The Law of Damages in Virginia

The Law of Damages in Virginia
Publication Date: 2008
Available Formats: Print (343 pages, looseleaf, 1 volume)
  Electronic (searchable PDF via flash drive, CD, or immediate download)
  Both Print and Electronic formats
  Individual chapters available for download
Product #: 888

Information

Content Highlights:
  • Personal Injury Damages for Bodily Injury
  • Personal Injury Damages for Non-Physical Injuries
  • Wrongful Death
  • Medical Malpractice
  • Workplace Damages
  • Injury to Property
  • Intellectual Property
  • Breach of Contract
  • Construction Contracts
  • Punitive Damages
  • Statutes and Rules Affecting Damages

Because the recovery of damages motivates much of civil litigation, it is vital that the practicing attorney realize the factors that determine the amount of recovery in a particular case. This handbook is designed as a resource to determine the elements of damages of primary concern to the Virginia practitioner.

Among the topics covered are how to evaluate a case for damages; when a judge can reduce or increase jury-awarded damages; in what cases punitive damages may be awarded; when you can get damages without proving any loss; how the “physical impact” rule limits damages for non-bodily injury; what statutory causes of action, state and federal, provide for specific damage awards; when future financial losses may be recovered; and what categories of damages are available for wrongful death and who may recover them.


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Table of Contents

CHAPTER LIST

1. Overview

2. Personal Injury Damages For Bodily Injury

3. Personal Injury Damages For Non-Physical Injuries

4. Wrongful Death

5. Medical Malpractice

6. Workplace Damages

7. Injury To Property

8. Intellectual Property

9. Breach Of Contract

10. Construction Contracts

11. Punitive Damages

12. Statutes And Rules Affecting Damages


CHAPTER 1: OVERVIEW  (back to top)

1.1 INTRODUCTION
      1.101 In General
      1.102 Initial Evaluation of a Case

1.2 TYPES OF DAMAGES
      1.201 In General
      1.202 Compensatory Damages
      1.203 Punitive Damages
      1.204 Liquidated Damages
      1.205 Excessive and Inadequate Verdicts

1.3 CALCULATING THE AMOUNT OF DAMAGES

1.4 BURDEN OF PROOF

CHAPTER 2: PERSONAL INJURY DAMAGES FOR BODILY INJURY  (back to top)

2.1 INTRODUCTION

2.2 PAIN, SUFFERING, AND MENTAL ANGUISH
      2.201 In General
      2.202 Future Pain and Suffering
      2.203 Physical Impact Rule

2.3 HUMILIATION AND EMBARRASSMENT RESULTING FROM DISFIGUREMENT AND DEFORMITY

2.4 INCONVENIENCE

2.5 MEDICAL AND RELATED EXPENSES
      2.501 In General
      2.502 Incurred Medical Expenses and the Collateral Source Rule
      2.503 Future Medical Expenses
      2.504 Infants' Medical Expenses

2.6 LOST EARNINGS

2.7 LOSS OF EARNING CAPACITY AND OF FUTURE EARNINGS

2.8 AGGRAVATION OF PRE-EXISTING INJURY

2.9 LOSS OF ENJOYMENT OF LIFE

CHAPTER 3: PERSONAL INJURY DAMAGES FOR NON-PHYSICAL INJURIES  (back to top)

3.1 INTRODUCTION

3.2 INFLICTION OF EMOTIONAL DISTRESS
      3.201 Introduction
      3.202 Exceptions
      3.203 Damages Recoverable
      3.204 Compensatory Damages
      3.205 Standard of Proof
      3.206 Duty to Minimize Damages

3.3 ABUSE OF PROCESS, MALICIOUS PROSECUTION, AND FALSE IMPRISONMENT
      3.301 Introduction
      3.302 Abuse of Process
      3.303 Malicious Prosecution
      3.304 False Imprisonment

3.4 TRESPASS
      3.401 Introduction
      3.402 Trespass by Willful Entry upon Land
      3.403 Trespass by Removal of Goods from Land
      3.404 Trespass by Discharge onto Property
      3.405 Trespass as Nuisance

3.5 FRAUD AND MISREPRESENTATION
      3.501 Introduction
      3.502 Compensatory Damages
      3.503 Punitive Damages

3.6 DEFAMATION
      3.601 Introduction
      3.602 Presumed Damages
      3.603 Compensatory Damages
      3.604 Punitive Damages
      3.605 Mitigation of Damages
      3.606 Remittitur
      3.607 Appellate Review

3.7 BAD FAITH REFUSAL TO HONOR CONTRACT
      3.701 Introduction
      3.702 Compensatory Damages
      3.703 Punitive Damages

3.8 FUTURE FINANCIAL LOSSES
      3.801 In General
      3.802 Future Earnings
      3.803 Future Profits
      3.804 Profits Versus Earnings
      3.805 Present Value as Affecting Damages

3.9 STATUTORY DAMAGES
      3.901 Injury to Reputation or Invasion of Privacy
      3.902 Trespass
      3.903 Fraud
      3.904 Bad Faith
      3.905 Civil Rights Violations
      3.906 Miscellaneous Statutory Damages

3.10 ATTORNEY FEES AND COSTS
      3.1001 Attorney Fees
      3.1002 Costs

CHAPTER 4: WRONGFUL DEATH  (back to top)

4.1 COMPENSATORY DAMAGES
      4.101 In General
      4.102 Pecuniary Losses
      4.103 Non-Pecuniary Losses

4.2 PUNITIVE DAMAGES

4.3 DISTRIBUTION OF THE AWARD
      4.301 In General
      4.302 Beneficiaries
      4.303 Distribution and Order of Payment

4.4 SETTLEMENT
      4.401 Settlement by Decedent Before Death
      4.402 Settlement by Personal Representative

4.5 LIENS AGAINST WRONGFUL DEATH CLAIMS

APPENDIX 4-1: SAMPLE WRONGFUL DEATH COMPLAINT

APPENDIX 4-2: SAMPLE WRONGFUL DEATH DISCOVERY TO DEFENDANT

APPENDIX 4-3: SAMPLE JURY INSTRUCTION: COMPENSATORY DAMAGES

APPENDIX 4-4: SAMPLE JURY INSTRUCTION: PUNITIVE
DAMAGES

APPENDIX 4-5: SAMPLE JURY INSTRUCTION: LIFE EXPECTANCY

APPENDIX 4-6: JURY VERDICT FORM

APPENDIX 4-7: SAMPLE PETITION AND ORDER FOR COURT APPROVAL OF WRONGFUL DEATH SETTLEMENT

CHAPTER 5: MEDICAL MALPRACTICE  (back to top)

5.1 ELEMENTS OF DAMAGES

5.2 STATUTORY CAP
      5.201. In General
      5.202 Punitive Damages
      5.203 Prejudgment Interest
      5.204 Constitutionality

5.3 STATUTES AFFECTING A CLAIM
      5.301 Charitable Hospitals
      5.302 Virginia Birth-Related Neurological Injury Compensation Act
      5.303 COBRA/EMTALA

CHAPTER 6: WORKPLACE DAMAGES  (back to top)

6.1 OVERVIEW

6.2 BREACH OF CONTRACT

6.3 WORKPLACE TORTS
      6.301 In General
      6.302 Infliction of Emotional Distress
      6.303 Defamation
      6.304 Assault and Battery

6.4 FEDERAL STATUTES
      6.401 Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964
      6.402 Other Civil Rights Laws
      6.403 Americans with Disabilities Act
      6.404 Rehabilitation Act of 1973
      6.405 Age Discrimination in Employment Act
      6.406 Equal Pay Act
      6.407 Fair Labor Standards Act
      6.408 Vietnam Era Veterans' Readjustment Assistance Act
      6.409 Uniformed Services Employment and Reemployment Rights Act
      6.410 Family and Medical Leave Act
      6.411 Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act
      6.412 United States Bankruptcy Code sec. 525(b)
      6.413 Davis-Bacon Act
      6.414 Service Contract Act
      6.415 Walsh-Healey Act
      6.416 Consumer Credit Protection Act
      6.417 Railway Labor Act
      6.418 Employee Polygraph Protection Act
      6.419 Drug-Free Workplace Act
      6.420 Immigration Reform and Control Act
      6.421 Occupational Safety and Health Act
      6.422 Employee Retirement Income Security Act

6.5 STATE STATUTES
      6.501 Virginians with Disabilities Act
      6.502 Virginia Human Rights Act
      6.503 Virginia Payment of Wage Law
      6.504 Virginia Garnishment and Wage Assignment Law
      6.505 Virginia Right to Work Law
      6.506 Virginia Workers' Compensation Act

CHAPTER 7: INJURY TO PROPERTY  (back to top)

7.1 PERSONAL PROPERTY
      7.101 Destroyed or Damaged Property
      7.102 Crops and Natural Resources
      7.103 Pets
      7.104 Converted Property
      7.105 Loss of Use
      7.106 Statutory Causes of Action

7.2 DAMAGE TO REAL PROPERTY
      7.201 Destroyed or Damaged Property
      7.202 Trespass
      7.203 Nuisance
      7.204 Slander of Title
      7.205 Statutory Causes of Action

CHAPTER 8: INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY  (back to top)

8.1 INTRODUCTION

8.2 COPYRIGHT DAMAGES
      8.201 Statutory Provision
      8.202 Actual Damages and Lost Profits
      8.203 Statutory Damages
      8.204 Attorney Fees and Costs
      8.205 Interest
      8.206 Punitive Damages
      8.207 Non-Monetary Remedies

8.3 TRADEMARK DAMAGES
      8.301 Introduction
      8.302 Statutory Provision
      8.303 Defendant's Profits
      8.304 Plaintiff's Damages
      8.305 Statutory Damages
      8.306 Attorney Fees
      8.307 Interest
      8.308 Punitive Damages
      8.309 Non-Monetary Remedies

8.4 PATENT DAMAGES
      8.401 Statutory Provision
      8.402 Compensatory Damages Generally
      8.403 Lost Profits
      8.404 Established Royalty
      8.405 Reasonable Royalty
      8.406 Enhancement of Damages
      8.407 Interest
      8.408 Attorney Fees
      8.409 Injunctions

8.5 TRADE SECRET MISAPPROPRIATION DAMAGES
      8.501 Statutory Provision
      8.502 Compensatory Damages
      8.503 Punitive Damages
      8.504 Attorney Fees
      8.505 Injunctive Relief
      8.506 Preemption

CHAPTER 9: BREACH OF CONTRACT  (back to top)

9.1 THE ECONOMIC LOSS RULE

9.2 PURPOSE OF COMPENSATORY DAMAGES
      9.201 In General
      9.202 The Uniform Commercial Code
      9.203 Quantifying Performance Lost
      9.204 Informing the Jury of the Amount Sought

9.3 STANDARDS FOR DETERMINING COMPENSATORY DAMAGES
      9.301 Plaintiff's Burden of Proof
      9.302 Intervening or Multiple Causes
      9.303 Direct Damages and Consequential Damages
      9.304 Function of Court and Jury
      9.305 The Uniform Commercial Code
      9.306 Incidental Damages
      9.307 Lost Profits
      9.308 Contracts for the Sale of Goods--Buyers
      9.309 Breach of Warranty
      9.310 "Lost Profits" Defined
      9.311 Loss of Goodwill
      9.312 Costs and Expenses of Suit
      9.313 Attorney Fees
      9.314 Interest

9.4 MITIGATION OF DAMAGES
      9.401 In General
      9.402 Doctrine of Avoidable Consequences

9.5 EXCESSIVE OR INADEQUATE DAMAGES AWARD
      9.501 Criteria
      9.502 Remedy

9.6 LIQUIDATED DAMAGES
      9.601 Purpose
      9.602 Coercion of Performance
      9.603 Uncertainty of Actual Damages
      9.604 Reasonableness of the Liquidated Sum
      9.605 Real Estate Leases
      9.606 Construction Contracts

9.7 LIMITATION OF LIABILITY

9.8 COLLATERAL SOURCE RULE

APPENDIX 9-1: SAMPLE EXPERT WITNESS AFFIDAVIT (ATTORNEY FEES)

CHAPTER 10: CONSTRUCTION CONTRACTS  (back to top)

10.1 INTRODUCTION

10.2 RECOVERY OF CONTRACT DAMAGES
      10.201 Express Contractual Damages
      10.202 AIA Contracts

10.3 OWNER'S COMMON LAW DAMAGES
      10.301 Damages for Defective or Incomplete Work
      10.302 Delay Damages

10.4 CONTRACTOR'S COMMON LAW DAMAGES
      10.401 In General
      10.402 Owner's Wrongful Interference with Contractor's Right to Finish Work
      10.403 Delay Damages

10.5 CONTRACTUAL LIMITATIONS ON LIABILITY
      10.501 "No Damage for Delay" Clauses
      10.502 Notice and Waiver Provisions
      10.503 Limitation on Liability Provisions

10.6 EQUITABLE DAMAGES
      10.601 Quantum Meruit and Quasi-Contract
      10.602 Promissory Estoppel

CHAPTER 11: PUNITIVE DAMAGES  (back to top)

11.1 SUBSTANTIVE ISSUES
      11.101 Underlying Policies
      11.102 Standards for Recovery
      11.103 Underlying Causes of Action
      11.104 Measure of Damages
      11.105 Persons Liable
      11.106 Taxation
      11.107 Insurability

11.2 PROCEDURAL ISSUES
      11.201 Evidence and Discovery
      11.202 Defensive Motions
      11.203 Appellate Review
      11.204 Constitutional Requirements

CHAPTER 12: STATUTES AND RULES AFFECTING DAMAGES  (back to top)

12.1 ADDITUR, REMITTITUR, AND INADEQUATE OR EXCESSIVE DAMAGES
      12.101 Statutory Authority
      12.102 Common Law
      12.103 Standard on Appeal

12.2 STATUTES ENHANCING OR LIMITING DAMAGES
      12.201 Introduction
      12.202 Workers' Compensation Claims
      12.203 Virginia Tort Claims Act
      12.204 Wrongful Death
      12.205 Invasion of Privacy
      12.206 Article 2 of the Uniform Commercial Code
      12.207 Article 4 of the Uniform Commercial Code
      12.208 Bad Checks
      12.209 Consumer Protection
      12.210 Bad-Faith Claims Against Insurance Carriers
      12.211 Unfair Discrimination and Hate Crimes
      12.212 Retaliatory Discharge
      12.213 Property Damage and Loss
      12.214 Virginia Residential Landlord Tenant Act
      12.215 Drunk Drivers
      12.216 Prejudgment Interest
      12.217 Collateral Source Rule
      12.218 Statutory Limitations on Damages

12.3 STATUTORY LIENS ON DAMAGE AWARDS
      12.301 Medicare and Medicaid
      12.302 ERISA Liens and Limitations
      12.303 Other Third-Party Liens
      12.304 State Government Liens

12.4 CONTRIBUTION, SUBROGATION, AND INDEMNITY
      12.401 Contribution
      12.402 Subrogation
      12.403 Indemnity

12.5 INTEREST, COSTS, AND ATTORNEY FEES
      12.501 Interest
      12.502 Costs
      12.503 Attorney Fees

TABLE OF AUTHORITIES

INDEX

Authors

Editors

Guilford D. Ware

W. Ryan Snow

Authors

Matthew W. Broughton

Robert E. Eicher

William M. Furr

Mary Jane Hall

Macel H. Janoschka

Scott B. Konikoff

Francis McQ. Lawrence

David L. Littel

Kathleen M. McCauley

Timothy M. McConville

Paul B. Merullo

Albert H. Poole

Mary M. H. Priddy

Rhonda Quagliana

Brian C. Riopelle

Thomas B. Shuttleworth, II

Thomas E. Spahn

Deborah C. Waters

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Download Ch. 2-5 Only “Personal Injury Damages for Bodily Injury,” “Personal Injury Damages For Non-Physical Injuries,” “Wrongful Death,” and “Medical Malpractice“ - $45
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