESS INTERESTS, LOANS, AND TRUSTS
APPENDIX 3-43: LIFE INSURANCE

CHAPTER 4: CUSTODY AND VISITATION AGREEMENTS AND ARRANGEMENTS  (back to top)

4.1 INTRODUCTION
    4.101 Reasons for Negotiation
    4.102 Definitions of Custodial Arrangements
    4.103 Advising Clients of the Distinctions Between Terms

4.2 JOINT CUSTODY
    4.201 In General
    4.202 Joint Custody Arrangements
    4.203 Benefits of Joint Custody
    4.204 Disadvantages of Joint Custody
    4.205 Considering and Preparing for Joint Custody

4.3 JOINT LEGAL CUSTODY
    4.301 Joint Custody with “Physical Custody” to One Parent
    4.302 Joint Custody with “Primary Residence”
    4.303 Avoiding the Word “Custody” Altogether
    4.304 Joint Custody with Residency Restrictions
    4.305 Joint Custody with Visitation Restrictions

4.4 SOLE CUSTODY WITH VISITATION

4.5 FACTORS TO CONSIDER IN ANY CUSTODY AGREEMENT
    4.501 Visitation Arrangements
    4.502 Embattled Parents
    4.503 Preferred Method
    4.504 Restrictions
    4.505 Advance Notice
    4.506 Grandparents’ and Others’ Third-Party Custody and
    Visitation Rights
    4.507 Costs
    4.508 Relocation
    4.509 Failure to Deliver a Child
    4.510 Failure to Agree
    4.511 Children’s Wishes
    4.512 Alienation of Affections
    4.513 Communications and Information Sharing
    4.514 Reduced Support Payments
    4.515 Emergencies
    4.516 Alcohol or Drug Abuse
    4.517 “Special Day” Clauses
    4.518 Access to Firearms
    4.519 Changes in Circumstances
    4.520 Provisions Allowing Mental Healthcare Professionals to Testify
    in Future Proceedings
    4.521 Recognition of Agreements Between Same-Sex Couples and
    Unmarried Couples

4.6 USEFUL PUBLICATIONS

APPENDIX 4-1: SOLE CUSTODY
APPENDIX 4-2: SOLE CUSTODY; VISITATION PROVISIONS
APPENDIX 4-3: SOLE CUSTODY; JOINT CUSTODY DURING VISITATION WITH PROVISION FOR VISITATION OUTSIDE UNITED STATES
APPENDIX 4-4: JOINT CUSTODY ARRANGEMENTS
APPENDIX 4-5: SHARED CUSTODY
APPENDIX 4-6: SPLIT CUSTODY
APPENDIX 4-7: DIVIDED CUSTODY
APPENDIX 4-8: JOINT (LEGAL) CUSTODY WITH PRIMARY RESIDENCE AND SPECIFIC SCHEDULE
APPENDIX 4-9: JOINT CUSTODY: SCHEDULE AND CHANGES AS APPROPRIATE
APPENDIX 4-10: (“BIRDNEST”) JOINT CUSTODY
APPENDIX 4-11: JOINT LEGAL CUSTODY WITH PRIMARY RESIDENCE
APPENDIX 4-12: JOINT CUSTODY DURING VISITATION
APPENDIX 4-13: CHILDREN’S RELIGIOUS UPBRINGING
APPENDIX 4-14: JOINT CUSTODY, LEGAL RESIDENCE WITH ONE PARENT (CHILD’S BEST INTERESTS)
APPENDIX 4-15: AVOIDING USE OF THE WORD “CUSTODY,” VISITATION PROVISIONS
APPENDIX 4-16: RELOCATION PROVISIONS
APPENDIX 4-17: VISITATION RESTRICTION (OTHER PERSON)
APPENDIX 4-18: EXAMPLES OF VISITATION SCHEDULES
APPENDIX 4-19: VISITATION RESTRICTION (ALCOHOL)
APPENDIX 4-20: SAFETY AND MORAL RESTRICTIONS
APPENDIX 4-21: GRANDPARENTS’ VISITATION
APPENDIX 4-22: FINANCIAL PROVISIONS
APPENDIX 4-23: CHANGE IN CIRCUMSTANCES
APPENDIX 4-24: COOPERATIVE PARENTING
APPENDIX 4-25: FAMILY COMMUNICATION
APPENDIX 4-26: INFORMATION SHARING
APPENDIX 4-27: MEDICAL CARE
APPENDIX 4-28: PARENT COORDINATOR PROVISION

CHAPTER 5: STANDARD PROVISIONS IN MARITAL AGREEMENTS  (back to top)

5.1 POST-NUPTIAL (MARITAL) AGREEMENTS GENERALLY
    5.101 In General
    5.102 The Comprehensive Agreement
    5.103 Relation to Contracts in General

5.2 INTRODUCTORY CLAUSES
    5.201 Preamble and Recitals
    5.202 “Personal Lives” Provision

5.3 COUNSEL, ENFORCEMENT, AND WAIVERS
    5.301 Representation by Counsel
    5.302 Validity of Agreement
    5.303 “Binding on Heirs and Assigns” Provision
    5.304 Attorney Fees
    5.305 Releases and Waivers

5.4 INCORPORATION, MERGER, AND OTHER MISCELLANEOUS
    PROVISIONS
    5.401 Incorporation and Merger
    5.402 “Additional Instruments” Provision
    5.403 Modification
    5.404 Reconciliation
    5.405 Inducement to Agreement
    5.406 Interest
    5.407 Bankruptcy
    5.408 Other Provisions

APPENDIX 5-1: EXAMPLES OF STANDARD PROVISIONS USED IN SEPARATION AGREEMENTS
APPENDIX 5-2: CONSENT ORDER
APPENDIX 5-3: SAMPLE SEPARATION AGREEMENT I
APPENDIX 5-4: SAMPLE SEPARATION AGREEMENT II
APPENDIX 5-5: PROVISION FOR WAIVER OF ESTATE RIGHTS
APPENDIX 5-6: CLAUSE TO TERMINATE A REVOCABLE TRUST
APPENDIX 5-7: SAMPLE ESTATE PLANNING PROVISIONS
APPENDIX 5-8: SAVING CLAUSE FOR BENEFIT WAIVER PROVISIONS

CHAPTER 6: INCOME TAX–PLANNING CONSIDERATIONS IN DIVORCE AND SEPARATION  (back to top)

6.1 INTRODUCTION

6.2 ALIMONY
    6.201 Pre-1985 Rules
    6.202 Tax Reform Act of 1984
    6.203 Tax Reform Act of 1986
    6.204 Current Alimony Rules

6.3 CHILD SUPPORT
    6.301 Pre-1985 Rules
    6.302 Current Law
    6.303 Mixed Payments (Part Alimony, Part Child Support)

6.4 TRANSFERS OF PROPERTY BETWEEN SPOUSES AND FORMER
SPOUSES
    6.401 Pre-1985 Rules
    6.402 The Tax Reform Acts of 1984 and 1986
    6.403 Current Rules
    6.404 Transfer of Retirement Benefits
    6.405 Promissory Notes and Related Issues
    6.406 Miscellaneous Issues

6.5 DEPENDENCY EXEMPTION FOR CHILDREN
    6.501 Tax Reform Act of 1984
    6.502 Dependency Exemption Phaseout Rules
    
6.6 COLLATERAL INCOME TAX CONSIDERATIONS RELATING
TO CHILDREN
    6.601 Medical Expense Deduction
    6.602 Child Care Credit
    6.603 Child Tax Credit
    6.604 Earned Income Tax Credit
    6.605 Filing Status
    6.606 Deductibility of Legal Fees

6.7 ENTITLEMENT TO TAX REFUNDS
    6.701 In General
    6.702 Applicable Law

6.8 INNOCENT SPOUSE, SEPARATE LIABILITY, AND EQUITABLE
TAX RELIEF
    6.801 In General
    6.802 Innocent Spouse Rules—I.R.C. § 6015(b)
    6.803 Separate Tax Liability for Divorced and Separated
    Taxpayers—I.R.C. § 6015(c)
    6.804 Equitable Relief—I.R.C. § 6015(f)
    6.805 Making the Election

TABLE OF AUTHORITIES

INDEX

Authors

EDITOR: Richard E. Crouch, Crouch & Crouch, P.L.C. / Arlington

AUTHORS:
Edward D. Barnes, Barnes & Diehl, P.C. / Chesterfield
Craig D. Bell, McGuireWoods, LLP / Richmond
Dennis M. Hottell, Hottell Malinowski Group, P.C. / Fairfax
Christopher Malinowski, Hottell Malinowski Group, P.C. / Fairfax
David D. Masterman, Masterman, Krogmann & Dino PC / Vienna
Margaret B. McNamara, Betsy H. Phillips, PLLC / Rustburg
Betsy Harwood Phillips, Betsy H. Phillips, PLLC / Rustburg
Bradley A. Ridlehoover, McGuireWoods, LLP / Richmond
William C. Scott IV, Michie Hamlett Lowry Rasmussen & Tweel PC / Charlottesville
Wanda Phillips Yoder, Fairchild & Yoder, PLLC / Lynchburg

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