Appellate Practice - Virginia and Federal Courts

Appellate Practice - Virginia and Federal Courts
Publication Date: May 2016
Available Formats: Print (473 pages, softcover, 1 volume)
  Electronic (searchable PDF via flash drive, CD, or immediate download)
  Both Print and Electronic formats
Product #: 896

Information

Content Highlights:
  • The Virginia Judicial System
  • Appeals to the Court of Appeals and Supreme Court of Virginia
  • Appeals to the United States Court of Appeals
  • Extraordinary Writs and Unusual Appeals—State and Federal Courts
  • Appellate Brief Writing
  • Motions Practice in State and Federal Courts
  • Effective Oral Argument
  • Observations by Judges

Win or lose, you have to be prepared for an appeal. Appellate Practice — Virginia and Federal Courts addresses all of the needs of an appellate practitioner—from drafting persuasive briefs and creating compelling oral arguments, to federal and state court procedure, e-filing requirements, and the increasingly dangerous minefield of preservation of issues for appeal.

The 2016 edition includes:
  • Three “real-world” examples of appellate briefs submitted to Virginia’s appellate courts
  • Additional practice pointers as well as warnings about common pitfalls, such as failure to preserve errors
  • Updates to summarizing steps and requirements in Virginia’s appellate courts
  • Coverage of recent updates to state and federal rules of court, statutes, and case law

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Table of Contents

CHAPTER LIST

1. The Virginia Judicial System: Organization And Structure

2. Appeals To The Court Of Appeals And Supreme Court Of Virginia

3. Appeals To The United States Court Of Appeals

4. Extraordinary Writs And Unusual Appeals—State And Federal Courts

5. Appellate Brief Writing

6. Motions Practice In State And Federal Courts

7. Effective Oral Argument

8. Some Observations By The Judges


CHAPTER 1: THE VIRGINIA JUDICIAL SYSTEM: ORGANIZATION AND STRUCTURE

1.1 INTRODUCTION

1.2 SUPREME COURT OF VIRGINIA
    1.201 In General
    1.202 Original Jurisdiction
    1.203 Appellate Jurisdiction

1.3 COURT OF APPEALS OF VIRGINIA
    1.301 In General
    1.302 En Banc Hearings
    1.303 Original Jurisdiction
    1.304 Appellate Jurisdiction

1.4 CIRCUIT COURTS
    1.401 In General
    1.402 Original Jurisdiction
    1.403 Appellate Jurisdiction

1.5 DISTRICT COURTS
    1.501 In General
    1.502 General District Courts
    1.503 Juvenile and Domestic Relations District Courts

CHAPTER 2: APPEALS TO THE COURT OF APPEALS AND SUPREME COURT OF VIRGINIA

2.1 INTRODUCTION

2.2 PROTECTING THE RECORD IN THE TRIAL COURT AND ASSIGNING ERROR IN THE APPELLATE COURT
    2.201 Objections in the Lower Court and Assignments of Error on Appeal.
    2.202 Trial Motions and Proffers of Evidence
    2.203 Proffer of Excluded Evidence

2.3 PREREQUISITES TO APPEAL
    2.301 Appellate Jurisdiction
    2.302 Amount in Controversy
    2.303 Final Judgment
    2.304 Interlocutory Orders
    2.305 Orders Sustaining Demurrers
    2.306 Security for Appeal

2.4 MECHANICS OF THE APPEAL
    2.401 Appeal to the Virginia Court of Appeals
    2.402 Appeal to the Supreme Court of Virginia from the Court of Appeals
    2.403 Appeal to the Supreme Court of Virginia from Circuit Court

2.5 CAPITAL SENTENCE APPEALS
    2.501 Automatic Review by Supreme Court
    2.502 Scope of Review

2.6 COMMONWEALTH’S PRETRIAL APPEAL
    2.601 Pretrial Review by Court of Appeals
    2.602 Limited Issues
    2.603 Petitioning for Appeal
    2.604 Procedure for Awarded Appeal

2.7 CONCLUSION

APPENDIX 2-1: SUMMARY OF STEPS IN APPEALS

APPENDIX 2-2: ILLUSTRATIVE ADDITIONAL CASES RELATED TO PRESERVING ISSUES FOR APPEAL

APPENDIX 2-3: ILLUSTRATIVE CASES RELATED TO CONSIDERATION OF ARGUMENTS NOT MADE TO THE TRIAL COURT

APPENDIX 2-4: STANDARDS OF REVIEW ON APPEAL—SOME EXAMPLES

CHAPTER 3: APPEALS TO THE UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS

3.1 INTRODUCTION
    3.101 Scope of Chapter
    3.102 Basic Practice Tips
    3.103 Clerk’s Office Generally
    3.104 Rules of Court Generally
    3.105 Filing and Service
    3.106 Time Computation
    3.107 Circuit Mediation Conferences

3.2 PROTECTING THE RECORD IN THE TRIAL COURT
    3.201 Objections
    3.202 Motion for Judgment as a Matter of Law
    3.203 Post-Trial Motion for Judgment
    3.204 Bench Conferences

3.3 PREREQUISITES TO APPEAL
    3.301 Appeals by Right
    3.302 Appeals by Permission

3.4 PERFECTING THE APPEAL
    3.401 Appeals of Right
    3.402 Appeals by Permission
    3.403 Appeals of Interlocutory Orders
    3.404 Bankruptcy Appeals
    3.405 United States Tax Court Appeals
    3.406 Stay or Injunction Pending Appeal
    3.407 Release in Criminal Cases

3.5 THE RECORD ON APPEAL
    3.501 Contents of Record
    3.502 Statement of Issues and Statement of Evidence
    3.503 Statement in Lieu of Record
    3.504 Parties Differing on Record

3.6 TRANSMISSION OF THE RECORD
    3.601 In General
    3.602 Exceptions

3.7 DISCLOSURE STATEMENT

3.8 APPENDIX

3.9 BRIEFS
    3.901 Number of Copies and Time for Filing in Civil Cases
    3.902 Time for Filing in Criminal Cases
    3.903 Certificate of Service
    3.904 Covers
    3.905 Page and Word Limits
    3.906 Citation of Supplemental Authority

3.10 WRITS OF MANDAMUS AND PROHIBITION
    3.1001 In General
    3.1002 Procedures

3.11 PROCEEDINGS IN FORMA PAUPERIS

3.12 ORAL ARGUMENT

3.13 MOTIONS

3.14 FORMS

3.15 CONCLUSION

APPENDIX 3-1: FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS ABOUT APPELLATE MEDIATION IN THE FOURTH CIRCUIT

APPENDIX 3-2: FORMS

APPENDIX 3-3: SAMPLE NOTICE OF APPEAL

CHAPTER 4: EXTRAORDINARY WRITS AND UNUSUAL APPEALS—STATE AND FEDERAL COURTS

PART ONE—VIRGINIA PROCEDURE


4.1 BACKGROUND

4.2 HABEAS CORPUS
    4.201 In General
    4.202 Habeas Corpus in Death Sentence Cases

4.3 WRITS OF ACTUAL INNOCENCE
    4.301 Writs of Actual Innocence Based on Biological Evidence (Va. Code Title 19.2, Chapter 19.2)
    4.302 Writs of Actual Innocence Based on Nonbiological Evidence (Va. Code Title 19.2, Chapter 19.3)

4.4 MANDAMUS AND PROHIBITION
    4.401 In General
    4.402 Discretionary Versus Ministerial Acts
    4.403 The Virginia Freedom of Information Act (FOIA)
    4.404 Use of Extraordinary Writs in Lieu of Interlocutory Appeals

4.5 QUO WARRANTO

4.6 APPEALS OF EXTRAORDINARY WRITS ISSUED BY LOWER COURTS
    4.601 Right of Appeal
    4.602 Jurisdiction

4.7 APPEALS OF INTERLOCUTORY DECREES AND INJUNCTIONS
    4.701 In General
    4.702 Injunctions

PART TWO—FEDERAL PROCEDURE

4.8 BACKGROUND

4.9 INTERLOCUTORY AND EARLY APPEALS—JURISDICTION

4.10 INTERLOCUTORY APPEALS AS OF RIGHT—28 U.S.C. § 1292(A)
    4.1001 When Available
    4.1002 Timing and Procedure

4.11 DISCRETIONARY INTERLOCUTORY APPEALS—28 U.S.C. § 1292(B)
    4.1101 When Available
    4.1102 Procedure
    4.1103 Contents of the Petition
    4.1104 Additional Proceedings
    4.1105 Practice Pointers
    4.1106 Utility
    
4.12 THE COLLATERAL ORDER DOCTRINE
    4.1201 Source
    4.1202 Fourth Circuit Precedent
    4.1203 Utility

4.13 FEDERAL EXTRAORDINARY WRITS—JURISDICTION

4.14 MANDAMUS AND PROHIBITION
    4.1401 Mandamus—The Bauman Analysis
    4.1402 Mandamus—The Fourth Circuit’s Analysis
    4.1403 Prohibition
    4.1404 Utility
    4.1405 Procedure in the Court of Appeals
    4.1406 Procedure in the United State Supreme Court
    
4.15 HABEAS CORPUS

PART THREE—CERTIFICATION OF QUESTIONS OF LAW TO THE SUPREME COURT OF VIRGINIA

4.16 JURISDICTION

4.17 CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES
    4.1701 Discretion of Court
    4.1702 Principles
    4.1703 Who May Invoke
    4.1704 Procedure
    4.1705 Survey of Cases
    
CHAPTER 5: APPELLATE BRIEF WRITING

5.1 INTRODUCTION

5.2 COMMANDMENT ONE: APPEAL ONLY THE CASE THAT MERITS APPEAL
    5.201 Selecting the Case to Appeal
    5.202 Rethink the Case
    5.203 Appeal to Intermediate Court Versus Court of Last Resort.
    5.204 Planning the Appeal
    5.205 Updating and Re-evaluating Research
    5.206 Why All This Effort?

5.3 COMMANDMENT TWO: PUT YOURSELF IN THE POSITION OF THE APPELLATE JUDGES
    5.301 The Golden Rule
    5.302 Qualities of Good Brief Writing
    5.303 Matters of Style

5.4 COMMANDMENT THREE: EVERY PART OF A BRIEF IS IMPORTANT AND DESERVES CAREFUL ATTENTION
    5.401 Parts of a Brief
    5.402 Mechanics of Brief Writing

5.5 COMMANDMENT FOUR: GIVE THE COURT THE HISTORY AND NATURE OF THE CASE WITHOUT CONFUSING A STATEMENT OF THE CASE WITH A STATEMENT OF FACTS OR ARGUMENT
    5.501 What is the “Statement of the Case”?
    5.502 Set the Stage for the Statement of Issues

5.6 COMMANDMENT FIVE: SELECT A LIMITED NUMBER OF ISSUES FOR APPEAL AND STATE THEM IN TERMS OF THE CONCRETE FACTS OF YOUR CASE SO AS TO SUGGEST THE RESULTS DESIRED
    5.601 In General
    5.602 Finalize Phrasing of the Issues Last
    5.603 Avoid Over-Simplified Argument
    5.604 State Your Position Accurately
    5.605 Discuss Issues in Order of Strength
    5.606 Avoid Arguing Nonjustifiable Issues
    5.607 Tie Your Statement of Legal Issues to Your Specific Case and Give the Court Enough Information to                     Understand Your Issue
    5.608 Common Ground Necessary for Opposing Briefs
    5.609 Ascertain and Use the Applicable Standard of Appellate Review
    5.610 Criteria for a Properly Phrased Issue
    5.611 Correcting Opponent’s Misstatement of the Issue
    5.612 The Higher the Court, the More Abstract the Statement of the Issue
    5.613 Limit the Number of Issues

5.7 COMMANDMENT SIX: STATE THE FACTS PERSUASIVELY FROM YOUR POINT OF VIEW BUT WITH COMPLETE FIDELITY TO THE RECORD
    5.701 Importance of the Statement of Facts
    5.702 Discard Extraneous Facts
    5.703 Do Not Overstate the Facts
    5.704 Refer to Evidence Favorable to the Opposing Party
    5.705 Organize and Summarize Information
    5.706 Avoid Repetition
    5.707 Integrate Facts into a Coherent Scheme
    5.708 Identify the Uncontested and Contested Facts
    5.709 Target Your Adversary’s Weaknesses
    5.710 Note Appendix Page Numbers
    5.711 Stress the Justice of Your Position Without Over-Reliance on Precedent
    
5.8 COMMANDMENT SEVEN: ARGUE YOUR POINTS IN ORDER OF STRENGTH AND ARGUE VIGOROUSLY WITH COMPLETE FIDELITY TO THE RECORD
    5.801 The Argument
    5.802 Authorities

5.9 COMMANDMENT EIGHT: REVEAL AND COPE WITH ADVERSE AUTHORITY AS REQUIRED BY THE CANONS OF ETHICS AND COMMON SENSE
    5.901 In General
    5.902 Practical Considerations
    5.903 Ethical Considerations

5.10 COMMANDMENT NINE: TRY TO WRITE IN AN INTERESTING AND MIND-CATCHING WAY THAT IS CLEAR AND UNDERSTANDABLE
    5.1001 Devices for Emphasis
    5.1002 Elements of Style
    5.1003 Strive for Clarity

5.11 COMMANDMENT TEN: SUM UP YOUR ARGUMENTS AND TELL THE COURT THE PRECISE RELIEF SOUGHT
    5.1101 A Brief’s Conclusion Is Not a Mere Formality
    5.1102 Summarize Key Points Precisely
    5.1103 State the Relief Sought
    5.1104 Examples

5.12 COMMANDMENT ELEVEN: WRITING IN THE AGE OF SCREENS
    5.1201 Things Change
    5.1202 Courts Are Going Paperless
    5.1203 The Challenge of Writing for the Screen Reader
    5.1204 Writing to Help the Skimmer Absorb and Retain Critical Information
    5.1205 This Is Not the End of Western Civilization, but It Is a Challenge

APPENDIX 5-1: SAMPLE PETITION FOR APPEAL

APPENDIX 5-2: SAMPLE PETITION FOR APPEAL

APPENDIX 5-3: SAMPLE OPENING BRIEF OF APPELLANT

APPENDIX 5-4: BIBLIOGRAPHY

CHAPTER 6: MOTIONS PRACTICE IN STATE AND FEDERAL COURTS

6.1 INTRODUCTION

6.2 MAINTAINING THE STATUS QUO DURING THE APPEAL

6.3 TIME AND SPACE
    6.301 Extending Time or Expediting Review
    6.302 Asking for Additional Space

6.4 DISPOSITIVE MOTIONS

6.5 CURING PROBLEMS WITH THE RECORD

6.6 SUPPLEMENTAL AUTHORITY

6.7 RECONSIDERATION
    6.701 Reconsideration and en Banc Review in the Fourth Circuit.
    6.702 Petition Stage, State Court
    6.703 Reconsideration or en Banc Review After a Decision on the Merits in State Court

6.8 RECOVERING COSTS
    6.801 In General
    6.802 Fourth Circuit
    6.803 State Practice

6.9 FORMATTING REQUIREMENTS FOR MOTIONS
    6.901 Fourth Circuit
    6.902 State Practice
    
CHAPTER 7: EFFECTIVE ORAL ARGUMENT

7.1 INTRODUCTION

7.2 RULES OF APPELLATE ORAL ARGUMENT
    7.201 In General
    7.202 Mechanics

7.3 PREPARING AND DELIVERING EFFECTIVE ORAL ARGUMENT
    7.301 Preparation
    7.302 Beginning the Substantive Argument

7.4 TIME MANAGEMENT ISSUES

7.5 CONCLUSION

CHAPTER 8: SOME OBSERVATIONS BY THE JUDGES

8.1 INTRODUCTION (By the Honorable J. Harvie Wilkinson III)

8.2 APPELLATE PRACTICE IN THE UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE FOURTH CIRCUIT (By the late Judge Harrison L. Winter)
    8.201 Summary Dispositions
    8.202 Argued Cases
    8.203 Rebuttal
    8.204 Importance of Argument

8.3 APPELLATE PRACTICE IN THE SUPREME COURT OF VIRGINIA (By the Honorable D. Arthur Kelsey)
    8.301 In General
    8.302 Appeal-Related Actions at Trial
    8.303 Bringing the Appeal
    8.304 Petitioning for Appeal
    8.305 Written Material
    8.306 Oral Presentations

8.4 FINAL OBSERVATIONS (By the late Honorable R. Terrence Ney)
    8.401 In General
    8.402 Common Mistakes
    8.403 In Conclusion
    
TABLE OF AUTHORITIES

INDEX



Authors

EDITORS:

L. Steven Emmert
Frank K. Friedman

AUTHORS:

Erin Ashwell
Benjamin V. Madison, III
R. Johan Conrod Jr.
Lauren Tallent Rogers
John D. Eure
George A. Somerville
Hon. Stephen R. McCullough
Farnaz F. Thompson
Hon. J. Harvie Wilkinson III
Hon. D. Arthur Kelsey

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