Virginia Law and Practice: A Handbook for Attorneys

Virginia Law and Practice: A Handbook for Attorneys
Publication Date: 2014
Available Formats: Print (1,324 pages, softbound, 1 volume)
  Electronic (searchable PDF via immediate download, CD, or USB)
  Both Print and Electronic formats
Product #: 961

Information

Chapter List:
  • Agency in Virginia
  • Appellate Practice in Virginia
  • Business Organizations in Virginia
  • Civil Procedure in Virginia
  • Conflict of Laws in Virginia
  • Contracts in Virginia
  • Creditors’ Rights in Virginia
  • Criminal Law in Virginia
  • Criminal Procedure in Virginia
  • Domestic Relations in Virginia
  • Equity in Virginia
  • Estate Administration in Virginia
  • Evidence in Virginia
  • Local Government Law in Virginia
  • Personal Property in Virginia
  • Real Property in Virginia
  • Sales Law in Virginia
  • Torts in Virginia
  • Trusts in Virginia
  • Uniform Commercial Code in Virginia
  • Virginia Constitutional Law
  • Virginia Taxation
  • Wills in Virginia

2016 Edition Coming Fall 2016. Purchase the current edition today and receive the 2016 edition without charge.

Published in cooperation with the Fellows of the Virginia Law Foundation

If there is one book that every Virginia practitioner should have, Virginia Law and Practice: A Handbook for Attorneys is it.

This new title spans across major practice areas, as well as subjects found in almost every practice, such as agency and contracts. Combining quick reference to relevant primary law with practice pointers, it can and should be the first place you go to research a topic, get ready to meet a client, or prepare a case. It provides ongoing value to experienced attorneys, as well as new ones.

Virginia CLE®’s new 7"x10" softcover format makes it easy to take it with you. Additional portability and accessibility can be found by choosing the searchable PDF format, which can be transferred to tablets and mobile devices, in addition to your PC, Mac, or laptop.

The materials for this book also serve as the seminar materials for our Rule 1A:1 Reciprocity Course.


New Multi-Book Discount. Buy ANY 2 books and save 20%, 3 books and save 30%, 4 or more and save 40%. Use coupon code BUYMORE.
Government Attorney? Receive a 30% discount publications, and a 50% discount on most seminars.
New Virginia Lawyer? (less than three years) Receive a 25% discount on publications and most seminars.


You may also be interested in:


The Virginia Lawyer: A Deskbook for Practitioners

Fee Agreements for Virginia Lawyers

A Guide to Legal Research in Virginia

Virginia Civil Practice Forms

Virginia Criminal Practice Forms

A Guide to the Rules of Evidence in Virginia

Contract Law in Virginia

Choosing a Virginia Business Entity

Defending Criminal Cases in Virginia

Estate and Trust Administration in Virginia

Appellate Practice - Virginia and Federal Courts

Virginia Family Law: A Systematic Approach

 

Table of Contents


CHAPTER LIST

1. Agency in Virginia

2. Appellate Practice in Virginia

3. Business Organizations in Virginia

4. Civil Procedure in Virginia

5. Conflict of Laws in Virginia

6. Contracts in Virginia

7. Creditors' Rights in Virginia

8. Criminal Law in Virginia

9. Criminal Procedure in Virginia

10. Domestic Relations in Virginia

11. Equity in Virginia

12. Estate Administration in Virginia

13. Evidence in Virginia

14. Local Government Law in Virginia

15. Personal Property in Virginia

16. Real Property in Virginia

17. Sales Law in Virginia

18. Torts in Virginia

19. Trusts in Virginia

20. Uniform Commercial Code in Virginia

21. Virginia Constitutional Law

22. Virginia Taxation

23. Wills in Virginia


CHAPTER 1: AGENCY IN VIRGINIA

I.    Liability of Principal to Third Parties for Torts of an Agent
    A.    Apparent authority
    B.    Apparent or ostensible agency
    C.    Independent contractors
    D.    Diminished duty of care
    E.    Agent’s knowledge imputed to principal
    F.    Agent acting fraudulently for own benefit

II.   Liability of Principal to Third Parties
    A.    Apparent authority
    B.    Liability of third party to principal
    C.    Apparent authority of attorney to compromise on behalf
             of client

III.  Agent’s Duty to Principal
    A.    Employee’s duty not to compete with employer
    B.    Duty to account

IV.  Employer Liability for Employees’ Actions
    A.    Overview
    B.    Respondeat Superior
    C.    Negligent hiring or retention
    D.    No claim for negligent supervision
    E.    Basis of respondeat superior liability
    F.    Nature of the plaintiff’s injury
    G.    Potential claims of immunity
    H.    Sexual harassment
    I.    Respondeat superior and the Workers’ Compensation Act

V.    Dual Agency in Real Estate Transactions
    A.    Dual agency
    B.    Common law before the statute’s dual agency amendment
    C.    Legislative action
    D.    Statutory framework

CHAPTER 2: APPELLATE PRACTICE IN VIRGINIA


I.    The Virginia Judicial System: Organization and Structure
    A.    Introduction
    B.    Supreme Court of Virginia
    C.    Court of Appeals of Virginia
    D.    Circuit courts
    E.    District courts

II.   Appeals to the Court of Appeals and Supreme Court of Virginia
    A.  Protecting the record in the trial court and assigning error
          in the appellate court
    B.    Prerequisites to appeal
    C.    Mechanics of the appeal

III.  Extraordinary Writs and Unusual Appeals
    A.    Background
    B.    Jurisdiction
    C.    Mandamus and prohibition
    D.    Application for writ
    E.    Appeals of extraordinary writs issued by lower courts
    F.    Appeals of interlocutory decrees and injunctions
    
CHAPTER 3: BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS IN VIRGINIA

I.    Sole Proprietorships
    A.    Purpose
    B.    Organization
    C.    Permitted ownership
    D.    Control
    E.    Duration
    F.    Owner liability
    G.    Classes of ownership interest
    H.    Transfer of interests and assets
    I.    Income tax treatment
    J.    Advantages
    K.    Disadvantages

II.   Corporations
    A.    Purpose
    B.    Organization
    C.    Permitted ownership
    D.    Control
    E.    Duration
    F.    Owner liability
    G.    Classes of ownership interest
    H.    Transfer of interests
    I.    Income tax treatment
    J.    Advantages
    K.    Disadvantages

III.  Benefit Corporations
    A.    Definition of benefit corporations
    B.    Protection from shareholder lawsuits
    C.    Potential liabilities
    D.    Required annual reports of benefit corporations
    E.    Additional information

IV.  General Partnerships
    A.    Purpose
    B.    Virginia Revised Uniform Partnership Act (VRUPA)
    C.    Organization
    D.    Filing optional informational statements with the SCC
    E.    Permitted ownership
    F.    Control
    G.    Duration
    H.    Dissolution, winding up, and dissociation
    I.    Owner liability
    J.    Classes of ownership interest
    K.    Transfer of interests
    L.    Income tax treatment
    M.    Advantages
    N.    Disadvantages

V.   Limited Partnerships
    A.    Purpose
    B.    Organization
    C.    Permitted ownership
    D.    Control
    E.    Duration
    F.    Owner liability
    G.    Classes of ownership interest
    H.    Transfer of interests
    I.    Income tax treatment
    J.    Advantages
    K.    Disadvantages

VI.  Registered Limited Liability Partnerships
    A.    Purpose
    B.    Organization
    C.    Permitted ownership
    D.    Control
    E.    Duration
    F.    Owner liability
    G.    Classes of ownership interest
    H.    Transfer of interests
    I.    Income tax treatment
    J.    Advantages
    K.    Disadvantages

VII. Limited Liability Companies
    A.    Purpose
    B.    Organization
    C.    Permitted ownership
    D.    Control
    E.    Duration
    F.    Member dissociation
    G.    Owner and manager liability
    H.    Classes of ownership interest
    I.    Transfer of interests
    J.    Income tax treatment
    K.    Advantages
    L.    Disadvantages

VIII. Business Trusts
    A.    Purpose
    B.    Organization
    C.    Permitted ownership
    D.    Control
    E.    Duration
    F.    Owner liability
    G.    Trustee liability
    H.    Classes of ownership interest
    I.    Transfer of interests
    J.    Income tax treatment
    K.    Advantages
    L.    Disadvantages

IX.   Conversions and Mergers
    A.    Conversion of limited partnership
    B.    Conversion of general or limited partnership
    C.    Conversion to limited liability company
    D.    Conversion of corporation into limited liability company
    E.    Conversion of domestic entity into business trust
    F.    Merger and share exchange of corporations
    G.    Merger of general partnership with limited partnership
    H.    Merger of limited partnership, limited liability company, or business trust with corporation
    I.    Mergers of business trusts
    J.    Virginia real estate investment trusts

X.    Domestication and Registration of Foreign Entities
    A.    Domestication of corporations
    B.    Domestication of limited liability companies
    C.    Domestication of business trusts
    D.    Certificates of authority for foreign corporations
    E.    Registration of foreign limited partnerships
    F.    Registration of foreign limited liability companies
    G.    Registration of foreign business trusts

CHAPTER 4: CIVIL PROCEDURE IN VIRGINIA

I.    Courts
    A.    Judicial department
    B.    Supreme Court
    C.    Court of Appeals
    D.    Circuit courts
    E.    Clerk of circuit courts
    F.    Courts not of record: in general
    G.    Courts not of record: general district courts

II.   Prejudgment Remedies
    A.    Prejudgment remedy of detinue
    B.    Attachment

III.  Parties
    A.    Plaintiff
    B.    Defendant
    C.    Parties in equitable claims
    D.    Change of parties/names of parties
    E.    Special rules for certain persons and entities

IV.  Venue
    A.    General
    B.    Preferred and permissible venue
    C.    Multiple parties
    D.    Parties not expressly covered
    E.    Objections to venue
    F.    Change of venue by court
    G.    Review
    H.    Ethical considerations
    I.    Sanctions
    J.    Forum selection agreements

V.   Process
    A.    Introduction
    B.    Service of process generally
    C.    Classification of process
    D.    Classification of service
    E.    Persons who may serve process
    F.    Persons exempt from service of process
    G.    Persons privileged from “arrest under civil process”
    H.    Service of process on natural persons
    I.    Time of serving process
    J.    Return of process
    K.    Service by order of publication
    L.    Service on particular types of defendant
    M.    Void and defective service of process
    N.    Acceptance and waiver of process
    O.    Jurisdiction
    P.    Long-arm statute
    Q.    Va. Code § 8.01-288
    R.    Summary of methods of service on out-of-state
     defendants

VI.  Pleading a Cause of Action
    A.    Introductory note on rules of court
    B.    Classification of actions
    C.    Beginning January 1, 2006—One form of action
    D.    Splitting the cause of action
    E.    Joinder of claims
    F.    Sufficiency and particularity
    G.    Variance between allegata and probata
    H.    Commencement of action

VII. Defensive Pleading
    A.    Timing
    B.    Distinguish three types of defensive pleading
    C.    Objections to venue and jurisdiction
    D.    Plea in suspension (rare)
    E.    Demurrer (challenge to legal sufficiency)
    F.    Motion for bill of particulars (Rule 3:7)
    G.    Pleadings in bar or special pleas
    H.    Pleadings to the merits
    I.    Pleadings which must be sworn
    J.    Motion for summary judgment

VIII. Aggressive Pleadings By Defendant And Third Party Practice
    A.    Overview
    B.    Defendant v. plaintiff: counterclaims and cross-claims
    C.    Defendant v. another defendant
    D.    Bringing in additional parties at law
    E.    Addition or dropping of parties by court

IX.   Limitation of Actions
    A.    Introduction
    B.    Four fundamentals in applying the statute of limitations
    C.    Determine the number of causes of action
    D.    Accrual of the cause of action
    E.    Limitation periods - what statute of limitations applies
    F.    Tolling the running of statute of limitations
    G.    Estoppel to plead the statute of limitations
    H.    Who may plead the statute of limitations
    I.    Limitations and laches claims in equity

X.   Discovery
    A.    Overview
    B.    Scope (Rule 4:1(b))
    C.    Court supervision
    D.    Supplementation of responses (Rule 4:1(e))
    E.    Failure to make discovery
    F.    A study of federal and Virginia rules of discovery

XI.  Trial: Preliminaries and Incidents
    A.    Preliminaries
    B.    Jury
    C.    Opening statement of counsel
    D.    The proof: manner and time of taking; weight in equity.
    E.    Withdrawing the case from the jury; motions to strike.
    F.    Instructions to the jury
    G.    Argument of counsel.
    H.    Verdict of jury.
    I.    Motions after verdict.
    J.    The bill of review in equity
    K.    Judgments/decrees


CHAPTER 5: CONFLICT OF LAWS IN VIRGINIA

I.    Sources of Law
    A.    Case law
    B.    Statutes

II.   General Rules
    A.    Tort vs. contract determination
    B.    Substantive vs. procedural determination
    C.    Virginia uses traditional lex loci/lex fori analysis
    D.    Rejection of “most significant relationship” analysis
    E.    Public policy

III.  Tort Actions Generally
    A.    Lex loci delicti standard
    B.    Guest statute
    C.    Loss of consortium
    D.    Attributing negligence in use or operation of vehicle to the
    owner
    E.    Vehicle accident involving rental car leased out of state
    F.    Virginia disagrees with the Fourth Circuit view

IV.  Contract Actions Generally
    A.  Nature, validity, and interpretation of contracts
    B.    Performance of contracts
    C.    Intent of parties

V.    Civil Procedure
    A.    Capacity to sue
    B.    Joinder of causes of action
    C.    Prejudgment interest

VI.   Corporations

VII.  Criminal Procedure

VIII. Domestic Relations
    A.    Premarital agreements
    B.    Choice of law is a question of law on appeal
    C.    Uniform Interstate Family Support Act

IX.   Real Estate
    A.    Lex loci rei sitae governs contracts
    B.  Landlord’s duty of care

X.    Uniform Commercial Code

XI.   Uninsured Motorists
    A.    Insurance contracts
    B.    John Doe actions

XII.  Wills and Estates
    A.    Testamentary capacity
    B.    Construction and effect of will

XIII. Wrongful Death
    A.    Virginia Death by Wrongful Act statute
    B.    Maryland cap on non-economic damages
    C.    Maryland limitation on non-economic damages

XIV.  Miscellaneous Statutory Choice Of Law Provisions
    A.    Alcoholic Beverage Control Act
    B.    Others statutes

CHAPTER 6: CONTRACTS IN VIRGINIA


I.    Sources and Organization of Contract Law
    A.    Virginia statutes
    B.    Definitions of terms

II.   Formation of Contracts
    A.    Introduction
    B.    Mechanics of assent: offer and acceptance
    C.    Consideration
    D.    Contracts without consideration
    E.    Seal and other Virginia formalities

III.  Statute of Frauds
    A.    Introduction
    B.    Scope of the statute
    C.    Satisfaction of the statute
    D.    Exceptions
    E.    Effect of noncompliance
    F.    Virginia statutes requiring agreements to be
    in writing

IV.  Policing the Bargain
    A.    Mental competence
    B.    Contracts of minors
    C.    Mistake
    D.    Fraud and misrepresentation
    E.    Duress and undue influence
    F.    Modification of contracts
    G.    Warranties and disclaimers
    H.    Public policy and illegality
    I.    Unconscionability
    J.    Accord and satisfaction

V.   Nonperformance
    A.    Anticipatory breach
    B.    Breach: Types and effects
    C.    Substantial performance
    D.    Responses to breach
    E.    Excuse for nonperformance

VI.   Assignment of Rights
    A.    Assignable rights
    B.    Requirements for effective assignment

VII.  Joint and Several Contracts
    A.    In General
    B.    Several liability
    C.    Joint liability
    D.    Joint and several liability
    E.    Liability of unnamed signer
    F.    Promises of the same performance
    G.    Partnership obligations
    H.    Negotiable instruments
    I.    Form provisions

VIII.  Remedies for Breach of Contract
    A.    Introduction
    B.    Election of remedies
    C.    Damages
    D.    Specific performance
    E.    Injunctions
    F.    Rescission

CHAPTER 7: CREDITORS’ RIGHTS IN VIRGINIA


I.    Introduction

II.   Accord and Satisfaction
    A.    Common law
    B.    Affirmative defense
    C.    Tender of payment “in full satisfaction.
    D.    Uniform Commercial Code
    E.    Effect on co-debtors.

III.  Artisans’ and Service Liens
    A.    Innkeeper’s lien
    B.    Garagemen’s lien
    C.    Garagemen’s lien
    D.    Mechanics’ lien
    E.    Mechanic’s lien
    F.    Warehouseman’s lien

IV.  Attorney’s Fees
    A.    Common law.
    B.    Consumer lease contracts
    C.    Usury

V.   Foreign Corporations’ Capacity to Sue in Virginia
    A.    Qualification to transact business
    B.    Litigation not “transacting business”

VI.  Choice of Law and Forum Selection
    A.    Generally
    B.    Venue.
    C.    Limited in consumer leases

VII. Homestead Exemptions
    A.    Federal homestead exemption not applicable in Virginia
    B.    Virginia homestead exemption
    C.    “Poor debtor’s exemption”
    D.    Additional exemptions.
    E.    Exemptions from garnishment
    F.    Homestead allowance in claims against estates
    G.    Waiver of the homestead exemption
    H.    Property held as tenants by the entireties

VIII. Interest
    A.    “Legal rate”
    B.    12 percent annual cap
    C.    Judgment rate

IX.    Landlords’ Lien
    A.    Procedure
    B.    Priority and amount

X.     Late Charges

XI.    Licensed Lenders
    A.    Consumer lenders
    B.    Mortgage lenders

XII.   Liquidated Damages

XIII.  Prepayment Penalties
    A.    Installment sales contracts
    B.    Real estate loans of less than $75,000
    C.    Real estate loans on owner-occupied property
    D.    Subordinate real estate loans
    E.    Limited applicability of restrictions on prepayment
    F.    Applicability of Rule of 78

XIV.  Replevin (Detinue); Pretrial Seizure
    A.    Replevin replaced by detinue in Virginia
    B.    Pretrial seizure of property; grounds

XV.    Usury
    A.    Legal rate of interest
    B.    Rate of interest constituting usury
    C.    Judgment rate of interest
    D.    Borrower’s right to claim usury as defense to
    lender’s suit
    E.    Borrower’s action for excess interest amount
    F.    Effect of waiver of usury defense
    G.    Limitation on borrower’s right of usury action or defense
    H.    Exception of certain lenders from usury laws
    I.    Certain loans for educational expenses not subject
    to usury defense

XVI.  Waiver of Jury Trial
    A.    Right to trial by jury
    B.    Courts of law and equity combined
    C.    Actions sounding in law
    D.    Actions sounding in chancery

XVII. Writ of Attachment
    A.    Writ of fieri facias
    B.    Pretrial seizure of personal property

CHAPTER 8: CRIMINAL LAW IN VIRGINIA

I.    The Criminal Justice System in Virginia
    A.    In general
    B.    The courts

II.   Classification of Crimes

III.  Criminal Offenses
    A.    Criminal offenses defined by statute
    B.    Title 18.2

IV.  Statutes of Limitations
    A.    No limitation on the prosecution of felonies
    B.    Misdemeanor cases

CHAPTER 9: CRIMINAL PROCEDURE IN VIRGINIA

I.    Sequence of a Typical Criminal Case
    A.    Felony or misdemeanor
    B.    Nature of the arrest.
    C.    Judicial officer or magistrate
    D.    District court judge
    E.    Trial of case
    F.    Grand jury deliberation
    G.    Arraignment.
    H.    Motions, objections, and notices
    I.    Circuit court trial
    J.    Sentencing
    K.    Verdict
    L.    Petition for writ of actual innocence
    M.    Cases under advisement

II.   Right to Counsel
    A.    General considerations
    B.    Determination of indigence
    C.    Proceedings in which the right to counsel applies
    D.    Court-appointed counsel and public defenders

III.  The Law of Arrest
    A.    General considerations
    B.    The act of arrest
    C.    When warrant is required
    D.    Arrest with warrant or summons
    E.    Procedure after arrest
    F.    Consequences of illegal arrest

IV.  Discovery
    A.    Defendant’s discovery generally
    B.    Defendant’s discovery under Rule 3A:11
    C.    Commonwealth’s reciprocal discovery under Rule 3A:11
    D.    Continuing duty to disclose
    E.    Commonwealth’s duty to disclose exculpatory evidence.
    F.    Discovery under Rule 7C:5 in general district court
    G.    Discovery under Rule 8:15 in juvenile and domestic
    relations district courts

V.    The Preliminary Hearing
    A.    In general
    B.    Right to preliminary hearing

VI.   The Grand Jury

VII.  Charge Upon Which The Accused Is Tried
    A.    In general
    B.    Form and content of the indictment

VIII. The Formal Charge
    A.    In general
    B.    Felonies
    C.    Misdemeanors
    D.    Amendment to the formal charge
    E.    Bill of particulars

IX.    The Arraignment
    A.    Scope
    B.    Procedure

X.      Pleas
    A.    Permissible pleas
    B.    Procedure for entering guilty plea

XI.     Plea-Bargaining
    A.    In general
    B.    Plea agreements and “cooperation/immunity”
    agreements
    C.    Disqualification of trial judge
    D.    Va. Code § 19.2-11.01
    E.    Commonwealth’s attorney
    F.    Constitutional obligation to disclose exculpatory
    evidence
    G.    Withdrawal of proposed plea agreement
    H.    Enforceability of a plea agreement

XII.    Pretrial Motions

XIII.   Venue and Change of Venue
    A.    Venue
    B.    Change of venue

XIV.   Jury Selection
    A.    Right to jury trial
    B.    Waiver
    C.    Number of jurors
    D.    Challenges of jurors

XV.    Opening Statement
    A.    In general
    B.    Motion to strike the evidence

XVI.   Instructions to the jury
    A.    Procedure
    B.    Submission of proposed instructions

XVII.  Verdict and Post-Verdict Motions

XVIII. Authority to Sentence
    A.    Jury trials
    B.    Discretionary sentencing guidelines

XIX.   Pronouncement and Allocution
    A.    Pronouncement
    B.    Allocution

XX.     Presentence Investigation and Report
    A.    After a finding of guilt
    B.    Confidentiality of report.
    C.    No constitutional right to a report
    D.    Statute limits later access to report

XXI.    Judgment
    A.    Procedure
    B.    Finality

CHAPTER 10: DOMESTIC RELATIONS IN VIRGINIA

I.    Introduction
    A.    In General
    B.    Advice
    C.    The statutory nature of divorce

II.   Grounds for Divorce
    A.    Domicile and residential requirements (Va. Code § 20-97)
    B.    Annulment (Va. Code § 20-89.1)
    C.    Grounds for divorce (Va. Code § 20-91)

III.  Spousal Support
    A.    Pendente Lite Support
    B.    Va. Code § 20-107.1 guidelines
    C.    Effect of adultery
    D.    Modification
    E.    Support of other family members

IV.  Child Support
    A.    Court’s authority
    B.    Guidelines
    C.    Deviation from the guidelines
    D.    Modification
    E.    Uniform Interstate Family Support Act (UIFSA)
    F.    Qualified Medical Child Support Orders (QMCSOs)

V.   Child Custody and Visitation
    A.    The different forms of custody
    B.    The best interests of the child
    C.    Modification
    D.    Parental Kidnapping Prevention Act (PKPA)
    E.    Uniform Child Custody Jurisdiction and Enforcement Act (UCCJEA)
    F.    Special provisions for the military: The Virginia Military
    Parents Equal Protection Act

VI.    Equitable Distribution
    A.    Court’s authority
    B.    Marital versus separate property
    C.    Va. Code § 20-107.3(E) factors
    D.    Debts
    E.    Valuation date
    F.    Stock options
    G.    Licenses and degrees
    H.    Professional practices and goodwill

VII.   Equitable Distribution of Retirement Plans
    A.    Court’s authority
    B.    Employer-sponsored retirement plans
    C.    Retirement for federal employees
    D.    Retirement for state employees
    E.    Retirement for the military
    F.    Retirement for railroad employees
    G.    Waivers of retirement benefits

VIII.  Marital Agreements
    A.    The different kinds of marital contracts
    B.    Requirements for a valid marital contract
    C.    Subject matter
    D.    Helpful drafting tips

IX.    Other Important Issues
    A.    Bankruptcy
    B.    Federal taxation

X.      Ethical Considerations–Rules of Professional Conduct
    A.    Rule 1.1
    B.    Rule 1.5(d) and comment 6
    C.    Rule 1.6
    D.    Rule 1.7
    E.    Rule 2.1
    F.    Rule 3.1
    G.  Rule  3.4(i)
    H.    Rule 4.2
    I.    Rule 4.4
    J.    Legal ethics opinions
    K.    Computer information
    L.    GPS devices


CHAPTER 11: EQUITY IN VIRGINIA

I.    Development of Equity Court
    A.    Origins of equity practice
    B.    Development in Virginia
    C.    Rule 3.1

II.   Joinder of Claims—Legal and Equitable
    A.    Va. Code § 8.01-272
    B.    Va. Code § 8.01-281
    C.    Va. Code § 8.01-336(D)
    D.    Special plea in equity
    E.    Va. Code § 8.01-336(E)
    F.    Va. Code § 8.01-336(A)(B) and Rule 3:21
    G.    Rule 3:22(e)

III.  Equitable Remedies
    A.    Injunctions—temporary and permanent
    B.    Specific performance
    C.    Rescission and cancellation of contracts
    D.    Reformation of contracts
    E.    Appointment of receivers
    F.    Accounting
    G.    Partition suit
    H.    Restitution
    I.    Constructive trust

IV.  Necessary Parties
    A.    Definition
    B.    Jurisdiction
    C.    When issue arises

V.   Relief from Default

VI.  Attorney’s Fees

VII. Commissioner in Chancery
    A.  Rule 3:23 and Va. Code § 8.01-607-619
    B.    Va. Code § 8.01-607(A)
    C.    Commissioner’s authority
    D.    Commissioners used infrequently

CHAPTER 12: ESTATE ADMINISTRATION IN VIRGINIA

I.    Beginning an Estate Administration
    A.    Understanding the role of attorney after death
    B.    Interacting with court officials
    C.    Resources for attorneys in estate administration
    D.    Initial contact with client

II.   Actions Prior to and in anticipation of probate
    A.    Location of will
    B.    Securing assets prior to qualification
    C.    Preliminary review of assets
    D.    List of heirs and beneficiaries
    E.    List of liabilities of decedent
    F.    Determining whether decedent died testate
    G.    The decision to probate

III.  Probate and Qualification
    A.    Jurisdiction for probate of will or qualification
    B.    Qualification as personal representative
    C.    Methods of probate
    D.    Practical aspects of ex parte probate and qualification
    Before the Clerk
    E.    Probate and qualification order

IV.  Administration of Estate After Qualification
    A.    Duties of executor generally
    B.    Powers of executor
    C.    Role of co-personal representatives
    D.    Initial filing requirements of personal representative
    E.    Practical steps in administration
    F.    Managing and administrating assets
    G.    Administration litigation issues
    H.    Disclaimers

V.   Creditor Claims, Family Claims, and Taxes
    A.    Creditors issues
    B.    Claims of surviving spouses and minor children
    C.    Tax obligations

VI.  Winding Up The Estate
    A.    Distribution of assets
    B.    Payment of final administration fees
    C.    Filing of accountings

CHAPTER 13:  EVIDENCE IN VIRGINIA


I.    Where Did the Rules Come From
    A.    Background
    B.    Va. Code § 8.01-3(E)
    C.    Va. Code § 8.01-3(F)

II.   Where Are The Rules

III.  What Do The Rules Say
    A.    Article I—General Provisions
    B.    Article II—Judicial Notice
    C.    Article III—Presumptions
    D.    Article IV—Relevancy, Policy, and Character Trait Proof
    E.    Article V—Privileges
    F.    Article VI—Witness Examination
    G.    Article VII—Opinions and Expert Testimony
    H.    Article VIII—Hearsay
    I.    Article IX—Authentication
    J.    Article X—Best Evidence
    K.    Article XI—Applicability

CHAPTER 14: LOCAL GOVERNMENT LAW IN VIRGINIA

I.    Structure of Local Government in Virginia
    A.    Background
    B.    Sub-units of government in Virginia
    C.    Boundary changes and city  annexation

II.   Primary Sources of Law Affecting Local Government
    A.    Case law and statutory law
    B.    Other sources of guidance

III.  Who Are The Decision-Makers?
    A.    Elected governing bodies
    B.    Appointed governing bodies
    C.    Constitutional officers
    D.    Executive branch of local government
    E.    Citizen referenda and recall of elected officials
    F.    Adoption of laws

IV.  Legal Principles of Special Importance to Virginia Local
       Governments
    A.    Virginia constitutional provisions
    B.    Government powers as limited by “Dillon’s” Rule
    C.    Ultra vires doctrine
    D.    Immunity from tort liability
    E.    Notice of tort claims and pre-lawsuit claims procedures

V.   Statutes of Special Importance to Local Government
    A.    Virginia freedom of information act
    B.    Virginia conflict of interest act
    C.    Public procurement act
    D.    State employment issues
    E.    Eminent domain

CHAPTER 15: PERSONAL PROPERTY IN VIRGINIA

I.     Introduction
    A.    In General
    B.    Applicable U.C.C. Provisions

II.   Commercial Real Estate Transactions to Which U.C.C. Applies
    A.    Sales transactions
    B.    Lease Transactions
    C.    Financing transactions

III.  Compliance
    A.    Sales transactions
    B.    Lease transactions
    C.    Financing transactions

IV.  Damages to Personal Property
    A.    Destroyed or damaged property.
    B.    Crops and natural resources
    C.    Pets
    D.    Converted property
    E.    Loss of Use
    F.    Statutory causes of action

CHAPTER 16: REAL PROPERTY IN VIRGINIA

I.    Residential Real Estate Contracts
    A.    Introduction
    B.    Parties
    C.    Property description
    D.    Personal property
    E.    Consideration
    F.    Contract conditions
    G.    Prorations
    H.    Settlement and possession
    I.    Risk of loss and condition of property
    J.    Real estate agent’s commission
    K.    Assignment
    L.    Representations and warranties
    M.    Arbitration
    N.    Default
    O.    Miscellaneous provisions
    P.    Signatures, notarials, and recordation of contract
    Q.    Special considerations for purchasers

II.   Mechanics’ Liens
    A.    In general
    B.    Who may claim the lien
    C.    Property subject to the lien
    D.    Perfecting the lien
    E.    Affidavit verifying payment for labor and materials
    F.    The 150-day Rule
    G.    Statutory forms for the memorandum of lien
    H.    Enforcement of the lien

III.  Title Examinations
    A.    Introduction
    B.    Type of title evidence required
    C.    Creating the chain of title
    D.    Objections, exceptions, and defects in title
    E.    Abstract of title

IV.   Forms of Holding Title
    A.    Introduction
    B.    Joint tenancy
    C.    Tenancy by the entirety
    D.    Tenancy in common
    E.    Tenancy in coparcenary
    F.    The augmented estate

V.     The Deed
    A.    Parties to the deed
    B.    The premises
    C.    Warranties
    D.    Implied warranties on new homes
    E.    Conveyances to joint owners

VI.    Residential Financing
    A.    Introduction
    B.    Institutional financing
    C.    Assuming versus taking subject to a deed of trust
    D.    Purchase money financing
    E.    Installment sales contracts
    F.    Ground rent
    G.    Security agreements and financing statements
    H.    Usury

VII.   Residential Closings
    A.    Introduction
    B.    Legislation affecting closings
    C.    The transaction
    D.    Post-closing matters

VIII.  Condominiums and Property Owners’ Associations
    A.    Introduction to condominiums
    B.    Introduction to property owners’ associations
    C.    Types of condominiums and property owners’
    Associations
    D.    Allocations in condominiums
    E.    Condominium instruments
    F.    Governance of associations
    G.    Maintenance responsibilities of association and owners
    H.    Restrictions on use in property owners’ associations
    I.    Meetings
    J.    Contract provisions concerning lots in property owners’ associations
    K.    Contract provisions concerning condominium units

CHAPTER 17:  SALES LAW IN VIRGINIA


I.     Introduction
    A.    The Uniform Commercial Code
    B.    Definitions

II.   Creating the Contract
    A.    In general
    B.    Offer and acceptance
    C.    The Statute of Frauds

III.  The Parol Evidence Rule
    A.    In general
    B.    Explanation or supplementation of terms

IV.  Performance
    A.    Seller’s obligation to deliver
    B.    Buyer’s obligation to pay and right to inspect
    C.    Buyer’s rejection, acceptance, and revocation of
    acceptance
    D.    Impracticability

V.   Warranties
    A.    In general
    B.    Warranty of title and warranty against infringement
    C.    Implied warranty of merchantability
    D.    Implied warranty of fitness for a particular purpose
    E.    Express warranties
    F.    Disclaimer of warranties
    G.    Limitation of damages for breach of warranty

CHAPTER 18: TORTS IN VIRGINIA

I.    General Considerations
    A.    Statute of Limitations and notice requirements
    B.    Correct party
    C.    Investigation
    D.    Assessing insurance and its interplay
    E.    Relationships between the attorney, insured,
    and insurer
    F.    Coverage
    G.    Uninsured motorist/underinsured motorist coverage
    H.    Disbursements

II.   Statutes Of Limitations
    A.    Personal injury
    B.    Wrongful death
    C.    Fraud

III.  Virginia Tort Claims Act
    A.    Exclusions
    B.    Jurisdiction
    C.    Right to a jury trial
    D.    Notice of claim
    E.    Statute of limitations
    F.    Notice requirement in claim against local government
    G.    Notice of claim must contain written statement
    H.    Medical malpractice act
    I.    Damages
    J.    Application of damages’ limitation

IV.  Tort Liability and Related Issues
    A.    Contributory negligence
    B.    Contribution and indemnity
    C.    Assignment of tort actions
    D.    Persons exempt from liability for medical negligence
    E.    Immunity for health care providers

V.   Discovery Issues
    A.    Obtaining and using medical records for personal
          injury actions
    B.    Expert testimony and medical records
    C.    Examination of persons under Rule 4:10

VI.  Specific Causes of Action
    A.    Personal injury generally
    B.    Infliction of emotional distress
    C.    Medical malpractice
    D.    Wrongful death
    E.    Assault and battery
    F.    False imprisonment
    G.    Malicious prosecution
    H.    Fraud
    I.    Consumer protection act
    J.    Virginia computer crimes act
    K.    Oppression of minority shareholders

VII.  Damages
    A.    Presentation of damages at trial
    B.    Punitive damages

CHAPTER 19: TRUSTS IN VIRGINIA


I.    Overview of Estate Planning Trusts
    A.    Introduction
    B.    Revocable living trust
    C.    Irrevocable trusts
    D.    Testamentary trusts
    E.    Land trusts

II.   Virginia's Uniform Trust Code
    A.    Enactment
    B.    Effective date
    C.    Reasons for enactment
    D.    Structure
    E.    Applicability
    F.    General provisions
    G.    Representation of others
    H.    Revocable trusts
    I.    Acceptance, declination, resignation, substitution, or
    removal of trustee
    J.    Modification and termination of trusts
    K.    Principal place of administration
    L.    Trustee’s duties
    M.    Trustee powers
    N.    Co-trustees
    O.    Breach of trust
    P.    Nonjudicial settlement agreements, consents, releases, ratifications
    Q.    Statute of Limitations
    R.    Creditor’s claims
    S.    Virginia domestic asset protection trusts
    T.    Trustee’s special power to appoint to a second trust

III.  Important Statutory Differences between Trusts and Wills
    A.    Introduction
    B.    Date of interpretation
    C.    Capacity
    D.    Revocation
    E.    Revocation by divorce
    F.    Effect of distributions to descendants of deceased children
    G.    Omitted family members
    H.    Determination of children and descendants

IV. Transfers of Real Estate To and From Trusts
    A.    Conveyances of real estate to trusts
    B.    Spousal Consideration in transfers to trustee.
    C.    Cautionary issues on transfers to RLT
    D.    Distributions of real estate from trust to beneficiaries

V.  Irrevocable Trusts
    A.    Overview
    B.    Qualified Personal Residence Trust (“QPRT”)
    C.    Grantor Retained Annuity Trust (AGRAT”)
    D.    Charitable Remainder Trusts (“CRT”)
    E.    Special Needs Trusts


CHAPTER 20: UNIFORM COMMERCIAL CODE IN VIRGINIA


I.     Introduction
    A.    In general
    B.    Frequently encountered aspects of the U.C.C. in general practice

II.    Sales
    A.    Article 2 of the U.C.C
    B.    Discussion of the U.C.C. in “Sales Law in Virginia”

III.   Leases

IV.   Negotiable Instruments
    A.    Article 3 of the U.C.C.
    B.    Lending agreements as negotiable instruments
    C.    Damage claims

V.    Bank Deposits and Collections
    A.    Article 4
    B.    Damage claims

VI.   Warehouse Receipts, Bills Of Lading and Other Documents Of Title

VII.  Secured Transactions
    A.    In general
    B.    New types of collateral
    C.    Security agreement
    D.    Priority over an unperfected security interest
    E.    Method of perfection
    F.    Continuation of a security interest following
    disposition
    G.    Proceeds
    H.    Time of perfection
    I.    Priority
    J.    Governing law
    K.    Place of filing
    L.    Contents of the financing statement
    M.    Continuation statements
    N.    Amendment, termination, and assignment
    O.    Transition rules
    P.    Rights and duties after default
    Q.    Guarantors and co-obligors

CHAPTER 21: VIRGINIA CONSTITUTIONAL LAW

I.    Introduction
    A.    Frequently encountered aspects of Virginia constitutional law
    B.    Effective date
    C.    Structure
    D.    Amendments

II.   Bill Of Rights (Va. Const., Art. I, §§ 1 to 17)
    A.    Provisions of the Virginia Bill of Rights
    B.    Speedy trial
    C.    Right to counsel
    D.    Jury trial in criminal cases
    E.    Pretrial criminal defense motions and objections on constitutional grounds
    F.    Pretrial appeals by the Commonwealth from rulings
    based on constitutional grounds
    G.    Rights of victims of crime
    H.    Equal protection

III.  Civil Procedure and Remedies
    A.    Jury trial
    B.    Compensation for wrongful incarceration

IV.  Effective Date of Legislation (Va. Const., Art. IV, § 13)
    A.    Laws enacted at regular session of General Assembly
    B.    Laws enacted at special session
    C.    General Assembly may specify an earlier date
    D.    General Assembly may specify a postponed effective date

V.   Judiciary (Va. Const., Art. VI)
    A.    Original jurisdiction of appellate courts
    B.    Appellate jurisdiction
    C.    Judicial review
    D.    Rules of practice and procedure
    E.    Judicial Inquiry and Review Commission

VI.   Eminent Domain (Va. Const., Art. I, § 11)
    A.    Parallel provision in U.S. Constitution
    B.    Section 1-219 of the Virginia Code

VII.  Domestic Relations
    A.    Definition of marriage
    B.    Marriage Affirmation Act (Va. Code, § 20-45.3)
    C.    A Virginia court cannot dissolve a same-sex civil union
    D.    Child custody and visitation orders in Virginia

VIII. Religious Freedom (Va. Const., Art. I, § 16)
    A.    The Virginia Constitution protects religious freedom
    B.    2007 enactment of Va. Code § 57.1-2.02

IX.    Taxation and Finance (Va. Const., Art. X)

CHAPTER 22: VIRGINIA TAXATION

I. Income Taxes (Va. Code §§ 58.1-300 et seq.)
    A.    Corporation income tax
    B.    Employer income tax withholding
    C.    Fiduciary income tax
    D.    Individual income tax
    E.    Pass-through entity return of income
    F.    Registration of nonresident property owners

II. Transfer Taxes
    A.    Estate tax
    B.    Probate tax
    C.    Recordation tax
    
III. Sales and Use Taxes (Va. Code §§ 58.1-600 et seq.)
    A.    Aircraft sales and use tax
    B.    Communications sales and use tax
    C.    Consumer’s use tax
    D.    Digital media fee
    E.    Motor vehicle rental tax
    F.     Retail sales tax
    G.    Use tax
    H.    Vending machine sales tax
    I.     Watercraft sales and use tax

IV. Miscellaneous Taxes
    A.    Prepaid wireless E-911 fee
    B.    Bank franchise tax
    C.    Cigarette tax
    D.    Roll-your-own cigarette machines
    E.    Other tobacco products tax
    F.     Apple excise tax
    G.    Corn assessment
    H.    Cotton assessment
    I.     Egg excise tax
    J.     Forest products tax
    K.    Litter tax
    L.     Peanut excise tax
    M.    Rolling stock tax on railroads and freight car
    companies
    N.    Sheep assessment
    O.    Small grains assessment
    P.     Soft drink excise tax
    Q.    Soybean assessment
    R.    Tire recycling fee
    S.    Writ taxes

V. Local Taxes

CHAPTER 23: WILLS IN VIRGINIA

I. Communications with an Estate Planning Client
    A.    Initial communications with client
    B.    Communicating with the client in writing
    C.    Disclosure of conflict of interest
    D.    Dealing with a client with diminished faculties
    E.    Review of assets and importance of non-probate
    assets
    F.    Mirror image wills as contracts

II. Drafting the Will
    A.    What constitutes a will?
    B.    Reasons for having a will
    C.    Fundamental will provisions
    D.    Prerequisites for a valid will
    E.    Matching the estate planning documents with
    the client
    F.    Selected problem areas
    G.    Statutory provisions affecting wills

III. Concluding the Representation
    A.    Location of documents
    B.    Memorializing the termination of representation

 

Authors

Authors

Edward D. Barnes

Manuel A. Capsalis

James P. Cox, III

Elizabeth K. Dillon

Steven L. Higgs

Richard Howard-Smith

Jon D. Huddleston

Michael HuYoung

Mark D. Loftis

C. Kailani (Kai) Memmer

Steven L. Micas

John L. Norman, Jr.

Susan M. Pesner

J. Page Williams

Robert C. Wood, III

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