Employment Law in Virginia

Employment Law in Virginia
Publication Date: 2016
Available Formats: Print (1100 pages, softcover, 2 volumes)
  Electronic (searchable PDF via flash drive, CD, or immediate download)
  Both Print and Electronic formats
Product #: 858

Information

Content Highlights:
  • Title VII and Reconstruction Era Statutes
  • Equal Pay Acts—Federal and State
  • The Age Discrimination in Employment Act
  • State and Federal Disabilities Acts
  • Federal Discrimination Claims, Virginia Human Rights Act, and Local Deferral Agencies
  • Qui Tam Whistleblower Litigation
  • Government Contractors—Equal Opportunity and Affirmative Action
  • Wrongful Discharge
  • Employment Agreements
  • Unfair Competition
  • Tort Actions
  • Wage and Hour Law
  • Privacy, Testing, Investigations, and Searches
  • Employment of Foreign Nationals
  • FMLA
  • Uniformed Services Employment and Reemployment Rights Act of 1994
  • OSHA
  • COBRA
  • ERISA Litigation
  • The National Labor Relations Act
  • Public Sector Issues
  • Unemployment Compensation

Virtually every action or event in the workplace is touched by state or federal employment law, or both. The field has expanded from the simple concepts of respondeat superior and earlier master-servant law to include the complex and sometimes conflicting standards found in modern statutes such as the Family and Medical Leave Act and the Americans with Disabilities Act.

Employment Law in Virginia's two volumes provide a comprehensive overview of the myriad statutory, regulatory, and common law issues that may emerge from any event in the employment relationship. It covers the complete employment relationship from job recruitment and selection to termination and retirement. .

The 2016 edition is current through the 2016 session of the General Assembly as well as recent federal statutes and regulations and state and federal court decisions. Among the new developments covered in this edition:

  • The joint employer liability doctrine, preventing employers from evading liability under Ttitle VII
  • “False Certification” cases under state and federal qui tam statutes
  • The 2016 Federal “Defend Trade Secrets Act”
  • Protection against sexual orientation and gender identity discrimination by federal contractors
  • The Fair Pay and Safe Workplaces executive order applicable to potential federal contractors
  • Exemption of home care workers from parts of the minimum wage or overtime requirements
  • NLRB holding as to tape and video recordings by employees in the workplace
  • New “quickie election” rules governing union elections
  • A “Ban the Box” executive order limiting criminal background checks for prospective employees of Virginia state agencies

New Multi-Book Discount. Buy ANY 2 books and save 20%, 3 books and save 30%, 4 or more and save 40%. Use coupon code BUYMORE.
Government Attorney? Receive a 30% discount on publications, and a 50% discount on most seminars.
New Virginia Lawyer? (less than three years) Receive a 25% discount on publications and most seminars.


You may also be interested in:


Virginia Employment Practices and Forms

An Employment Law Guide: Employee Rights and Employer Responsibilities in Virginia

The Virginia Lawyer: A Deskbook for Practitioners
     

 

Table of Contents

CHAPTER LIST

1. Title VII And The Reconstruction Era Statutes

2. Equal Pay Acts—Federal And State

3. The Age Discrimination In Employment Act

4. State And Federal Disabilities Acts

5. Federal Discrimination Claims, The Virginia Human Rights Act, And Local Deferral Agencies

6. Qui Tam Whistleblower Litigation

7. Government Contractors—Equal Opportunity And Affirmative Action

8. Wrongful Discharge

9. Employment Agreements

10. Unfair Competition

11. Tort Actions

12. Wage And Hour Law

13. Privacy, Testing, Investigations, And Searches

14. Employment Of Foreign Nationals

15. Family And Medical Leave Act

16. Uniformed Services Employment And Reemployment Rights Act Of 1994

17. Occupational Safety And Health Law

18. COBRA — Continuation Coverage Requirements Of Employee Health Care Plans

19. ERISA Litigation

20. The National Labor Relations Act

21. Public Sector Issues

22. Unemployment Compensation


Volume I


CHAPTER 1: TITLE VII AND THE RECONSTRUCTION ERA
STATUTES


1.1 OVERVIEW
    1.101 The Civil Rights Act of 1964
    1.102 The Civil Rights Acts of 1866 and 1870
    1.103 The Civil Rights Act of 1871
    1.104 The Civil Rights Act of 1871—The Ku Klux Klan Act
    1.105 The Civil Rights Act of 1991
    1.106 The Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act

1.2 EXHAUSTION OF ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES
    1.201 In General
    1.202 When Filing Period Begins
    1.203 Filing with Deferral Agency
    1.204 Filing with the EEOC
    1.205 “Right-to-Sue” Letter

1.3 THEORIES OF DISCRIMINATION AND PROOF
    1.301 Disparate Treatment Theory
    1.302 Disparate Treatment Class Actions
    1.303 Mixed Motive Cases
    1.304 Disparate Impact Theory
    1.305 Defenses
    1.306 Remedies

1.4 SEXUAL HARASSMENT
    1.401 Statutory Prohibition
    1.402 Administrative Guidelines
    1.403 Judicial Rulings
    1.404 Types of Harassment
    1.405 Standards of Proof
    1.406 Employer Liability
    1.407 Supervisor Liability
    1.408 Procedure
    1.409 Remedies

CHAPTER 2:  EQUAL PAY ACTS—FEDERAL AND STATE

2.1 INTRODUCTION TO THE FEDERAL EQUAL PAY ACT
    2.101 Overview
    2.102 Employers and Employees Covered

2.2 RIGHTS, RESPONSIBILITIES, AND PRINCIPAL
DEFENSES UNDER THE FEDERAL EQUAL PAY ACT
    2.201 Wage Disparities Based on Sex
    2.202 Purpose
    2.203 Equal Work
    2.204 Components of Equal Work
    2.205 Retaliation
    2.206 Principal Defenses

2.3 PROCEDURAL ISSUES OF THE FEDERAL EQUAL PAY
ACT
    2.301 Statute of Limitations
    2.302 No Administrative Prerequisites to Suit
    2.303 Venue
    2.304 Legal and Equitable Relief; Jury Trials
    2.305 Burden of Proof
    2.306 Discriminatory Intent Need Not Be Proved
    2.307 Agency Enforcement Authority
    2.308 Class Actions

2.4 REMEDIES AND DAMAGES UNDER THE FEDERAL
EQUAL PAY ACT
    2.401 Back Pay
    2.402 Liquidated Damages
    2.403 Costs and Attorney Fees
    2.404 Front Pay
    2.405 Prejudgment Interest
    2.406 Equitable Relief
    2.407 No Punitive or Compensatory Damages for Pain
    and Suffering
    2.408 Criminal Penalties
    
2.5 THE VIRGINIA EQUAL PAY ACT
    2.501 Introduction
    2.502 Rights, Responsibilities, and Principal Defenses
    2.503 Procedural Issues
    2.504 Remedies and Damages

CHAPTER 3: THE AGE DISCRIMINATION IN EMPLOYMENT
ACT


3.1 INTRODUCTION

3.2 COVERAGE AND BASIC ELEMENTS
    3.201 Coverage
    3.202 Basic Elements of Age Discrimination Cases

3.3 PLAINTIFF’S BURDEN OF PROOF
    3.301 In General
    3.302 Inferring Discrimination from Pretextual Explanation
    3.303 Hostile Work Environment
    3.304 Disparate Impact Theory

3.4 EMPLOYER’S DEFENSES AND JUSTIFICATIONS
    3.401 Introduction
    3.402 Statutory Defenses
    3.403 Refuting Employee’s Prima Facie Case
    3.404 After-Acquired Evidence
    3.405 Employee’s Showing That the Offered Justification
    Was Pretextual

3.5 PROCEDURAL ISSUES
    3.501 Filing the Claim
    3.502 Accrual
    3.503 Tolling the Statute of Limitations
    3.504 Class Actions
    3.505 Mandatory Arbitration
    3.506 Surviving Summary Judgment

3.6 REMEDIES AND DAMAGES
    3.601 Introduction
    3.602 Back Pay
    3.603 Hiring or Promotion Orders
    3.604 Front Pay
    3.605 Liquidated Damages
    3.606 Costs and Attorney Fees
    3.607 Interest
    3.608 Punitive and Compensatory Damages
    3.609 Retaliation
    3.610 Criminal Penalties
    3.611 Supervisors Not Personally Liable
    
3.7 VIRGINIA STATE LAW CAUSE OF ACTION FOR AGE
DISCRIMINATION

3.8 RELEASES OF CLAIMS AND SEVERANCE OPTIONS
    3.801 Release of Claims
    3.802 Varied Options for Lay-Off Packages Permissible

CHAPTER 4:  STATE AND FEDERAL DISABILITIES ACTS

4.1 INTRODUCTION

4.2 APPLICABILITY

4.3 “QUALIFIED INDIVIDUAL”
    4.301 “Qualified Individual” Defined
    4.302 Record of Disability, or Perception as Having
    Disability

4.4 CONDUCT PROHIBITED
    4.401 Conduct Related to Terms, Conditions, and Privileges
    of Employment
    4.402 Classes of Conduct Prohibited
    4.403 Reasonable Accommodation
    4.404 Retaliation
    
4.5 LITIGATION ISSUES
    4.501 Standard for Determining Whether an Employer
    Discriminated on the Basis of a Disability
    4.502 Procedural Prerequisites to Filing an ADA Lawsuit
    4.503 Bankrupt Plaintiffs
    4.504 Pleading
    4.505 Effect of Application for Social Security Benefits
    4.506 Admissibility of Receipt of Workers’ Compensation
    Benefits
    4.507 Grievance Files and the Virginia Department of
    Employee Dispute Resolution (EDR)

4.6 MEDICAL EXAMINATIONS, INQUIRIES, AND
DISCLOSURE OF MEDICAL INFORMATION
    4.601 Medical Examinations Generally
    4.602 Impermissible Inquiries
    4.603 Examinations and Inquiries After Offer of
    Employment
    4.604 Permissible Inquiries
    4.605 Employee Medical Examinations
    4.606 Voluntary Medical Examinations
    4.607 Duty of Confidentiality

4.7 DEFENSES
    4.701 Neutral Qualification Standards
    4.702 Risk to Health or Safety of Others
    4.703 Undue Hardship
    4.704 Conflicting Federal Laws
    4.705 Transitory and Minor Impairment Is a Defense to a
    Claim of “Regarded as” Having an Impairment
    4.706 Religion
    4.707 Food Handlers
    4.708 Uncorrected Vision
    4.709 Waiver of Liability

4.8 ENFORCEMENT AND REMEDIES

4.9 THE VIRGINIANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT
    4.901 Overview
    4.902 Employers Covered

4.10 EMPLOYEE RIGHTS AND EMPLOYER RESPONSIBILITIES
UNDER THE VDA
    4.1001 Conduct Prohibited
    4.1002 Definitions
    4.1003 Reasonable Accommodation
    4.1004 Retaliation

4.11 PROCEDURE UNDER THE VDA
    4.1101 The Virginia Office for Protection and Advocacy and
    the DisAbility Law Center of Virginia
    4.1102 Private Cause of Action
    4.1103 Statute of Limitations

4.12 REMEDIES ALLOWED BY THE VDA
    4.1201 Damages
    4.1202 Nonmonetary Relief
    4.1203 Attorney Fees
    4.1204 Exclusive Remedies
    4.1205 The VDA and the 1995 Amendments to the VHRA

APPENDIX 4-1: WHAT EMPLOYERS SHOULD DO TO PREVENT
CHARGES OF A VIOLATION OF THE ADA

CHAPTER 5: FEDERAL DISCRIMINATION CLAIMS, THE
VIRGINIA HUMAN RIGHTS ACT, AND
LOCAL AGENCIES


5.1 INTRODUCTION

5.2 RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF LOCAL HUMAN
RIGHTS AGENCIES
    5.201 Delegation to Local Agencies
    5.202 Virginia’s Local Deferral Agencies
    5.203 Interplay Between the EEOC and Local Deferral
    Agencies
    5.204 Local Agencies Not Designated by the EEOC
    
5.3 LIFE CYCLE OF COMPLAINT FILED WITH LOCAL
AGENCY
    5.301 Filing
    5.302 Investigation
    5.303 Subpoenas
    5.304 Fact-Finding Conference
    5.305 Conciliation Agreement
    5.306 Public Hearing
    5.307 Finding of “Cause” or “No Cause”

5.4 CONSEQUENCES OF LOCAL AGENCY’S FINDING OF
LIABILITY
    5.401 “Right-to-Sue” Letter
    5.402 No Preclusive Effect to Deferral Agency Findings
    5.403 Admissibility of Deferral Agency’s Findings
    5.404 Limited Private Right of Action

5.5 THE VIRGINIA HUMAN RIGHTS ACT
    5.501 Overview
    5.502 Employers Covered

5.6 EMPLOYEE RIGHTS AND EMPLOYER RESPONSIBILITIES
UNDER THE VHRA
    5.601 Conduct Prohibited
    5.602 Retaliation

5.7 PROCEDURE UNDER THE VHRA
    5.701 The Division of Human Rights(DHR)
    5.702 The Complaint
    5.703 The DHR’s Investigative Tools
    5.704 Results of the Investigation
    5.705 Confidentiality
    5.706 Private Cause of Action
    5.707 Decisions Under the VHRA

5.8 REMEDIES UNDER THE VHRA
    5.801 Administrative Action
    5.802 Court Action

5.9 CONCLUSION

CHAPTER 6: QUI TAM WHISTLEBLOWER LITIGATION

6.1 INTRODUCTION
    6.101 What Is a “Qui Tam” Action?
    6.102 The Virginia Fraud Against Taxpayers Act (VFATA)
    and the Federal False Claims Act (FCA)
    6.103 History and Development of the VFATA
    6.104 Federal Incentives for States to Pass False Claims
    Legislation

6.2 DEFINITIONS UNDER THE VFATA AND FCA
    6.201 Any “Person”
    6.202 “Claim”
    6.203 “Knowing” and “Knowingly”
    6.204 “Obligation”
    
6.3 PROHIBITED CONDUCT UNDER THE VFATA
    6.301 Types of Prohibited Conduct Generally
    6.302 Knowingly Presenting False or Fraudulent Claim
    6.303 Knowingly Making or Using False Record or
    Statement Material to a False or Fraudulent Claim
    6.304 Conspiring to Commit Violation of the VFATA
    6.305 Violations Involving Government Property
    6.306 “Reverse False Claims”
    6.307 “False Certification” Cases

6.4 CIVIL PENALTIES

6.5 TREBLE DAMAGES
    6.501 Rationale
    6.502 Limitations on Damages

6.6 LIMITATIONS ON FCA AND VFATA ACTIONS
    6.601 Limitations of Section 8.01-216.8
    6.602 Nonapplicability to Taxes
    6.603 Statutes of Limitations

6.7 PRACTICE MATTERS PRECEDING SERVICE OF THE
COMPLAINT
    6.701 The Disclosure Statement
    6.702 The “Original Source” Exception to the Public
    Disclosure Bar
    6.703 Documentation for the Relator’s Claim
    6.704 Filing Under Seal
    6.705 Working With the Government During the Seal Period
    6.706 Partial Unsealing of the Complaint
    6.707 Intervention or Non-Intervention
    6.708 Service on Defendants
    6.709 Alternative Remedies Under Section 8.01-216.6(H)

6.8 PRACTICE MATTERS FOLLOWING SERVICE OF THE
COMPLAINT
    6.801 Government as Party in Interest
    6.802 Motion to Dismiss

6.9 ANTI-RETALIATION PROVISIONS FOR
WHISTLEBLOWERS
    6.901 Sections 8.01-216.8 of the VFATA and 31 U.S.C.
    § 3730(h) of the FCA
    6.902 Damages Available Under the VFATA and the FCA
    6.903 Anti-Retaliation Protections for State and Local
    Employees

CHAPTER 7:  GOVERNMENT CONTRACTORS—EQUAL
OPPORTUNITY AND AFFIRMATIVE ACTION


7.1 INTRODUCTION

7.2 APPLICABILITY OF LAWS AND REGULATIONS

7.3 EQUAL OPPORTUNITY AND AFFIRMATIVE ACTION
GENERALLY
    7.301 Applicability
    7.302 General Requirements
    7.303 Affirmative Action Programs
    7.304 Other Requirements
    7.305 Enforcement

7.4 AGE DISCRIMINATION

7.5 VETERANS
    7.501 In General
    7.502 Prohibitions
    7.503 Affirmative Action Plan
    7.504 Other Requirements
    7.505 Enforcement

7.6 DISABLED INDIVIDUALS GENERALLY
    7.601 In General
    7.602 Prohibitions
    7.603 Invitation for Applicant to Claim Benefit of
    Section 503
    7.604 Medical Examinations and Information
    7.605 Affirmative Action Plan
    7.606 Enforcement

7.7 DISABLED INDIVIDUALS AND INFORMATION
TECHNOLOGY
    7.701 In General
    7.702 The Standards
    7.703 Exceptions to the Standards

CHAPTER 8: WRONGFUL DISCHARGE

8.1 WRONGFUL DISCHARGE IN VIOLATION OF PUBLIC
POLICY
    8.101 Overview
    8.102 Elements of a Bowman Claim

8.2 CASE LAW DEVELOPMENT
    8.201 Discharge of Employee in the Exercise of a Statutory
    Right
    8.202 Standing Requirements for Bringing a Claim
    8.203 Discharge of an Employee for Refusing to Commit a
    Criminal Act

8.3 DETERMINING THE EXISTENCE OF A PUBLIC POLICY
    8.301 In General
    8.302 Lawrence Chrysler Plymouth Corp. v. Brooks
    8.303 City of Virginia Beach v. Harris
    8.304 Rowan v. Tractor Supply Co
    8.305 Wrongful Discharge Based on the Virginia Wage
    Payment Act

8.4 STATUTORY PREEMPTION OF WRONGFUL DISCHARGE
CLAIMS
    8.401 In General
    8.402 Mannell v. American Tobacco Co
    8.403 Cauthorne v. King
    8.404 Pruitt v. Johnston Memorial Hospital, Inc
    8.405 Porter v. Elk Remodeling, Inc

8.5 INDIVIDUAL LIABILITY FOR BOWMAN CLAIMS

8.6 STANDARD OF PROOF AND DAMAGES

8.7 CONSTRUCTIVE DISCHARGE IN VIRGINIA
    8.701 In General
    8.702 Dowdy v. Bower
    8.703 Molina v. Summer Consultants, Inc
    8.704 Padilla v. Silver Diner
    8.705 Gochenour v. Beasley
    8.706 Barron v. NetVersant-Northern Virginia, Inc
    8.707 Lundy v. Cole Vision Corp
    8.708 Magallon v. Wireless Unlimited, Inc
    8.709 Fereol de Gastyne v. Entrust, Inc
    8.710 Case Evaluation

8.8 CONCLUSION

CHAPTER 9: EMPLOYMENT AGREEMENTS

9.1 INTRODUCTION

9.2 RIGHTS, RESPONSIBILITIES, AND PRINCIPAL
DEFENSES
    9.201 Essential Elements of Employment Contracts
    9.202 Certainty
    9.203 At-Will Employment
    9.204 Noncompete Clauses
    9.205 Oral Contracts
    9.206 Employee Manuals
    9.207 Implied Contracts
    9.208 Intentional Interference with Contractual Relations

9.3 STATUTE OF FRAUDS
    9.301 In General
    9.302 Performance Versus Termination
    9.303 Memorandum
    9.304 Equitable Estoppel

9.4 STATUTE OF LIMITATIONS

9.5 IMPOSSIBILITY

9.6 REMEDIES AND DAMAGES

CHAPTER 10: UNFAIR COMPETITION

10.1 INTRODUCTION

10.2 COVENANTS NOT TO COMPETE
    10.201 In General
    10.202 Factors Determining Enforceability
    10.203 Protection of Employer’s Interests
    10.204 Impact on Employee
    10.205 Impact on Public
    10.206 Rules of Construction
    10.207 Burden of Proof
    10.208 Breach by Employer Releases Covenant
    10.209 Consideration
    10.210 Assignment
    10.211 Relationships Other Than Employer-Employee

10.3 REMEDIES
    10.301 Injunctive Relief: State Court
    10.302 Injunctive Relief: Federal Court
    10.303 Damages
    10.304 Declaratory Judgment

10.4 CHOICE OF LAW

10.5 RESTRAINTS IMPOSED BY LAW
    10.501 In General
    10.502 Solicitation of Former Employer’s Customers
    10.503 Misuse of Confidential Information
    10.504 Statutory Conspiracy to Injure Business
    10.505 Common Law Conspiracy
    10.506 Tortious Interference with Contracts

10.6 THE VIRGINIA UNIFORM TRADE SECRETS ACT
    10.601 In General
    10.602 Customer Lists
    10.603 Novel Combination of Old Information
    10.604 Independent Discovery
    10.605 Readily Ascertainable Information
    10.606 Access to Other Information
    10.607 Maintaining Secrecy
    10.608 Misappropriation by Improper Means
    10.609 Noncompetitive Use
    10.610 Employer Liability
    10.611 Remedies
    10.612 Statute of Limitations

10.7 THE DEFEND TRADE SECRETS ACT
    10.701 Purpose and Operation of the Act
    10.702 Remedies

CHAPTER 11: TORT ACTIONS

11.1 INTRODUCTION

11.2 CONSPIRACY
    11.201 Common Law Conspiracy
    11.202 Statutory Conspiracy

11.3 FRAUD
    11.301 In General
    11.302 Actual Fraud
    11.303 Standard of Proof and Pleading Requirements
    11.304 Statute of Limitations
    11.305 Sea-Land Service, Inc. v. O’Neal
    11.306 Economic Loss Doctrine
    11.307 Source of Duty Rule
    11.308 Fraud Cannot Be Based on Contract

11.4 DEFAMATION
    11.401 Introduction
    11.402 General Principles
    11.403 Defamation Per Se
    11.404 Privilege
    11.405 Damages
    11.406 Procedural Issues

11.5 INFLICTION OF EMOTIONAL DISTRESS
    11.501 In General
    11.502 Negligent Infliction of Emotional Distress
    11.503 Intentional Infliction of Emotional Distress
    11.504 Statute of Limitations
    11.505 Workers’ Compensation Act as Bar

11.6 EMPLOYER LIABILITY FOR EMPLOYEES’ ACTIONS
    11.601 Overview
    11.602 Respondeat Superior
    11.603 Negligent Hiring or Retention
    11.604 No Claim for Negligent Supervision
    11.605 Basis of Liability
    11.606 Nature of the Plaintiff’s Injury
    11.607 Potential Claims of Immunity

11.7 ASSAULT AND BATTERY
    11.701 In General
    11.702 Elements of Claim
    11.703 Sexual Assault
    11.704 Workers’ Compensation Act as Bar
    11.705 Respondeat Superior
    11.706 Common Carriers
    11.707 Statute of Limitations
    11.708 Damages

11.8 TORTIOUS INTERFERENCE
    11.801 Interference with Contract Rights
    11.802 Interference with At-Will Relationships
    11.803 Interference with Contract Expectancy
    11.804 Interference with Prospective Business or Economic
    Advantage
    11.805 Privilege Issues
    11.806 Interference by Co-Employees
    11.807 Statute of Limitations

11.9 OPPRESSION OF MINORITY SHAREHOLDERS
    11.901 In General
    11.902 Elements
    11.903 Burden of Proof
    11.904 Parties
    11.905 Damages

INDEX

Volume II


CHAPTER 12: WAGE AND HOUR LAW

12.1 INTRODUCTION
    12.101 Scope of Chapter
    12.102 Federal Wage and Hour Law
    12.103 State Wage and Hour Laws
    12.104 State Wage Payment Laws
    12.105 Local “Living Wage” Laws

12.2 THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT—RIGHTS,
    RESPONSIBILITIES, AND PRINCIPAL DEFENSES
    12.201 Scope of Coverage
    12.202 Exceptions to Coverage
    12.203 Minimum Wage
    12.204 Overtime Compensation
    12.205 Equal Pay Act
    12.206 Child Labor
    12.207 Retaliation
    12.208 Time Worked
    12.209 Workweek
    12.210 Recordkeeping and Posting
    12.211 Exemptions from Minimum Wage and Overtime
    12.212 Examples of Common Problems for Employers

12.3 WAGE AND HOUR INVESTIGATIONS AND
ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES
    12.301 The Enforcement Agency
    12.302 The Audit
    12.303 Request for DOL Opinion
    12.304 Civil Litigation
    12.305 Practical Litigation Considerations

12.4 REMEDIES
    12.401 Employee Claims
    12.402 Civil Monetary Penalties
    12.403 Injunctive Relief
    12.404 Criminal Penalties

APPENDIX 12-1: QUESTIONNAIRE FOR POTENTIAL PLAINTIFF
IN FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT CASE

CHAPTER 13: PRIVACY, TESTING, INVESTIGATIONS, AND SEARCHES

13.1 INTRODUCTION

13.2 INVESTIGATIONS IN THE HIRING PROCESS
    13.201 Obtaining Information from Applicants and Former
    Employers
    13.202 Background Investigations by Outside Firms
    13.203 Arrest and Conviction Records
    13.204 Applicants with Prior Military Service
    13.205 The Interview

13.3 TESTING APPLICANTS AND EMPLOYEES
    13.301 Medical Examinations and Inquiries
    13.302 Drug Tests
    13.303 Polygraph Tests
    13.304 Paper and Pencil Honesty Tests

13.4 EMPLOYEE SURVEILLANCE AND SEARCHES
    13.401 Surveillance
    13.402 Searches

13.5 MONITORING EMPLOYEE COMMUNICATIONS
    13.501 In General
    13.502 The Federal Wiretap Statute
    13.503 State Laws
    13.504 Surreptitious Audiotaping or Videotaping of
    Conversations
    13.505 Rules Prohibiting Workplace Recordings
    13.506 Computer Monitoring
    13.507 Accessing Computer Files
    13.508 Voice Mail
    13.509 Unsolicited Email
    13.510 Opening Mail
    13.511 Employer-Issued Electronic Devices
    13.512 Social Media
    13.513 Practical Guidelines for Employers

13.6 CLAIMS ARISING FROM FAILURE TO INVESTIGATE
    13.601 Negligent Hiring
    13.602 Negligent Retention
    13.603 Negligent Supervision

13.7 CLAIMS ARISING FROM EMPLOYER INVESTIGATIONS
    13.701 Implications of Negligent Investigation
    13.702 Breach of Contract
    13.703 Disparate Treatment
    13.704 Defamation Claims Against Employer
    13.705 Intentional Infliction of Emotional Distress
    13.706 Procedure
    13.707 Damages and Remedies

13.8 PRIVACY OF PLANS PROVIDING HEALTH-RELATED
BENEFITS
    13.801 What Is HIPAA?
    13.802 To Whom Does HIPAA Apply?
    13.803 Implementing HIPAA’s Privacy Rules

CHAPTER 14: EMPLOYMENT OF FOREIGN NATIONALS

14.1 INTRODUCTION

14.2 DEFINITIONS
    14.201 Immigrant
    14.202 Nonimmigrant
    14.203 Immigration Status
    14.204 Visa
    14.205 Passport
    14.206 Form I-94
    14.207 Change of Status
    14.208 Adjustment of Status
    14.209 Employment Authorization Document
    14.210 Form I-9
    .211 E-Verify

14.3 GOVERNMENTAL ENTITIES INVOLVED IN THE
IMMIGRATION PROCESS
    14.301 In General
    14.302 Department of Homeland Security
    14.303 Department of State
    14.304 Department of Labor

14.4 NONIMMIGRANT VISAS
    14.401 In General
    14.402 Visitors for Business or Pleasure—The B Visa
    14.403 Visa Waiver Program/ESTA
    14.404 Intracompany Transfers—The L Visa
    14.405 Specialty Occupations—The H-1B Visa
    14.406 The TN Visa
    14.407 Extraordinary Ability Visas—The O-1 Visa
    14.408 E-1 Treaty Trader and E-2 Treaty Investor Visas
    14.409 Certain Specialty-Occupation Professionals from
    Australia: The E-3 Visa
    14.410 Trainees—The H-3 Visa
    14.411 Exchange Visitor Program—The J Visa
    14.412 Students—The F Visa

14.5 IMMIGRANT VISAS
    14.501 In General
    14.502 Employment-Based Immigration Categories
    14.503 Three-Step Permanent Residence Process

CHAPTER 15: FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT

15.1 INTRODUCTION

15.2 COVERAGE
    15.201 In General
    15.202 Employers

15.3 EMPLOYEES ELIGIBLE FOR LEAVE
    15.301 In General
    15.302 “Employed by the Employer for at Least 12 Months”
    15.303 Hours of Service
    15.304 “50 Employees . . . Within 75 Miles”

15.4 EMPLOYEES’ RIGHTS
    15.401 Events That Trigger Entitlement to FMLA Leave
    15.402 Definitions
    15.403 Length and Timing of FMLA Leave
    15.404 When Paid Leave May Be Substituted for FMLA
    Leave
    15.405 Employee’s Right to Return to Work After FMLA
    Leave
    15.406 Employee’s Rights upon Return to Work

15.5 NOTICES
    15.501 Employer’s Required Notices
    15.502 Employee’s Notice of Need for FMLA Leave

15.6 REQUIREMENTS FOR HEALTH BENEFIT
CONTINUATION
    15.601 Employer Must Maintain Coverage
    15.602 When FMLA Leave Is Over
    15.603 Recovering Employee’s Portion of Health Premiums
    After Leave
    15.604 Recovering Employer’s Portion of Health Premiums
    After Leave
    15.605 Definition of “Returned to Work”

15.7 OTHER BENEFITS THAT MUST BE CONTINUED

15.8 MEDICAL CERTIFICATIONS
    15.801 Employer’s Right to Require Medical Certification
    15.802 Employer’s Right to Require Certification of Fitness

15.9 EMPLOYER RECORDKEEPING
    15.901 In General
    15.902 Required Records
    15.903 When Records Are Not Required

15.10 PROVISIONS RELATING TO AIRLINE FLIGHT CREW
EMPLOYEES
    15.1001 In General
    15.1002 Hours of Service Eligibility Requirement
    15.1003 Method of Calculation of Leave
    15.1004 Recordkeeping Requirements
    15.1005 Flight Crew Employees and USERRA

15.11 RELEASE OF CLAIMS

15.12 FILING A COMPLAINT OR SUIT

15.13 REMEDIES AND DAMAGES

CHAPTER 16: UNIFORMED SERVICES EMPLOYMENT AND
REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS ACT OF 1994


16.1 INTRODUCTION
    16.101 Background
    16.102 Purpose
    16.103 Covered Services
    16.104 Covered Employers
    16.105 Covered Employees

16.2 RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES
    16.201 In General
    16.202 Discrimination
    16.203 Retaliation
    16.204 Accommodation
    16.205 Burden of Proof
    16.206 Notice to Employees

16.3 NOTICE TO EMPLOYER

16.4 BENEFITS DURING LEAVE
    16.401 In General
    16.402 Interaction of USERRA with the Family and Medical
    Leave Act
    16.403 Health Benefits
    16.404 Accumulated Paid Leave

16.5 REEMPLOYMENT
    16.501 In General
    16.502 Unreasonableness or Impossibility
    16.503 Undue Hardship
    16.504 Brief, Nonrecurrent Period of Employment
    16.505 Five-Year Limit
    16.506 Dishonorable Discharge
    16.507 Documentation

16.6 TIME FOR REPORTING TO OR APPLYING FOR WORK
    16.601 In General
    16.602 Military Service Less Than 31 Days
    16.603 Military Service More Than 30 Days but Less Than
    181 Days
    16.604 Military Service More Than 180 Days
    16.605 Extension of Time for Convalescence
    16.606 Effect of Untimely Reporting or Application

16.7 POSITION UPON REEMPLOYMENT
    16.701 In General
    16.702 Military Service Less Than 91 Days
    16.703 Military Service More Than 90 Days
    16.704 Two or More Persons Entitled to Reemployment in
    Same Position
    16.705 Disabled Persons
    16.706 Unqualified Persons

16.8 BENEFITS ON REEMPLOYMENT
    16.801 Prior Law
    16.802 Seniority and Related Benefits
    16.803 Pension and Retirement Benefits
    16.804 Health Benefits
    16.805 Retention Rights

16.9 SEVERANCE AGREEMENTS

16.10 ENFORCEMENT AND PENALTIES

16.11 VETERANS’ BENEFITS IMPROVEMENT ACT OF 2008

16.12 VETERANS’ BENEFITS ACT OF 2010

16.13 VOW TO HIRE HEROES ACT OF 2011

CHAPTER 17: OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH LAW

17.1 INTRODUCTION
    17.101 Federal Regulatory Framework
    17.102 State Enforcement

17.2 EMPLOYERS’ RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES
    17.201 Employers’ Primary Obligations
    17.202 Employers’ Other Duties

17.3 EMPLOYEES’ RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES
    17.301 Compliance with Regulations
    17.302 Nondiscrimination Rules
    17.303 Work Refusals

17.4 INSPECTION PRIORITIES AND PROCEDURES
    17.401 Authority to Conduct Inspections and Prioritization
    17.402 Procedures During Inspection
    17.403 Warrants

17.5 CITATION PROCEDURES AND DEFENSES
    17.501 Elements of an OSHA Violation
    17.502 Characterization of the Violation
    17.503 Penalties
    17.504 Defenses

17.6 CONTESTING AND LITIGATING CITATIONS
    17.601 Contesting
    17.602 Time Limits
    17.603 Notice of Contest; Petition to Modify Abatement
    Period
    17.604 Litigation
    17.605 Discrimination Cases

CHAPTER 18: COBRA—CONTINUATION COVERAGE
REQUIREMENTS OF EMPLOYEE HEALTH
CARE PLANS


18.1 INTRODUCTION
    18.101 Purpose
    18.102 Availability and Premiums
    18.103 Other Federal Health Care Legislation and Rules

18.2 SCOPE OF COVERAGE
    18.201 Health Care Continuation Coverage
    18.202 Qualifying Events
    18.203 Qualified Beneficiaries
    18.204 Final Treasury Regulations
    18.205 COBRA Premium and the 2009 COBRA Subsidy
    
18.3 RIGHTS, RESPONSIBILITIES, AND PRINCIPAL
DEFENSES
    18.301 Notice to New Employees
    18.302 Election Rights
    18.303 Employer’s Duty to Notify Administrator
    18.304 Beneficiary’s Duty to Notify Administrator
    18.305 Notice of Right of Election
    18.306 Mailing COBRA Notices and Election Forms
    18.307 Incapacitated Former Employees
    18.308 Length of Continuation Coverage
    18.309 Mergers and Acquisitions
    18.310 “Other Coverage” Rule
    18.311 Equitable Estoppel
    18.312 Fraudulent Claims
    18.313 Preemption of State Laws
    18.314 COBRA and the Family and Medical Leave Act
    18.315 Notice if COBRA Coverage Is Unavailable
    18.316 Notice if COBRA Coverage Is Terminated
    18.317 Trade Adjustment Assistance Benefits

18.4 PROCEDURAL ISSUES
    18.401 In General
    18.402 Evidence
    18.403 Exhaustion of Administrative Remedies
    18.404 Sovereign Immunity
    18.405 Preemption
    18.406 Statute of Limitations

18.5 REMEDIES AND DAMAGES
    18.501 Excise Tax
    18.502 Participant Enforcement Suits
    18.503 Penalties for Notice Violations
    18.504 Damages
    18.505 Attorney Fees
    18.506 Other Penalties
    18.507 State and Local Government Plans

APPENDIX 18-1: MODEL COBRA CONTINUATION COVERAGE
GENERAL NOTICE

APPENDIX 18-2: MODEL COBRA CONTINUATION COVERAGE
ELECTION NOTICE

CHAPTER 19: ERISA LITIGATION

19.1 INTRODUCTION
    19.101 Overview
    19.102 Administrative Agencies
    19.103 Coverage
    19.104 Types of Plans
    19.105 Fiduciaries
    19.106 Employees
    19.107 Plans
    19.108 Plan Sponsors
    19.109 Plan Administrators
    19.110 Participants
    19.111 Beneficiaries
    19.112 Multiemployer Plans
    19.113 Affordable Care Act
    19.114 Same Sex Marriage and Employee Benefits

19.2 RIGHTS, RESPONSIBILITIES, AND PRINCIPAL
DEFENSES
    19.201 Overview
    19.202 Right to the Plan Documents
    19.203 Summary Plan Description
    19.204 Civil Enforcement Provisions
    19.205 Preemption
    19.206 Benefit Claims
    19.207 Fiduciary Breach Claims
    19.208 Equitable Relief Claims
    19.209 Procedural Claims
    19.210 Federal Common Law Claims
    19.211 Retaliation Claims
    19.212 Severance Claims
    19.213 Estoppel Claims
    19.214 Subrogation Claims
    19.215 Arbitration
    19.216 Claims for Retiree Medical Benefits
    19.217 Standard of Judicial Review
    19.218 Cash Balance Plans
    19.219 Blackout Periods
    19.220 Fiduciary Duties Where Employer Stock Is a
    Retirement Plan Investment Option
    19.221 Anti-Cutback Rule
    19.222 Fiduciary Exception to the Attorney-Client Privilege

19.3 PROCEDURAL ISSUES
    19.301 Exclusivity of Remedy
    19.302 Standing
    19.303 Jurisdiction
    19.304 Venue
    19.305 Service of Process
    19.306 Removal
    19.307 Exhaustion of Administrative Remedies
    19.308 Statute of Limitations
    19.309 Right to Jury Trial
    19.310 Judicial Review
    19.311 Multiemployer Plan Contributions and Withdrawal
    Liability

19.4 REMEDIES AND DAMAGES
    19.401 In General
    19.402 Plan Administrator’s Failure to Provide Information:
    Section 502(c)(1)
    19.403 Enforcing Terms of Plan: Section 502(a)(1)(B)
    19.404 Breach of Fiduciary Duty: Section 502(a)(2)
    19.405 Enforcing ERISA Provisions: Section 502(a)(3)
    19.406 Interference with Protected Rights: Section 510
    19.407 Attorney Fees
    19.408 Injunctive Relief

CHAPTER 20: THE NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS ACT

20.1 INTRODUCTION
    20.101 In General
    20.102 History
    20.103 Scope of the NLRA
    20.104 Jurisdictional Requirements
    20.105 Preemption

20.2 RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF EMPLOYEES,
EMPLOYERS, AND UNIONS
    20.201 Protected Activities
    20.202 Union Organizing
    20.203 Determining the Bargaining Unit
    20.204 The Election Campaign
    20.205 Access to Employer’s Property
    20.206 Duty to Bargain in Good Faith
    20.207 Purchases, Acquisitions, and the Obligation to
    Recognize the Union
    20.208 Unfair Labor Practice Charges
    20.209 Decertification
    20.210 Polling

20.3 PROCEDURE
    20.301 The National Labor Relations Board
    20.302 General Counsel
    20.303 Investigation and Hearing
    20.304 Arbitration

20.4 REMEDIES
    20.401 Enforcement
    20.402 Bargaining Orders
    
20.5 CONCLUSION

CHAPTER 21: PUBLIC SECTOR ISSUES

21.1 EMPLOYMENT DISCRIMINATION GENERALLY
    21.101 Introduction
    21.102 First Amendment Free Speech Protection

21.2 CIVIL RIGHTS STATUTES
    21.201 42 U.S.C. § 1981
    21.202 42 U.S.C. § 1983
    21.203 Eleventh Amendment Immunity

21.3 OTHER FEDERAL STATUTES AND REGULATIONS
    21.301 Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964
    21.302 Age Discrimination in Employment Act
    21.303 Americans with Disabilities Act
    21.304 Equal Pay Act
    21.305 Virginia Fraud Against Taxpayers Act
    
21.4 STATE-MANDATED GRIEVANCE PROCEDURE
    21.401 Introduction
    21.402 Procedural Requirements
    21.403 Law Enforcement Exception
    21.404 Employees of Department of Corrections and
    Department of Juvenile Justice
    21.405 Employees of Local Constitutional Officers

21.5 LABOR RELATIONS AND CONCERTED ACTIVITY
    21.501 Collective Bargaining
    21.502 Union Membership
    21.503 Labor Disputes and Strikes

21.6 PRIVACY CONSIDERATIONS
    21.601 Search of Persons and Property
    21.602 Polygraph Testing
    21.603 Controlled Substance and Alcohol Testing

21.7 “BAN THE BOX” HIRING POLICY

CHAPTER 22: UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION

22.1 INTRODUCTION

22.2 RIGHTS, RESPONSIBILITIES, AND PRINCIPAL
DEFENSES
    22.201 Initial Application for Benefits
    22.202 Initial Determination
    22.203 Disqualification from Receiving Benefits
    22.204 Discharge Due to Misconduct in Connection with
    Work
    22.205 Refusing Suitable Work
    22.206 False Statements
    22.207 Claimant in Prison
    22.208 Severance Pay
    22.209 Overpayment of Benefits
    22.210 Defenses for Employers
    
22.3 PROCEDURES FOR ADJUDICATING CLAIMS
    22.301 Deputy Level
    22.302 Appeals Examiner Level
    22.303 Commission Level
    22.304 Judicial Review of VEC Determinations
    22.305 Other Procedural Matters
    22.306 Timeliness of VEC Appeal
    22.307 Postponement of Appeal Hearings
    22.308 Continuances
    22.309 Withdrawal of Appeal
    22.310 Attorney Fees

22.4 REMEDIES AND DAMAGES
    22.401 Benefits Available to Claimants
    22.402 Benefit Charges
    22.403 Computation of Employer Tax Rate
    22.404 VEC Publications

TABLE OF AUTHORITIES

INDEX


Authors

EDITORS:

R. Mark Dare

Thomas M. Winn, III

AUTHORS:


Ian P. Band

Ryan M. Bates

Elaine Charlson Bredehoft

Victor O. Cardwell

Bernard J. DiMuro

Brooks A. Duncan

Michael P. Gardner

Leigh T. Hansson

Joon Hwang

Edward Lee Isler

Zachary A. Kitts

Elizabeth A. Lalik

Elizabeth G. Leavy

Gary S. Marshall

Timothy M. McConville

James P. McElligott, Jr.

Thomas P. Murphy

Charity M. Price

Kathleen Z. Quill

Merrell B. Renaud

Stephen W. Robinson

Dana L. Rust

Micah B. Schwartz

Daniel C. Summerlin, III

Lori H. Turner

Peter G. Vogel

Robert B. Wynne

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