Debt Collection for Virginia Lawyers: A Systematic Approach (OLD EDITION)

Publication Date: 2013 (View 2016 edition.)
Electronic Forms: 188
Available Formats: Print (1,003 pages, looseleaf, 2 volumes, with forms CD)
Product #: 857

Information

PLEASE NOTE: A 2016 edition of this publication is available in print (7" x 10" softcover), CD, USB flash drive, and immediate download. Click here for newest edition.

Winning the case may not be all your client needs— helping your clients to get paid is equally important. Debt Collection for Virginia Lawyers: A Systematic Approach covers the entire process from filing suit to collecting on that judgment—a process with specific idiosyncrasies in Virginia law.

This two-volume publication includes clear, step-by-step instructions on filing and pursuing each aspect of a collection claim from obtaining the initial judgment to reaching the debtor’s assets and wages, practice tips—the authors take you beyond the black letter law to analyze strategy and provide practical advice, and nearly 200 downloadable, ready-to-use forms.

Whether you have a collections practice or naturally come across collection-related issues with your everyday clients, this book provides the tools to put an organized collection system in place and to competently represent both creditors and debtors.

Table of Contents

PLEASE NOTE: A 2016 edition of this publication is available in print, CD, USB flash drive, and immediate download. Click here for newest edition.

TABLE OF CONTENTS (2013 EDITION)
Chapters and Authors 
Acknowledgments
About the Editors and Authors
Preface


CHAPTER LIST
1. Overview Of A Collection Practice And The Collection Practice System
2. Receipt Of A Claim
3. Financial Recordkeeping, Client Accounting, Escrow Accounts, And Fees
4. Fair Debt Collection Practices Act
5. Gathering Information
6. Improving The Client’s Position
7. Suit
8. Executions On Judgments
9. Attachments
10. Real Property Foreclosures
11. Memorandum Of Lis Pendens
12. Mechanics’ Liens
13. Other Liens
14. Bankruptcy Considerations
CHAPTER 1: OVERVIEW OF A COLLECTION PRACTICE AND THE
COLLECTION PRACTICE SYSTEM
  (back to top)

1.1 INTRODUCTION
    1.101 Purpose of a Collection Practice System
    1.102 Attorney Time
    1.103 Expenses
    1.104 Non-Attorney Staff
    1.105 Debtor Index and File Numbers
    1.106 Tickler System

1.2 DEALING WITH CLIENTS
    1.201 Initial Meeting or Telephone Interview
    1.202 Attorney-Client Communication
    1.203 Settlements
    1.204 Obtaining Information from the Client
    1.205 Making Payment Arrangements with the Debtor

1.3 DEALING WITH DEBTORS
    1.301 Staff’s Ability to Handle Contacts with Debtors
    1.302 Conduct Toward the Debtor

1.4 EXPANSION OF A PRACTICE
    1.401 Use of Non-Attorney Staff
    1.402 Economy of Time
    
1.5 DEFENSIVE LAW PRACTICE
    1.501 Documentation
    1.502 Dealing with the Courts
    1.503 Ethical Considerations

1.6 DEVELOPING A COLLECTION SYSTEM
    1.601 Beginning a Collection Practice
    1.602 Use of Non-Attorney Staff
    1.603 Summary of a Collection System
    1.604 Filing System
    1.605 Index System
    1.606 Claim Acknowledgment
    1.607 Sending Demand
    1.608 Tickler System
    1.609 Time and Cost
    
1.7 LITIGATION AND EXECUTION SYSTEM
    1.701 Attorney Time
    1.702 Preparation by Non-Attorney Staff
    1.703 Applications for Warrants
    1.704 Motions for Judgment
    1.705 Bills of Particulars
    1.706 Recording Judgments
    1.707 Executions

1.8 INFORMATION-GATHERING SYSTEM

1.9 BOOKKEEPING AND REMITTING SYSTEM
    1.901 Maintaining an Escrow Account
    1.902 Clients for Whom Monthly Statements Are Kept
    1.903 Clients for Whom Monthly Statements Are Not Kept
    1.904 Rules for Escrow Accounts
    
CHAPTER 2: RECEIPT OF A CLAIM  (back to top)

2.1 PRELIMINARY CONSIDERATIONS
    2.101 Conflicts of Interest
    2.102 Statutes of Limitations
    2.103 Location or Venue
    2.104 Kind and Quality of Claim
    2.105 Amount of Claim
    2.106 Commercial Versus Retail Claim
    2.107 Nature of Claim
    2.108 Amount to Claim for Client
    2.109 Unreasonable Clients
    2.110 Fee Arrangements

2.2 OPENING A FILE
    2.201 In General
    2.202 File Covers
    
2.3 ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF CLAIMS
    2.301 In General
    2.302 Types of Acknowledgments
    2.303 Unusual Situations
    2.304 Rejected Claims
    2.305 Fair Debt Collection Practices Act Review

2.4 SENDING A DEMAND LETTER
    2.401 In General
    2.402 Commercial Demand and Follow-Up
    2.403 Retail Demand and Follow-Up
    2.404 Returned Demand Letters
    2.405 Special Notices
    
2.5 DEBTOR’S RESPONSE
    2.501 In General
    2.502 Debtor’s Direct Response
    2.503 Obtaining Note or Waiver of Statute of Limitations
    2.504 Debtor’s Complaints or Defenses
    
2.6 OBTAINING AUTHORIZATION TO SUE
    2.601 In General
    2.602 Retail Matters
    2.603 Commercial Matters
    2.604 Content of Reports to Client

APPENDIX 2-1: WAIVER OF STATUTE OF LIMITATIONS

APPENDIX 2-2: COMMERCIAL DEMAND LETTER

APPENDIX 2-3: RETAIL DEMAND LETTER

APPENDIX 2-4: ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF RETAIL CLAIM WITH RATE
CHANGE

APPENDIX 2-5: ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF COMMERCIAL CLAIM WITH
RATE CHANGE

APPENDIX 2-6: UNAUTHORIZED PRACTICE RULE 3—COLLECTION
AGENCIES

APPENDIX 2-7: RETAIL CLAIM JACKET

APPENDIX 2-8: RETAIL CLAIM JACKET

APPENDIX 2-9: COMMERCIAL CLAIM JACKET

APPENDIX 2-10: ACKNOWLEDGMENT LETTER AND REPORT

APPENDIX 2-11: ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF FORWARDED RETAIL CLAIM
WITH RATE CHANGE

APPENDIX 2-12: CLAIM ACKNOWLEDGMENT LETTER REQUESTING
INFORMATION ABOUT CLAIM

APPENDIX 2-13: RETURN OF CLAIM LETTER

APPENDIX 2-14: LETTER CLOSING FILE BECAUSE OF INSUFFICIENT
DOCUMENTATION


APPENDIX 2-15: EXAMPLE OF INFORMATION TO BE NOTED IN THE FILE

APPENDIX 2-16: INITIAL REPORT TO FORWARDER ON RETAIL CLAIM

APPENDIX 2-17: INITIAL REPORT TO FORWARDER ON COMMERCIAL
CLAIM

APPENDIX 2-18: INITIAL REPORT TO FORWARDER ON COMMERCIAL
CLAIM

APPENDIX 2-19: INITIAL REPORT TO FORWARDER ON CONTESTED
COMMERCIAL CLAIM

APPENDIX 2-20: INFORMATION REQUEST TO STATE CORPORATION
COMMISSION

APPENDIX 2-21: INFORMATION REQUEST TO BUSINESS LICENSE BUREAU

APPENDIX 2-22: INITIAL REPORT TO FORWARDER ON COMMERCIAL
CLAIM CITING STATUTE OF LIMITATIONS

APPENDIX 2-23: LETTER CLOSING FILE AND RETURNING CLAIMS
BECAUSE OF CLIENT’S LACK OF RESPONSE

CHAPTER 3: FINANCIAL RECORDKEEPING, CLIENT ACCOUNTING,
ESCROW ACCOUNTS, AND FEES
  (back to top)

3.1 LOCATION OF RECORDS

3.2 ADVANCEMENT OF COSTS

3.3 ESCROW RECORDS

3.4 MONTHLY STATEMENTS

3.5 TIMING OF REMITTANCES AND MONTHLY STATEMENTS

3.6 ATTORNEY FEES

3.7 SUIT FEES

APPENDIX 3-1: FILE COVER WITH FINANCIAL ENTRY

APPENDIX 3-2: REMITTANCE CHECK

APPENDIX 3-3: RETAIL CLIENT FINANCIAL SHEET

CHAPTER 4: FAIR DEBT COLLECTION PRACTICES ACT  (back to top)

4.1 IN GENERAL

4.2 RESEARCH MATERIALS AND PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATIONS

4.3 NATURE OF THE FAIR DEBT COLLECTION PRACTICES ACT
    4.301 Congressional Purpose
    4.302 Applicability to Attorneys
    4.303 Exception for Formal Pleadings
    4.304 Initial Communication
    4.305 Applicability Limited to “Consumer” Debt
    4.306 Applicability to Particular Types of Debts
    4.307 Applicability Limited to “Debt Collectors
    4.308 Applicability to Subsequent Debt Collectors
    4.309 Applicability to Litigation
    4.310 Applicability to Attorneys

4.4 VIOLATIONS OF THE FDCPA
    4.401 Communications
    4.402 Harassment or Abuse
    4.403 False or Misleading Representations
    4.404 Unfair Practices
    4.405 Application of Payments
    4.406 Venue
    
4.5 REMEDIES
    4.501 Civil Liability
    4.502 Administrative Enforcement
    4.503 Equitable Relief
    4.504 Setoff
    4.505 Jurisdiction
    4.506 Standing
    4.507 Right to Jury Trial
    4.508 Statute of Limitations

4.6 DEFENSES
    4.601 “Bona Fide Error”
    4.602 “Good Faith Reliance”
    
4.7 BANKRUPTCY CASES
    4.701 Applicability of the FDCPA in Bankruptcy Cases
    4.702 Property of the Estate
    4.703 Standing of the Trustee or Debtor in Possession
    4.704 Jurisdiction
    4.705 Statute of Limitations
    4.706 Abandonment
    4.707 Effect of Closing the Case
    4.708 Post-Discharge Collection Efforts
    
APPENDIX 4-1: CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE

APPENDIX 4-2: FDCPA NOTICE

APPENDIX 4-3: COVER LETTER

APPENDIX 4-4: “SAFE HARBOR” LETTER

CHAPTER 5: GATHERING INFORMATION  (back to top)

5.1 INTRODUCTION

5.2 CLIENT’S RECORDS

5.3 OFFICE LOCATION

5.4 CONTACT WITH DEBTOR BEFORE SUIT IS FILED
    5.401 Written Correspondence
    5.402 Telephone Contact
    
5.5 CONTACT WITH DEBTOR AFTER SUIT IS FILED

5.6 INFORMATION FROM BANKS
    5.601 Debtor’s Check
    5.602 Direct Inquiries
    5.603 Locating a Business’ Bank
    
5.7 INFORMATION FROM THE DEPARTMENT OF MOTOR VEHICLES
    5.701 In Virginia
    5.702 In Other States
    
5.8 PUBLIC RECORDS

5.9 INFORMATION FROM MORTGAGE COMPANIES, LIENHOLDERS,
AND OTHER CREDITORS

5.10 INFORMATION FROM CREDIT APPLICATIONS

5.11 INFORMATION FROM THE POST OFFICE

5.12 INFORMATION FROM EMPLOYER OR FORMER EMPLOYER

5.13 INVESTIGATORS

5.14 THE INTERNET, SOFTWARE, AND print sources

5.15 INFORMATION FROM MILITARY AUTHORITIES

5.16 INFORMATION FROM OTHER PEOPLE
    5.1601 Neighbors
    5.1602 Former or Estranged Spouse and Cosigners
    5.1603 Former Co-Workers
    5.1604 Sheriffs and Court Clerks

5.17 POST-JUDGMENT INTERROGATORIES
    5.1701 Statutory Authority
    5.1702 Statutory Procedure
    5.1703 Dealing With Debtors Who Do Not Appear
    5.1704 The Hearing
    5.1705 Payments or Arrangements Before Hearing
    5.1706 No-Service Returns

APPENDIX 5-1: LETTER TO BANK REQUESTING PAYOFF OF LIEN ON
VEHICLE

APPENDIX 5-2: DMV REQUEST FOR VEHICLE INFORMATION FORM

APPENDIX 5-3: LETTER TO DEBTOR AT NEW LOCATION IN ANOTHER
STATE

APPENDIX 5-4: LETTER TO COMMISSIONER OF REVENUE

APPENDIX 5-5: LETTER TO POSTMASTER

APPENDIX 5-6: REQUEST FOR CHANGE OF ADDRESS OR BOXHOLDER
INFORMATION

APPENDIX 5-7: LETTER TO SHERIFF REQUESTING SECOND SERVICE OF
PROCESS

APPENDIX 5-8: LETTER TO REPORTED EMPLOYER OF DEBTOR

APPENDIX 5-9: LETTER TO DEBTOR CONCERNING GARNISHMENT

APPENDIX 5-10: LETTER TO NONRESIDENT DEBTOR CONCERNING SUIT
TO ENFORCE JUDGMENT

APPENDIX 5-11: SUMMONS TO ANSWER INTERROGATORIES
(FORM DC-440)

APPENDIX 5-12: LETTER TO DEBTOR CONCERNING FAILURE TO APPEAR
BEFORE THE COMMISSIONER

APPENDIX 5-13: CAPIAS

APPENDIX 5-14: LETTER TO SHERIFF REQUESTING THE ARREST OF
DEFENDANT

APPENDIX 5-15: LETTER TO COMMISSIONER REQUESTING
CANCELLATION OF HEARING

APPENDIX 5-16: LETTER TO COMMISSIONER REQUESTING
CONTINUANCE

CHAPTER 6: IMPROVING THE CLIENT’S POSITION  (back to top)

6.1 INTRODUCTION

6.2 BEFORE THE CLAIM GOES TO THE ATTORNEY

6.3 DURING CONTACT WITH THE DEBTOR IN DISPUTED MATTERS

6.4 PAYMENTS BY DEBTOR TENDERED AS “PAYMENT IN FULL”

6.5 NOTE EVIDENCING AN OPEN ACCOUNT OR PAYMENT ON AN
OPEN ACCOUNT

6.6 AFTER SUIT HAS BEEN FILED

6.7 OBTAINING JUDGMENT WHEN DEBTOR HAS ABSCONDED

6.8 TOLLING THE STATUTE OF LIMITATIONS
    6.801 Tolling by Filing Suit
    6.802 Other Tolling Provisions
    6.803 Actions Against Estates
    6.804 Dismissal With Prejudice; Dismissal Without Prejudice; Nonsuit

6.9 SANCTIONS

6.10 ASSIGNMENT OF PROCEEDS OF PERSONAL INJURY OR
WRONGFUL DEATH CASES

6.11 OBTAINING A COSIGNER

6.12 ASSIGNMENT OF WAGES

6.13 MILITARY PERSONNEL AND FEDERAL EMPLOYEES

6.14 OBTAINING SECURITY FOR AN UNSECURED LOAN

6.15 BAD CHECKS
    6.1501 Criminal Sanctions
    6.1502 Civil Damages

6.16 LIABILITY OF INDIVIDUAL FOR ENTITY’S DEBTS

6.17 LIABILITY OF ENTITY FOR INDIVIDUAL’S DEBTS

6.18 LIABILITY OF DISSOLVED CORPORATION BY ESTOPPEL

6.19 SUSPENSION OF DRIVER’S LICENSE

6.20 RECOVERY OF CHILD SUPPORT OR SPOUSAL SUPPORT

6.21 RECOVERY OF CIVIL PENALTIES BY MEDICAL PROFESSIONALS

6.22 CIVIL PENALTIES FOR SHOPLIFTING AND EMPLOYEE THEFT

6.23 CIVIL PENALTIES FOR MAKING FALSE CLAIMS TO DEFRAUD
THE COMMONWEALTH

6.24 CIVIL PENALTY FOR FAILURE TO PAY FOR GASOLINE

6.25 OTHER CIVIL PENALTIES OR STATUTORY AWARDS

6.26 EMPLOYER LIENS ON THIRD-PARTY ACTIONS IN WORKERS’
COMPENSATION AND UNINSURED MOTORIST CASES

6.27 RESTITUTION ORDERS

6.28 CURE OFFERS

6.29 DISSOLUTION OF LIMITED LIABILITY COMPANY OR LIMITED
PARTNERSHIP

6.30 USING THE IRS (INDIRECTLY)

6.31 CONCLUSION

APPENDIX 6-1: BILL OF PARTICULARS INCORPORATING DEBTOR’S
ADMISSION

APPENDIX 6-2: LETTER TO DEBTOR CONFIRMING PAYOUT PLAN

APPENDIX 6-3: PROMISSORY NOTE

APPENDIX 6-4: LETTER ACKNOWLEDGING RECEIPT OF PARTIAL
PAYMENT

APPENDIX 6-5: SAMPLE BILL OF PARTICULARS

APPENDIX 6-6: CONFESSION OF JUDGMENT NOTE

APPENDIX 6-7: AFFIDAVIT FOR SERVICE OF PROCESS ON THE
SECRETARY OF THE COMMONWEALTH (FORM DC-410)

APPENDIX 6-8: ASSIGNMENT OF PROCEEDS OF LITIGATION

APPENDIX 6-9: GUARANTY AGREEMENT

APPENDIX 6-10: GUARANTY AGREEMENT—ALTERNATIVE FORM

APPENDIX 6-11: WAGE ASSIGNMENT

APPENDIX 6-12: LETTER TO COMMANDING OFFICER OF DEBTOR

APPENDIX 6-13: LETTER TO PERSONNEL SUPERVISOR OF FEDERAL
EMPLOYEE

APPENDIX 6-14: FOLLOW-UP LETTER TO PERSONNEL SUPERVISOR OF
FEDERAL EMPLOYEE

APPENDIX 6-15: COURT-IMPOSED PAYMENT AGREEMENT

APPENDIX 6-16: DEBTOR’S PETITION FOR REINSTATEMENT OF LICENSE

APPENDIX 6-17: ORDER REINSTATING LICENSE

CHAPTER 7: SUIT  (back to top)

7.1 INTRODUCTION

7.2 CHOICE BETWEEN STATE COURT AND FEDERAL COURT
    7.201 In General
    7.202 Location of Court
    7.203 Prevention of Delay by Defendant
    7.204 Removal by Defendant to Federal Court

7.3 CHOICE BETWEEN CIRCUIT COURT AND GENERAL DISTRICT COURT
    7.301 In General
    7.302 General District Court
    7.303 Circuit Court

7.4 SUIT FOR MONEY JUDGMENT IN GENERAL DISTRICT COURT
    7.401 Forms
    7.402 Procedure
    7.403 Court Costs

7.5 VENUE IN GENERAL DISTRICT COURT
    7.501 Venue
    7.502 Preferred Venue
    7.503 Permissible Venue
    7.504 Forum Non Conveniens
    7.505 Commercial Transactions
    7.506 Practical Considerations
    7.507 Agreement as to Venue
    7.508 Multi-Party Actions

7.6 WARRANT IN DEBT IN GENERAL DISTRICT COURT
    7.601 In General
    7.602 Plaintiff
    7.603 Limitations on Pro Se Actions
    7.604 Naming the Defendant
    7.605 Defendant’s Address
    7.606 Amount Due
    7.607 Interest
    7.608 Basis of Claim
    7.609 Return Date

7.7 WARRANT IN DETINUE IN GENERAL DISTRICT COURT
    7.701 In General
    7.702 Venue
    7.703 Property Claimed
    7.704 Damages
    7.705 Attorney Fees
    7.706 Statute of Limitations
    7.707 Prejudgment Remedy of Detinue
    7.708 Use of Detinue to Try Title to Property or Determine Rights of
    Possession
    7.709 Form of Judgment and Election
    7.710 Execution
    7.711 Emergency Detinue

7.8 MOTION FOR JUDGMENT IN GENERAL DISTRICT COURT
    7.801 Requirements
    7.802 Advantages

7.9 CIVIL WARRANT OR MOTION FOR JUDGMENT UNDER
SECTION 8.01-28

7.10 UNLAWFUL DETAINER ACTIONS
    7.1001 Unlawful Entry and Detainer
    7.1002 Tenant’s Personal Property

7.11 COURTROOM PRACTICE IN GENERAL DISTRICT COURT
    7.1101 In General
    7.1102 Obtaining Judgment in Uncontested Cases
    7.1103 Service of Process
    7.1104 Continuances
    7.1105 Dismissal of Paid Claims
    7.1106 Contested Cases
    7.1107 Judgments
    7.1108 Post-Judgment Remedies
    7.1109 Special Process Server
    7.1110 Duration of and Renewal of General District Court Judgments
    7.1111 Retention of General District Court Records

7.12 ACTIONS IN CIRCUIT COURT
    7.1201 Jurisdiction
    7.1202 Confession of Judgment

7.13 REMOVAL TO CIRCUIT COURT

7.14 APPEALS TO CIRCUIT COURT
    7.1401 In General
    7.1402 Bond
    7.1403 Trial de Novo
    7.1404 Practice Tips
    7.1405 Final Order
    7.1406 Withdrawal of Appeals

7.15 SUIT BY VERIFIED ACCOUNTS AND CONTRACTS

7.16 COUNTERCLAIMS

7.17 DISCOVERY

7.18 DEFAULT JUDGMENTS

7.19 DISMISSAL OF SUIT DUE TO INACTION OF THE PARTIES

7.20 EXECUTION ON JUDGMENTS

7.21 RECORDATION OF JUDGMENTS
    7.2101 Obtaining an Abstract of Judgment
    7.2102 Creating a Lien
    7.2103 Procedure for Recording Judgments
    7.2104 Enforcement of Judgment Liens
    7.2105 Judgments Against Nonresident Defendants
    7.2106 Validity of Judgment Against Subsequent Transferee
    7.2107 Other Reasons for Recording Judgments
    7.2108 Recording Foreign Judgments, Judgments of Other States, and
    Judgments of Federal Courts

7.22 RELEASE OF JUDGMENTS
    7.2201 Duty to Release Judgment
    7.2202 Procedure
    7.2203 Releasing Recorded Judgments
    7.2204 Release of Judgment by Judgment Debtor

7.23 CLOSED FILES

7.24 SMALL CLAIMS COURT

7.25 ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION

APPENDIX 7-1: PROMISSORY NOTE

APPENDIX 7-2: GENERAL DISTRICT COURT CIVIL FEES ASSESSMENT

APPENDIX 7-3: WARRANT IN DEBT (FORM DC-412)

APPENDIX 7-4: WARRANT IN DEBT—SMALL CLAIMS DIVISION
(FORM DC-402)

APPENDIX 7-5: WARRANT IN DEBT (ACTION BY INDIVIDUAL AGAINST
INDIVIDUAL FOR A DEBT)

APPENDIX 7-6: WARRANT IN DEBT (ACTION BY CORPORATION AGAINST
INDIVIDUAL AND GUARANTOR)

APPENDIX 7-7: WARRANT IN DEBT (ACTION BY FOREIGN CORPORATION
AGAINST RESIDENT INDIVIDUAL)

APPENDIX 7-8: WARRANT IN DEBT (ACTION BY COMPANY IN
REPRESENTATIVE CAPACITY AGAINST INDIVIDUAL
WHERE BUSINESS IS NO LONGER OPERATING)

APPENDIX 7-9: WARRANT IN DEBT REQUESTING COMPOUND INTEREST

APPENDIX 7-10: WARRANT IN DEBT (ACTION BY PERSON IN
REPRESENTATIVE CAPACITY AGAINST MULTIPLE
DEFENDANTS CLAIMING INTEREST AT A RATE HIGHER
THAN JUDGMENT RATE)

APPENDIX 7-11: WARRANT IN DEBT (ACTION BY MINOR AGAINST
CORPORATION)

APPENDIX 7-12: WARRANT IN DEBT (ACTION BY SUCCESSOR
CORPORATION AGAINST NONRESIDENT CORPORATION
WITHOUT A REGISTERED AGENT)

APPENDIX 7-13: WARRANT IN DEBT (ACTION BY SUBROGEE FOR
PROPERTY DAMAGE)

APPENDIX 7-14: WARRANT IN DEBT (ACTION BY PARTNERSHIP
AGAINST NONRESIDENT INDIVIDUAL)

APPENDIX 7-15: WARRANT IN DEBT (ACTION BY PROFESSIONAL
FOR SERVICES RENDERED TO MINOR CHILD)

APPENDIX 7-16: WARRANT IN DEBT (ACTION BY INDIVIDUAL TRADING
UNDER FICTITIOUS NAME AGAINST INDIVIDUAL
WITHOUT STREET ADDRESS)

APPENDIX 7-17: WARRANT IN DEBT (ACTION BY HEALTH CARE PROVIDER
AGAINST PERSON IN REPRESENTATIVE CAPACITY)

APPENDIX 7-18: WARRANT IN DEBT (ACTION BY INDIVIDUAL AGAINST
INDIVIDUAL WITH UNKNOWN LAST NAME)

APPENDIX 7-19: MOTION FOR JUDGMENT

APPENDIX 7-20: MOTION FOR JUDGMENT

APPENDIX 7-21: CERTIFICATE OF MAILING

APPENDIX 7-22: NOTICE OF COMMENCEMENT OF ACTION AND REQUEST
FOR WAIVER OF SERVICE OF PROCESS AND
ACCEPTANCE/WAIVER OF SERVICE OF PROCESS AND
WAIVER OF FUTURE SERVICE OF PROCESS AND NOTICE

APPENDIX 7-23: BILL OF PARTICULARS—CONTRACT OR NOTE

APPENDIX 7-24: BILL OF PARTICULARS—DEFICIENCY ACTION

APPENDIX 7-25: BILL OF PARTICULARS—OPEN ACCOUNT

APPENDIX 7-26: NOTICE OF CHANGE OF ADDRESS (FORM DC-437)

APPENDIX 7-27: ABSTRACT OF JUDGMENT (FORM DC-465)

APPENDIX 7-28: SUMMONS FOR UNLAWFUL DETAINER (FORM DC-421)

APPENDIX 7-29: NOTICE OF HEARING TO ESTABLISH FINAL RENT AND
DAMAGES (FORM DC-422)

APPENDIX 7-30: REQUEST FOR WRIT OF POSSESSION IN UNLAWFUL
DETAINER PROCEEDINGS (FORM DC-469)

APPENDIX 7-31: PROMISSORY NOTE

APPENDIX 7-32: CONFESSION OF JUDGMENT

APPENDIX 7-33: LETTER TO CLERK OF COURT CONCERNING
CONFESSION OF JUDGMENT

APPENDIX 7-34: LETTER TO CLERK OF COURT AUTHORIZING RELEASE
OF JUDGMENT

APPENDIX 7-35: DEFAULT JUDGMENT ORDER

APPENDIX 7-36: DEFAULT JUDGMENT ORDER, SERVICE OF PROCESS
BY POSTING

APPENDIX 7-37: DEFAULT JUDGMENT ORDER, ORE TENUS HEARING

APPENDIX 7-38: REQUEST FOR ABSTRACT OF JUDGMENT

APPENDIX 7-39: LETTER TO CLERK REQUESTING RECORDATION OF
ABSTRACT OF JUDGMENT

APPENDIX 7-40: LETTER TO ASSESSOR OF REAL ESTATE REQUESTING
DESCRIPTION OF PROPERTY

APPENDIX 7-41: RECORDATION OF JUDGMENT

APPENDIX 7-42: AFFIDAVIT OF NAME CHANGE BY DEFENDANT

APPENDIX 7-43: LETTER TO PURCHASER OF REAL ESTATE SUBJECT TO
JUDGMENT LIEN

APPENDIX 7-44: LETTER TO DEBTOR ADVISING OF JUDGMENT LIEN

APPENDIX 7-45: LETTER TO CLERK OF DISTRICT COURT RELEASING
JUDGMENT

APPENDIX 7-46: NOTICE OF SATISFACTION (FORM DC-458)

APPENDIX 7-47: LETTER TO CLERK OF CIRCUIT COURT RELEASING
JUDGMENT

APPENDIX 7-48: AUTHORIZATION OF CLERK OF COURT TO RELEASE
JUDGMENT

APPENDIX 7-49: AUTHORITY TO CLERK OF COURT TO RELEASE
DOCKETED JUDGMENT

APPENDIX 7-50: CASE STATUS CARD

APPENDIX 7-51: CASE STATUS CARD

APPENDIX 7-52: CASE STATUS CARD

APPENDIX 7-53: SERVICE OTHER THAN BY VIRGINIA SHERIFF
(FORMS DC-411 AND CC-1407)

APPENDIX 7-54: NOTICE FOR REVIVAL OF JUDGMENT

APPENDIX 7-55: ORDER TO SHOW CAUSE FOR REVIVAL OF JUDGMENT

APPENDIX 7-56: ORDER FOR REVIVAL OF JUDGMENT

APPENDIX 7-57: NOTICE AND MOTION FOR JUDGMENT

APPENDIX 7-58: AFFIDAVIT CONCERNING SERVICE OF PROCESS ON
A CORPORATION

APPENDIX 7-59: AFFIDAVIT—DEFAULT JUDGMENT—SERVICEMEMBERS
CIVIL RELIEF ACT (FORM DC-418)

APPENDIX 7-60: MOTION TO REHEAR/MOTION FOR NEW TRIAL
(FORM DC-368)

APPENDIX 7-61: MOTION TO SET ASIDE DEFAULT JUDGMENT
(FORM DC-434)

APPENDIX 7-62: BILL OF PARTICULARS (FORM DC-441)

APPENDIX 7-63: GROUNDS OF DEFENSE (FORM DC-442)

APPENDIX 7-64: MOTION AND NOTICE OF HEARING (FORM DC-371)

APPENDIX 7-65: MOTION FOR JUDGMENT TO BE MARKED SATISFIED
(FORM DC-459)

APPENDIX 7-66: SUBPOENA DUCES TECUM (CIVIL)—ATTORNEY ISSUED
(FORM DC-498)

APPENDIX 7-67: SUBPOENA FOR WITNESS (CIVIL)—ATTORNEY ISSUED
(FORM DC-497)

APPENDIX 7-68: MOTION AND ORDER FOR VOLUNTARY NONSUIT
(FORM DC-419)

APPENDIX 7-69: NOTICE OF MOTION FOR NONSUIT AS A MATTER OF
RIGHT

APPENDIX 7-70: ORDER

APPENDIX 7-71: NOTICE OF HEARING ON MOTION TO SUFFER A SECOND
OR SUBSEQUENT NONSUIT

APPENDIX 7-72: ORDER

APPENDIX 7-73: NOTICE OF APPEAL—CIVIL (FORM DC-475)

APPENDIX 7-74: CIVIL APPEAL BOND (FORM DC-460)

APPENDIX 7-75: WARRANT IN DETINUE (FORM DC-414)

APPENDIX 7-76: WRITS OF POSSESSION AND FIERI FACIAS IN DETINUE
(FORM DC-468)

INDEX


Volume 2

CHAPTER 8: EXECUTIONS ON JUDGMENTS  (back to top)

8.1 LEVY (EXECUTION ON PERSONAL PROPERTY)
    8.101 In General
    8.102 Issuance of Writ
    8.103 Effect of Lien and Levy
    8.104 Effect of Prior Lien
    8.105 Levy on Money
    8.106 Procedure
    8.107 Sheriff’s Reports
    8.108 Determining Whether to Proceed With Sale
    8.109 Using a Locksmith to Enter Premises
    8.110 Posting Bond
    8.111 Client’s Approval
    8.112 Steps Short of Sale
    8.113 Sheriff’s Sale
    8.114 Conclusion

8.2 EXECUTION ON PROPERTY NOT CAPABLE OF BEING LEVIED UPON
    8.201 In General
    8.202 Notice
    8.203 Practical Application
    8.204 Conclusion

8.3 GARNISHMENT
    8.301 In General
    8.302 Prerequisites to Filing
    8.303 Initiation of Garnishment
    8.304 Court in Which Garnishment May Be Filed
    8.305 Filling Out a Garnishment Form
    8.306 Calculating the Amount of the Garnishment
    8.307 Garnishment Answer
    8.308 Examination of Garnishee Defendant
    8.309 Judgment on the Garnishment
    8.310 Bank Account Garnishment
    8.311 The Exemption Hearing
    8.312 Liens of Other Creditors on Debtor’s Bank Account
    8.313 Other Garnishments
    8.314 Effect of Bankruptcy on a Pending Garnishment

8.4 RELEASING GARNISHMENTS
    8.401 Procedure
    8.402 Conditional Release
    8.403 Reasons to Release a Garnishment
    8.404 Arrangements for Payment
    8.405 Releasing a Checking Account Garnishment
    8.406 Improving the Client’s Position
    8.407 Conclusion

8.5 JUDGMENT CREDITORS’ SUITS
    8.501 In General
    8.502 Partition of Jointly Owned Property
    8.503 Setting Aside Fraudulent Conveyances
    8.504 A Hypothetical Case
    8.505 Parties
    8.506 Complaint
    8.507 Procedure and Evidence
    8.508 Practical Considerations
    8.509 Effect of Bankruptcy
    8.510 Liability of Deceased Debtor’s Real Estate for Payment of Debts
    8.511 Conclusion

8.6 CHARGING ORDERS—EXECUTIONS AGAINST AN INTEREST
IN A PARTNERSHIP OR LLC
    8.601 In General
    8.602 Procedure
    8.603 Practice Suggestions
    8.604 Conclusion

8.7 PARTITION OF PERSONAL PROPERTY

8.8 DEBTOR’S EXEMPTIONS
    8.801 In General
    8.802 “Poor Debtor’s” Exemption
    8.803 Homestead Exemption
    8.804 Other Exemptions
    8.805 Exemption for Disabled Veterans
    8.806 Minimizing Debtor Exemptions

APPENDIX 8-1: WRIT OF FIERI FACIAS (FORM DC-467)

APPENDIX 8-2: ORDER OF DEFAULT JUDGMENT ALLOWING IMMEDIATE
EXECUTION

APPENDIX 8-3: LETTER TO CLERK REQUESTING NEW EXECUTION
TO BE SENT TO SHERIFF

APPENDIX 8-4: LETTER TO CLERK REQUESTING NEW EXECUTION
RETURNED TO LAW FIRM

APPENDIX 8-5: LETTER TO SHERIFF REQUESTING LEVY

APPENDIX 8-6: LETTER TO SHERIFF REQUESTING LEVY ON SPECIFIC
VEHICLE

APPENDIX 8-7: LETTER TO SHERIFF REQUESTING LEVY ON VEHICLE
AND ENCLOSING INDEMNIFYING BOND

APPENDIX 8-8: REPORT OF SHERIFF ADVISING DEBTOR PROPERTY
WILL BE SOLD

APPENDIX 8-9: LETTER TO CREDITOR-CLIENT REQUESTING COSTS AND
AUTHORIZATION TO PROCURE INDEMNIFYING BOND

APPENDIX 8-10: POWER OF ATTORNEY FOR INDEMNIFYING BOND

APPENDIX 8-11: LETTER TO SHERIFF REGARDING CONDITION AND
VALUE OF PROPERTY

APPENDIX 8-12: LETTER TO SHERIFF REQUESTING AMOUNT OF BOND

APPENDIX 8-13: LETTER TO DEBTOR ADVISING THAT SHERIFF WILL
BRING LOCKSMITH TO GAIN ENTRY TO MAKE LEVY

APPENDIX 8-14: NOTICE OF SHERIFF’S SALE

APPENDIX 8-15: NOTICE OF LIEN OF FIERI FACIAS

APPENDIX 8-16: LETTER TO CLERK REQUESTING ISSUANCE OF LIEN OF
FIERI FACIAS

APPENDIX 8-17: LETTER TO SHERIFF REQUESTING SERVICE OF NOTICE
OF FIERI FACIAS

APPENDIX 8-18: LETTER ADVISING WHY LIEN OF FIERI FACIAS WAS
SERVED

APPENDIX 8-19: SUGGESTION FOR SUMMONS IN GARNISHMENT
(FORM DC-450)

APPENDIX 8-20: GARNISHMENT SUMMONS (FORM DC-451)

APPENDIX 8-21: REQUEST FOR HEARING—GARNISHMENT EXEMPTION
CLAIM (FORM DC-454)

APPENDIX 8-22: AFFIDAVIT CONCERNING DEPENDENT CHILDREN AND
HOUSEHOLD INCOME (FORM DC-449)

APPENDIX 8-23: AFFIDAVIT TO SERVE GARNISHMENT ON REGISTERED
AGENT

APPENDIX 8-24: AFFIDAVIT TO SERVE GARNISHMENT ON REGISTERED
AGENT

APPENDIX 8-25: AFFIDAVIT TO SERVE GARNISHMENT ON REGISTERED
AGENT

APPENDIX 8-26: GARNISHEE INFORMATION SHEET (FORM DC-455)

APPENDIX 8-27: GARNISHEE ANSWER (FORM DC-456)

APPENDIX 8-28: LETTER TO EMPLOYER REGARDING FAILURE TO
ANSWER IN GARNISHMENT PROCEEDING

APPENDIX 8-29: SHOW CAUSE SUMMONS (FORM DC-481)

APPENDIX 8-30: AFFIDAVIT REGARDING FICTITIOUS NAME

APPENDIX 8-31: NOTICE OF HEARING

APPENDIX 8-32: LETTER TO TENANTS NOTIFYING THEM OF
GARNISHMENT OF RENT

APPENDIX 8-33: LETTER TO CLERK RELEASING GARNISHMENT

APPENDIX 8-34: LETTER TO GARNISHEE RELEASING GARNISHMENT

APPENDIX 8-35: GARNISHMENT DISPOSITION (FORM DC-453)

APPENDIX 8-36: ORDER DISMISSING GARNISHMENT—MONEY PAID TO
ATTORNEY

APPENDIX 8-37: ORDER DISMISSING GARNISHMENT—EMPLOYER
HOLDING MONEY

APPENDIX 8-38: ORDER DISMISSING GARNISHMENT—MONEY PAID TO
COURT

APPENDIX 8-39: LETTER TO EMPLOYER AGREEING TO ACCEPT CHECK
AND RELEASE GARNISHMENT

APPENDIX 8-40: LETTER TO BANK RELEASING GARNISHMENT

APPENDIX 8-41: AGREEMENT WITH DEBTOR TO RELEASE GARNISHMENT

APPENDIX 8-42: WAGE ASSIGNMENT

APPENDIX 8-43: COMPLAINT IN JUDGMENT CREDITOR’S SUIT—
PROPERTY UNENCUMBERED

APPENDIX 8-44: COMPLAINT IN JUDGMENT CREDITOR’S SUIT—PROPERTY
TRANSFERRED SUBSEQUENT TO JUDGMENT

APPENDIX 8-45: COMPLAINT IN JUDGMENT CREDITOR’S SUIT—
PROPERTY ENCUMBERED

APPENDIX 8-46: COMPLAINT IN PARTITION SUIT

APPENDIX 8-47: ANSWER OF DEFENDANT TRUSTEE—JUDGMENT
CREDITOR’S SUIT

APPENDIX 8-48: ANSWER OF DEFENDANT—PARTITION SUIT

APPENDIX 8-49: CHANCERY DECREE OF REFERENCE—JUDGMENT
CREDITOR’S SUIT

APPENDIX 8-50: DECREE CONFIRMING COMMISSIONER’S REPORT AND
ORDERING SALE— JUDGMENT CREDITOR’S SUIT

APPENDIX 8-51: DECREE CONFIRMING COMMISSIONER’S REPORT AND
ORDERING SALE— PARTITION SUIT

APPENDIX 8-52: REPORT OF SPECIAL COMMISSIONER

APPENDIX 8-53: REPORT OF SPECIAL COMMISSIONER

APPENDIX 8-54: DECREE OF CONFIRMATION

APPENDIX 8-55: DECREE OF CONFIRMATION

APPENDIX 8-56: SPECIAL COMMISSIONER’S DEED

APPENDIX 8-57: SPECIAL COMMISSIONER’S DEED

APPENDIX 8-58: PETITION FOR DISTRIBUTION

APPENDIX 8-59: PETITION FOR DISTRIBUTION

APPENDIX 8-60: ORDER OF DISTRIBUTION

APPENDIX 8-61: ORDER OF DISTRIBUTION

APPENDIX 8-62: LETTER TO DEBTOR ADVISING OF JUDGMENT
CREDITOR’S SUIT

APPENDIX 8-63: LETTER TO DEBTOR ADVISING OF HEARING BEFORE
COMMISSIONER IN CHANCERY

APPENDIX 8-64: LETTER TO DEBTOR CONFIRMING ARRANGEMENTS FOR
PAYING JUDGMENT UPON DISMISSAL OF JUDGMENT
CREDITOR’S SUIT

APPENDIX 8-65: MEMORANDUM OF LIS PENDENS AFFECTING REAL
ESTATE SUIT PURSUANT TO SECTIONS 64.2-532
THROUGH 64.2-538 OF THE VIRGINIA CODE

APPENDIX 8-66: FINAL ORDER IN SUIT PURSUANT TO SECTIONS 64.2-532
THROUGH 64.2-538 OF THE VIRGINIA CODE

APPENDIX 8-67: HOMESTEAD DEED TO CLAIM PERSONAL PROPERTY
PURSUANT TO SECTION 34-14 OF THE VIRGINIA CODE

CHAPTER 9: ATTACHMENTS  (back to top)

9.1 INTRODUCTION

9.2 CLAIMS FOR WHICH AN ATTACHMENT MAY BE BROUGHT
    9.201 In General
    9.202 Jurisdiction
    9.203 Venue
    9.204 Grounds

9.3 COMMENCING THE ATTACHMENT ACTION

9.4 PLEADINGS AND ORDERS

9.5 SUBSEQUENT PROCEDURE

9.6 TRIAL

9.7 PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS

9.8 PROBLEM AREAS

APPENDIX 9-1: NOTICE OF LIS PENDENS OR ATTACHMENT

APPENDIX 9-2: PETITION FOR ATTACHMENT—PERSONAL PROPERTY

APPENDIX 9-3: PETITION FOR ATTACHMENT—SPECIFIC PERSONAL
PROPERTY AND REAL ESTATE

APPENDIX 9-4: ATTACHMENT TO BE SERVED BY THE SHERIFF

APPENDIX 9-5: FINAL ORDER

APPENDIX 9-6: FINAL ORDER

APPENDIX 9-7: ATTACHMENT PETITION (FORM DC-445)

APPENDIX 9-8: ATTACHMENT SUMMONS (FORM DC-446)

APPENDIX 9-9: PLAINTIFF’S BOND FOR LEVY OR SEIZURE
(FORM DC-447)

CHAPTER 10: REAL PROPERTY FORECLOSURES  (back to top)

10.1 INTRODUCTION

10.2 PRELIMINARY MATTERS
    10.201 In General
    10.202 Qualification of Trustees
    10.203 Separation of Title
    10.204 Equity of Redemption

10.3 LOAN DOCUMENTS
    10.301 Note
    10.302 Deed of Trust
    10.303 Title Insurance
    10.304 Account History
    10.305 Authorization to Foreclose

10.4 PRIORITY OF LIENS
    10.401 Scope of Title Examination
    10.402 Real Estate Tax Lien
    10.403 Cloud on Title
    10.404 Determination by Court
    10.405 Mechanics’ Liens
    10.406 Lis Pendens

10.5 REQUIRED NOTICES
    10.501 Notices Required by the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act
    10.502 Lost Note Notice
    10.503 Notices of Acceleration and Foreclosure
    10.504 Advertisement
    10.505 Notice to the Internal Revenue Service
    10.506 Notice to Other Interested Parties
    10.507 Additional Notice May Be Required for Properties Located in
    Planning District 8

10.6 SUBSTITUTION OF TRUSTEES

10.7 RECEIVERS

10.8 CONDUCT OF FORECLOSURE SALE
    10.801 In General
    10.802 Time
    10.803 Place
    10.804 Manner
    10.805 Terms
    10.806 One Price Written Bid
    10.807 Right of Noteholder or Trustee to Bid
    10.808 Valuation
    10.809 Deposit
    10.810 Completion of Sale
    10.811 Recess and Postponement of Sale
    10.812 Enforcement of Sale
    10.813 Closing
    10.814 Release of Deed of Trust

10.9 REPORT TO COMMISSIONER OF ACCOUNTS
    10.901 Statutory Requirement
    10.902 Effect of Failure to File
    10.903 Contents of Report
    10.904 Disposition of Documents
    10.905 Approval Process; Exceptions
    10.906 Effect of Confirmation
    10.907 Surcharge and Falsification

10.10 POST-SALE REMEDIES
    10.1001 Deficiency Actions
    10.1002 Obtaining Possession
    10.1003 Purchaser’s Default

10.11 FEDERAL LIENS AND REDEMPTION RIGHTS
    10.1101 Creation of Federal Tax Lien
    10.1102 Priority
    10.1103 Notice
    10.1104 Consent
    10.12 MECHANICS’ LIENS, JUDGMENT LIENS, AND TAX LIENS
    10.1201 Mechanics’ Liens
    10.1202 Judgment Liens
    10.1203 Tax Liens

10.13 DEED IN LIEU OF FORECLOSURE

10.14 BANKRUPTCY CONSIDERATIONS
    10.1401 Automatic Stay
    10.1402 Reaffirmation
    10.1403 Cure of Default
    10.1404 Equity of Redemption

10.15 ETHICAL ISSUES
    10.1501 Professional Corporation as Trustee
    10.1502 Corporate Trustee
    10.1503 Employee of the Noteholder as Trustee
    10.1504 Fiduciary Responsibility of the Trustee
    10.1505 Trustee Bidding at Sale
    10.1506 Compliance With Deed of Trust Terms
    10.1507 Conflicts of Interest

10.16 COMMISSION AND EXPENSES
    10.1601 Trustee’s Commission
    10.1602 Lesser and Greater Charges
    10.1603 Expenses

10.17 THE SERVICEMEMBERS CIVIL RELIEF ACT
    10.1701 In General
    10.1702 Applicability
    10.1703 Foreclosure-Related Protections Afforded by the SCRA
    10.1704 Methods of Protection

APPENDIX 10-1: LETTER TO CLIENT REGARDING RECEIPT OF FILE

APPENDIX 10-2: APPOINTMENT OF SUBSTITUTE TRUSTEE

APPENDIX 10-3: LETTER TO DEBTOR ADVISING OF FORECLOSURE

APPENDIX 10-4: NOTICE OF TRUSTEE’S SALE OF PROPERTY

APPENDIX 10-5: LETTER TO NEWSPAPER ADVERTISING FORECLOSURE

APPENDIX 10-6: BIDDING INSTRUCTIONS

APPENDIX 10-7: LIST OF BIDDERS ATTENDING SALE

APPENDIX 10-8: TRUSTEE’S MEMORANDUM OF SALE

APPENDIX 10-9: SUBSTITUTE TRUSTEE’S DEED

APPENDIX 10-10: SUBSTITUTE TRUSTEE’S REPORT

APPENDIX 10-11: LETTER TO INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE REGARDING
LIEN

APPENDIX 10-12: NOTICE OF NONJUDICIAL SALE OF PROPERTY

APPENDIX 10-13: LETTER TO COMMISSIONER OF ACCOUNTS REGARDING
REPORT

APPENDIX 10-14: PARTIAL REPORT OF TITLE

APPENDIX 10-15: NOTICE TO QUIT PREMISES

CHAPTER 11: MEMORANDUM OF LIS PENDENS  (back to top)

11.1 INTRODUCTION

11.2 PURCHASER PENDENTE LITE

11.3 FILING A MEMORANDUM OF LIS PENDENS

11.4 RELEASE OF A LIS PENDENS

11.5 USE OF LIS PENDENS IN COLLECTION MATTERS

11.6 IMPROPER USE OF LIS PENDENS

11.7 CONCLUSION

APPENDIX 11-1: MEMORANDUM OF LIS PENDENS AFFECTING REAL
ESTATE— PARTITION SUIT

APPENDIX 11-2: MEMORANDUM OF LIS PENDENS AFFECTING REAL
ESTATE— FRAUDULENT CONVEYANCE

CHAPTER 12: MECHANICS’ LIENS  (back to top)

12.1 IN GENERAL
    12.101 Statutory Creation
    12.102 Statutory Construction

12.2 WHO MAY CLAIM THE LIEN
    12.201 Identifying a Mechanic’s Lien Claimant
    12.202 Laborers and Suppliers
    12.203 Architects, Engineers, and Surveyors
    12.204 General Contractors and Subcontractors

12.3 PROPERTY SUBJECT TO THE LIEN
    12.301 In General
    12.302 Public Property
    12.303 Multiple Contracts, Lots, Units, or Buildings
    12.304 Site Development Contractors
    12.305 Leased Property
    12.306 Condominiums
    12.307 Time-Share Property

12.4 PERFECTING THE LIEN
    12.401 The 90-Day Rule
    12.402 “Completed or Otherwise Terminated”
    12.403 Replacement Materials; Open Accounts
    12.404 Certification of Mailing

12.5 MECHANICS’ LIEN AGENTS
    12.501 In General
    12.502 Designating the Mechanics’ Lien Agent
    12.503 Posting the Building Permit
    12.504 Sufficiency of the Building Permit
    12.505 Notice Requirements
    12.506 Evidence of Receipt
    12.507 Inaccurate Description of the Property
    12.508 Time Period for Notice
    12.509 Notice After the 30-Day Period
    12.510 Determining Whether a Proper Building Permit Has Been Issued
    12.511 Amendment of Building Permit
    12.512 Exceptions to the Requirement to Notify the Mechanics’ Lien Agent

12.6 AFFIDAVIT VERIFYING PAYMENT FOR LABOR AND MATERIALS
    12.601 Purchaser to Be Provided Affidavit or Statement at Settlement
    12.602 Penalty for Failure to Provide

12.7 THE 150-DAY RULE
    12.701 Statutory Basis of Rule
    12.702 Cases Construing the Rule

12.8 STATUTORY FORMS FOR THE MEMORANDUM OF LIEN
    12.801 The Contractor’s Memorandum
    12.802 The Subcontractor’s Memorandum
    12.803 Statement Declaring Intention to Claim the Benefit of a Lien
    Required in Memorandum of Mechanic’s Lien
    
12.9 DEFENSES
    12.901 Owner’s Priority
    12.902 Limitation on the Amount Claimed by Subcontractors and
    Sub-Subcontractors
    12.903 Licensure of Claimant

12.10 PERSONAL LIABILITY OF OWNER OR GENERAL CONTRACTOR
    12.1001 Remedy Created by Section 43-11 of the Virginia Code
    12.1002 Creation of Personal Liability of Owner and General Contractor
    12.1003 Priority of the Section 43-11 Claim
    12.1004 Owner’s Right to Setoff for Work Not Completed by General
    Contractor
    12.1005 Limitations on Owner’s or General Contractor’s Liability

12.11 ENFORCEMENT OF THE LIEN
    12.1101 Complaint
    12.1102 Intervening Petition by Other Lienholders
    12.1103 Parties
    12.1104 When the Suit Must Be Brought
    12.1105 Automatic Stay in Bankruptcy
    12.1106 Scope of Jurisdiction
    12.1107 Sale of the Property
    12.1108 Challenging the Validity of Lien
    12.1109 Court-Ordered Release
    12.1110 Diverting Funds

12.12 PRIORITY OF LIENS
    12.1201 In General
    12.1202 Priority Over Deeds of Trust
    12.1203 Priority Over Security Interest in Accounts Receivable
    12.1204 Priority Among Mechanics’ Liens
    12.1205 Removal of Materials Affixed to the Structure
    12.1206 Federal Liens

12.13 ALTERNATIVES TO MECHANICS’ LIENS
    12.1301 Civil Suit
    12.1302 Statutory Alternatives
    12.1303 Threat of Filing
    12.1304 Contract Provisions

12.14 MISCELLANEOUS CONSIDERATIONS
    12.1401 Assignment
    12.1402 Waiver
    12.1403 Slander of Title
    12.1404 Forfeiture
    12.1405 Release or Discharge

12.15 PRACTICAL EFFECTS OF FILING A LIEN
    12.1501 Effect on the Owner
    12.1502 Effect on the Claimant’s Business
    12.1503 Effect on the General Contractor
    12.1504 Effect on the Construction Lender
    12.1505 Effect on the Title Agency

APPENDIX 12-1: MEMORANDUM FOR MECHANICS’ LIEN CLAIMED BY
GENERAL CONTRACTOR (VA. CODE § 43-5)

APPENDIX 12-2: MEMORANDUM FOR MECHANICS’ LIEN CLAIMED BY
SUBCONTRACTOR (VA. CODE § 43-8)

APPENDIX 12-3: MEMORANDUM FOR MECHANICS’ LIEN CLAIMED BY
SUB-SUBCONTRACTOR (VA. CODE § 43-10)

APPENDIX 12-4: MILLER ACT SUIT TO ASSERT CLAIM AGAINST BOND ON
FEDERAL BUILDING OR PROJECT

APPENDIX 12-5: COMPLAINT TO ASSERT CLAIM AGAINST BOND ON STATE
BUILDING OR PROJECT

APPENDIX 12-6: DISCLOSURE STATEMENT FOR SITE DEVELOPMENT
IMPROVEMENTS

APPENDIX 12-7: NOTICE TO MECHANICS’ LIEN AGENT PURSUANT TO
SECTION 43-4.01 OF THE VIRGINIA CODE

APPENDIX 12-8: OWNERS’ AFFIDAVIT AS TO MECHANICS’ LIENS AND
POSSESSION (WITH “GAP” COVERAGE)

APPENDIX 12-9: COMPLAINT TO ENFORCE MECHANICS’ LIEN

APPENDIX 12-10: ITEMIZED STATEMENT OF ACCOUNTS

APPENDIX 12-11: PETITION TO BOND OFF LIEN UNDER SECTION 43-71 OF
THE VIRGINIA CODE

APPENDIX 12-12: BOND TO BOND OFF LIEN UNDER SECTION 43-71 OF THE
VIRGINIA CODE

APPENDIX 12-13: DECREE TO BOND OFF LIEN UNDER SECTION 43-71 OF
THE VIRGINIA CODE

APPENDIX 12-14: ATTORNEY CHECKLIST FOR MECHANIC’S LIEN CASE

CHAPTER 13: OTHER LIENS  (back to top)

13.1 INTRODUCTION

13.2 INNKEEPERS’ LIENS

13.3 LIVERY STABLE OR MARINA KEEPERS’ LIENS

13.4 MECHANICS’ LIEN FOR REPAIRS

13.5 ENFORCEMENT OF LIENS

13.6 REPRESENTING SECURED CREDITORS

13.7 REPRESENTING MECHANICS AND STOREKEEPERS

13.8 RIGHTS OF THIRD PARTIES

13.9 CONCLUSION

APPENDIX 13-1: SUMMONS—LIEN OF MECHANIC FOR REPAIRS
(FORM DC-463)

APPENDIX 13-2: COMPLAINT

CHAPTER 14: BANKRUPTCY CONSIDERATIONS  (back to top)

14.1 INTRODUCTION

14.2 CHAPTER 7
    14.201 Overview of Chapter 7
    14.202 Creditor Strategies in Chapter 7 Cases

14.3 CHAPTER 11
    14.301 Overview of Chapter 11
    14.302 Effect on Secured Claims of Confirmation of a Chapter 11 Plan
    14.303 Chapter 11 Creditor Strategies

14.4 CHAPTER 13
    14.401 Overview of Chapter 13
    14.402 Secured Non-Priority Creditors
    14.403 Claims Secured by Debtor’s Residence
    14.404 Effect of Confirmation on a Deed of Trust Lien
    14.405 Chapter 13 Creditor Strategies
    14.406 Overview of the Automatic Stay
    14.407 The Bankruptcy Estate: Property Interests Subject to the
    Automatic Stay
    14.408 Property Exempt from the Automatic Stay
    14.409 Acts Exempt from the Automatic Stay
    14.410 The Co-Debtor Stay of 11 U.S.C. § 1301
    14.411 Violations of the Automatic Stay
    14.412 Duration of the Stay

14.5 RELIEF FROM THE AUTOMATIC STAY
    14.501 The Statute
    14.502 Bankruptcy Rule 4001
    14.503 No Automatic Stay on Appeal
    14.504 Local Rules
    14.505 Grounds for Relief from the Automatic Stay
    14.506 Motion for Relief
    14.507 Ex Parte Relief
    14.508 Notice
    14.509 Certificates
    14.510 Experts
    14.511 Non-Expert Opinion
    14.512 Trial
    14.513 Scope of Relief

14.6 OTHER CREDITOR’S ISSUES IN BANKRUPTCY
    14.601 Fraudulent Conveyance Attacks
    14.602 Creditors’ Interest in Rents
    14.603 Lien Avoidance
    14.604 Reaffirmation
    14.605 Exemptions

APPENDIX 14-1: MOTION FOR RELIEF FROM STAY (CHAPTER 7)

APPENDIX 14-2: MOTION FOR RELIEF FROM STAY (CHAPTER 13)

APPENDIX 14-3: MOTION FOR RELIEF FROM STAY (CHAPTER 11)

APPENDIX 14-4: PRE-HEARING ORDER

APPENDIX 14-5: MOVANT’S CERTIFICATION REQUIRED WITH RESPECT
TO MOTION FOR RELIEF FROM STAY

APPENDIX 14-6: NOTICE OF MOTION FOR RELIEF FROM STAY

APPENDIX 14-7: NOTICE OF MOTION

APPENDIX 14-8: NOTICE OF MOTION (OR OBJECTION)

APPENDIX 14-9: ORDER (CHAPTER 7)

APPENDIX 14-10: ORDER (CHAPTER 13)

APPENDIX 14-11: REAFFIRMATION DISCLOSURE STATEMENT

APPENDIX 14-12: REAFFIRMATION AGREEMENT

APPENDIX 14-13: CERTIFICATION BY DEBTOR’S ATTORNEY

APPENDIX 14-14: DEBTOR’S STATEMENT IN SUPPORT OF REAFFIRMATION
AGREEMENT

APPENDIX 14-15: MOTION FOR COURT APPROVAL OF REAFFIRMATION
AGREEMENT

APPENDIX 14-16: ORDER APPROVING REAFFIRMATION AGREEMENT

TABLE OF AUTHORITIES

INDEX

Authors

Hon. Robert A. Pustilnik, Richmond General District Court-Civil Division

Steven L. Higgs, Steven L. Higgs, P.C. / Roanoke

James L. Windsor, Kaufman & Canoles, P.C. / Virginia Beach

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