An Employment Law Guide: Employee Rights and Employer Responsibilities in Virginia

An Employment Law Guide: Employee Rights and Employer Responsibilities in Virginia
Publication Date: December 2014
Available Formats: Print (461 pages, softcover, 1 volume)
  Electronic (searchable PDF via flash drive, CD, or immediate download)
  Both Print and Electronic formats
Product #: 876

Information

  • Discrimination in the Hiring Process
  • Applications, Testing, and Interviews
  • Post-Employment Inquiries
  • Restrictions on Employee Conduct
  • Employee Rights and Protections
  • Termination of Employment
  • Post-Termination Considerations
  • Government Contractors' Affirmative Action Obligations
  • Public Employer Issues
  • Employment of Foreign Nationals

Based on the 2014 version of Virginia CLE’s two-volume deskbook Employment Law in Virginia, this comprehensive guide provides an overview of the laws and policies that govern the workplace. With the help of this guide, the practitioner who is not an employment law specialist can quickly evaluate issues in this area. The newly updated edition is also especially valuable for human resources managers and in-house counsel who must routinely advise the businesses they serve when day-to-day questions arise, such as:

  • What may an employer ask a job candidate in the hiring process? What questions and topics should be avoided?
  • What restrictions may an employer include in a covenant not to compete?
  • May an employer monitor employees’ telephone calls, email, and voice mail?
  • May a foreign national conduct business while visiting the United States under the Visa Waiver Program? May he or she engage in employment in the United States?
  • Are temporary employees covered under the Family and Medical Leave Act?

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Table of Contents

CHAPTER LIST

1. Discrimination in the Hiring Process

2. Applications, Testing, and Interviews

3. Post-Employment Inquiries

4. Restrictions on Employee Conduct

5. Employee Rights and Protections

6. Termination of Employment

7. Post-Termination Considerations

8. Government Contractors' Affirmative Action Obligations

9. Public Employer Issues

10. Employment of Foreign Nationals


TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1: DISCRIMINATION IN THE HIRING PROCESS

1.1    PROHIBITED DISCRIMINATION IN HIRING BY PRIVATE EMPLOYERS
    1.101    Disparate Treatment
    1.102    Disparate Impact
    1.103    Continuing Violations

1.2    SOURCES OF EMPLOYMENT DISCRIMINATION CLAIMS AND HOW TO AVOID THEM
    1.201    Age
    1.202    Disabilities
    1.203    Marital Status
    1.204    Military Service
    1.205    Race or Color
    1.206    Sex
    1.207    Religion
    1.208    Citizenship or National Origin
    1.209    Other Sources of Discrimination Claims

1.3    BONA FIDE OCCUPATIONAL QUALIFICATION

1.4    EMPLOYER DEFENSES
    1.401    EEOC Uniform Guidelines
    1.402    Tests
    1.403    Seniority
    1.404    Merit Systems
    1.405    Bona Fide Occupational Qualification
    1.406    Business Necessity
    1.407    After-Acquired Evidence
    1.408    Arbitration Agreements
    1.409    Diplomatic Immunity
    1.410    Time Constraints
    1.411    Adverse Employment Action

1.5    REMEDIES

1.6    RECRUITING BY PRIVATE EMPLOYERS

CHAPTER 2: APPLICATIONS, TESTING, AND INTERVIEWS

2.1    INTRODUCTION

2.2    APPLICATION FORMS
    2.201    Basic Information
    2.202    Specific Questions or Topics to Avoid
    2.203    Verification of Information

2.3    PREEMPLOYMENT TESTING
    2.301    Polygraph Tests
    2.302    Paper and Pencil Honesty Tests
    2.303    Medical Examinations and Inquiries
    2.304    HIV and AIDS Testing
    2.305    Genetic Testing
    2.306    Drug Tests
    2.307    Alcohol Tests
    2.308    Physical Agility and Physical Fitness Tests
    2.309    Psychological Examinations
    2.310    Vision Tests

2.4    CREDIT REPORTS

2.5    EMPLOYER LIABILITY FOR INVESTIGATION IN THE HIRING CONTEXT
    2.501    Negligent Hiring
    2.502    Claims by Customers and Other Third Parties
    2.503    Claims by Coworkers
    2.504    Negligent Retention
    2.505    Negligent Supervision

2.6    INTERVIEWS

CHAPTER 3: POST-EMPLOYMENT INQUIRIES

3.1    ELIGIBILITY TO WORK

3.2    CONTROLLED SUBSTANCE AND ALCOHOL
TESTING
    3.201    Drug-Free Workplace Act of 1988
    3.202    Department of Defense Contract Rules
    3.203    Department of Transportation Rules
    3.204    Hiring or Reinstatement

3.3    MONITORING EMPLOYEE COMMUNICATIONS
    3.301    Monitoring Telephone Calls, Email, and Voice Mail
    3.302    The Federal Wiretap Statute
    3.303    State Laws
    3.304    Surreptitious Audiotaping or Videotaping of Conversations
    3.305    Computer Monitoring
    3.306    Accessing Computer Files
    3.307    Voice Mail
    3.308    Incoming Email
    3.309    Practical Guidelines

3.4    EMPLOYEE SURVEILLANCE AND SEARCHES
    3.401    Surveillance
    3.402    Searches
    3.403    Employer-Issued Electronic Devices
    3.404    Social Media
    3.405    Personnel Records

CHAPTER 4: RESTRICTIONS ON EMPLOYEE CONDUCT

4.1    THE EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIP
    4.101    At-Will Employment
    4.102    Employment Contracts

4.2    COVENANTS NOT TO COMPETE
    4.201    Restraint on Trade
    4.202    Factors Determining Enforceability
    4.203    Protection of Employer’s Interests
    4.204    Impact on the Public

4.3    RESTRAINTS IMPOSED BY LAW
    4.301    Duty of Loyalty
    4.302    Solicitation of a Former Employer’s Customers
    4.303    Misuse of Confidential Information
    4.304    Misuse of Trade Secrets
    4.305    Statutory Conspiracy to Injure Business
    4.306    Common Law Conspiracy
    4.307    Tortious Interference with Contracts

CHAPTER 5: EMPLOYEE RIGHTS AND PROTECTIONS


5.1    FEDERAL CIVIL RIGHTS STATUTES
    5.101    In General
    5.102    42 U.S.C. § 1981
    5.103    Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964

5.2    THE VIRGINIA HUMAN RIGHTS ACT
    5.201    In General
    5.202    Deferral Agency for Title VII Claims
    5.203    Remedies

5.3    AGE DISCRIMINATION IN EMPLOYMENT
ACT (ADEA)
    5.301    In General
    5.302    Employee’s Evidence
    5.303    Employer’s Defenses
    5.304    Waiver

5.4    AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA)
    5.401    In General
    5.402    The ADAAA

5.5    VIRGINIANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (VDA)

5.6    FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT (FLSA)
    5.601    Wage and Hour Law
    5.602    Coverage
    5.603    Exceptions to Coverage
    5.604    Minimum Wage
    5.605    Overtime Compensation
    5.606    Time Worked
    5.607    Exemptions from Minimum Wage and Overtime
    5.608    Workweek
    5.609    Recordkeeping and Posting
    5.610    Examples of Common Problems for Employers
    5.611    Retaliation
    5.612    Administrative Enforcement
    5.613    Arbitration
    5.614    State Wage and Hour Law
    5.615    State Wage Payment Laws
    5.616    Local “Living Wage” Laws
    5.617    Child Labor

5.7    THE FEDERAL EQUAL PAY ACT
    5.701    Gender-Based Wage Disparities
    5.702    Employers and Employees Covered
    5.703    Definition of Equal Work
    5.704    Components of Equal Work
    5.705    Retaliation
    5.706    Employers’ Defenses
    5.707    The Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act
    5.708    The Virginia Equal Pay Act

5.8    THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT (FMLA)
    5.801    Employers Covered
    5.802    Employees Eligible for Leave Under the FMLA
    5.803    Events That Trigger Entitlement to FMLA Leave
    5.804    Notice an Employee Must Give of the Need for FMLA Leave
    5.805    Length and Timing of FMLA Leave
    5.806    Paid or Unpaid Leave
    5.807    Employee’s Right to Return to Work
    5.808    Returning Employee’s Rights
    5.809    Notice to Employees
    5.810    Health Benefit Continuation
    5.811    Other Benefits Required to Be Continued Under the FMLA
    5.812    Medical Certifications
    5.813    Employer Records
    5.814    Employee’s Waiver Unenforceable

5.9    UNIFORMED SERVICES EMPLOYMENT AND REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS ACT (USERRA)
    5.901    Military Leave
    5.902    Coverage
    5.903    Notice
    5.904    Cost of Benefits
    5.905    Interaction with the FMLA
    5.906    Waiver of Benefits
    5.907    Health Benefits
    5.908    Use of Paid Leave
    5.909    Reemployment
    5.910    Dishonorable Discharge
    5.911    Documentation
    5.912    Time Limits for Reporting or Application
    5.913    Reemployment Position
    5.914    Reemployment Benefits
    5.915    Retroactive Contributions
    5.916    Reinstatement of Health Benefits
    5.917    Retention Rights
    5.918    Release of USERRA Claims
    5.919    Veterans’ Benefits Act of 2010
    5.920    Vow to Hire Heroes Act of 2011

5.10    FEDERAL AND STATE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACTS
    5.1001    Regulatory Framework
    5.1002    State Enforcement
    5.1003    Employer Coverage
    5.1004    Employers’ Primary Obligations
    5.1005    Other Rights, Responsibilities, and Duties
    5.1006    Elements of an OSHA Violation
    5.1007    Defenses
    5.1008    Warrants
    5.1009    Citations
    5.1010    Contesting Citations
    5.1011    Employee Coverage and Nondiscrimination Rules
    5.1012    Work Refusals
    5.1013    Procedure for Discrimination Cases
    5.1014    Remedies and Damages

5.11    UNIONS
    5.1101    Protected Concerted Activity and Union Organizing
    5.1102    Campaign
    5.1103    Access to Employer’s Property
    5.1104    Duty to Bargain
    5.1105    Purchases, Acquisitions, and the Obligation to Recognize the Union
    5.1106    Unfair Labor Practice Charges
    5.1107    Decertification
    5.1108    Bargaining Unit Composition

5.12    WORKERS’ COMPENSATION ISSUES
    5.1201    Exclusive Remedy
    5.1202    Respondeat Superior

5.13    QUI TAM WHISTLEBLOWER CLAIMS
    5.1301    In General
    5.1302    Remedies

CHAPTER 6: TERMINATION OF EMPLOYMENT

6.1    AT-WILL EMPLOYMENT
    6.101    Oral Contracts
    6.102    Employee Manuals
    6.103    Implied in Fact Contract
    6.104    Virginia Human Rights Act
    6.105    Other Virginia Statutes Limiting Termination
    6.106    Common Law Wrongful Discharge

6.2    UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION
    6.201    Initial Application for Benefits
    6.202    Initial Determination
    6.203    Disqualification from Receiving Benefits
    6.204    Discharge Due to Misconduct in Connection with Work
    6.205    Refusing Suitable Work
    6.206    Willful False Statements
    6.207    Claimant in Prison
    6.208    Substance Abuse
    6.209    Labor Disputes
    6.210    Severance Pay
    6.211    Overpayment of Benefits
    6.212    Defenses for Employers
    6.213    Short-Time Compensation Program

6.3    OTHER VIRGINIA STATUTES

CHAPTER 7: POST-TERMINATION CONSIDERATIONS

7.1    CONSOLIDATED OMNIBUS BUDGET RECONCILIATION ACT (COBRA)
    7.101    Overview
    7.102    Continuation Coverage Requirements of Group Health Plans
    7.103    Qualifying Events
    7.104    Qualified Beneficiaries
    7.105    Final Treasury Regulations
    7.106    New Employees
    7.107    Election Rights
    7.108    Required Notices
    7.109    Incapacitated Former Employees
    7.110    Duration of Continuation Coverage
    7.111    “Other Coverage” Rule
    7.112    Privacy Requirements
    7.113    Timing of HIPAA Rules
    7.114    Application
    7.115    Implementing HIPAA’s Privacy Rules
    7.116    Claims for Benefits

7.2    THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT OF 1974 (ERISA)
    7.201    Overview
    7.202    Coverage
    7.203    Benefit Claims
    7.204    Fiduciary Responsibilities
    7.205    Retaliation Claims Under ERISA
    7.206    Severance Claims
    7.207    Cash Balance Age Discrimination Claims
    7.208    Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002
    7.209    Fiduciary Duties Where Employer Stock Is a Retirement Plan Investment Option
    7.210    Anti-Cutback Rule

7.3    BUSINESS TORTS
    7.301    Defamation
    7.302    Tortious Interference
    7.303    Statutory Conspiracy
    7.304    Fraud
    7.305    Emotional Distress
    7.306    Oppression of Minority Shareholders

7.4    PRIVILEGES AND OTHER DEFENSES
    7.401    Qualified Privilege
    7.402    Absolute Privilege
    7.403    Other Privileges
    7.404    Statutory Protection
    7.405    Workers’ Compensation Act as a Bar

CHAPTER 8: GOVERNMENT CONTRACTORS’ AFFIRMATIVE ACTION OBLIGATIONS

8.1    AFFIRMATIVE ACTION PROGRAMS
    8.101    Laws and Regulations
    8.102    Applicability
    8.103    General Requirements
    8.104    Development of Affirmative Action Programs
    8.105    Other Requirements
    8.106    Enforcement

8.2    AGE DISCRIMINATION

8.3    VETERANS
    8.301    Vietnam Era Veterans’ Readjustment Assistance Act
    8.302    Prohibitions
    8.303    Affirmative Action Plan
    8.304    Other Requirements
    8.305    Enforcement

8.4    DISABLED INDIVIDUALS GENERALLY
    8.401    In General
    8.402    Prohibitions
    8.403    Records
    8.404    Invitation for Applicant to Claim Benefit of Section 503
    8.405    Medical Examinations and Information
    8.406    Affirmative Action Plan
    8.407    Enforcement

8.5    ENFORCEMENT AND COMPLIANCE WITH FEDERAL LAW
    8.501    Record Retention
    8.502    Compliance Evaluations

CHAPTER 9: PUBLIC EMPLOYER ISSUES

9.1    CIVIL RIGHTS ISSUES
    9.101    42 U.S.C. § 1981
    9.102    42 U.S.C. § 1983
    9.103    Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964
    9.104    Eleventh Amendment Immunity

9.2    AGE DISCRIMINATION IN EMPLOYMENT ACT
    9.201    Federal Government
    9.202    State and Local Governments

9.3    AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT
    9.301    Federal Government
    9.302    State and Local Governments
    9.303    Virginians with Disabilities Act

9.4    EQUAL PAY ACT
    9.401    Federal Government
    9.402    State and Local Governments
    9.403    Virginia Equal Pay Act

9.5    STATE-MANDATED GRIEVANCE PROCEDURE
    9.501    Definition of Grievance
    9.502    Local Government Responsibilities
    9.503    Covered Employees
    9.504    General Requirements
    9.505    Compliance
    9.506    Management Steps
    9.507    Panel Hearing or Hearing Before Administrative Hearing Officer
    9.508    Law Enforcement Exception
    9.509    Employees of Local Constitutional Officers

9.6    LABOR RELATIONS AND CONCERTED ACTIVITY IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR
    9.601    Collective Bargaining
    9.602    Union Membership
    9.603    Labor Disputes and Strikes

9.7    POLYGRAPH TESTING
    9.701    In General
    9.702    In Virginia

9.8    EMPLOYER SEARCHES
    9.801    In General
    9.802    Search of the Person
    9.803    Search of Property

CHAPTER 10: EMPLOYMENT OF FOREIGN NATIONALS


10.1    INTRODUCTION
    10.101    Overview
    10.102    Department of Homeland Security
    10.103    Department of State
    10.104    Department of Labor

10.2    IMMIGRATION REFORM AND CONTROL
ACT (IRCA)

10.3    NONIMMIGRANT VISAS
    10.301    In General
    10.302    Types of Visas

10.4    VISA WAIVER PROGRAM

10.5    IMMIGRANT VISAS

10.6    EFFECT OF ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION STATUS

INDEX

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