Debt Collection for Virginia Lawyers: A Systematic Approach

Debt Collection for Virginia Lawyers
Publication Date: 2016
Electronic Forms: 188
Available Formats: Print (1,297 pages, softcover, 2 volumes)
  Electronic (searchable PDF via flash drive, CD, or immediate download)
  Both Print and Electronic formats
Product #: 857

Information

Content Highlights:

  • Overview of a Collection Practice
  • The Collection Practice System
  • Receipt of a Claim
  • Financial Recordkeeping, Client Accounting, Escrow Accounts, and Fees
  • Fair Debt Collection Practices Act
  • Improving the Client’s Position
  • Suit
  • Executions on Judgments
  • Attachments
  • Real Property Foreclosures
  • Memorandum of Lis Pendens
  • Mechanics’ Liens

“The book is important because it is the only book of its kind. It is written both from the point of view of attorneys and judges. It answers virtually every question that could be asked about any area of collection law. No other text has such a wealth of case citations from federal courts at all levels, as well as state courts, including extensive discussion of relevant circuit court decisions. Armed with this text, an attorney should be able to form the best available argument on every legal issue which has ever been encountered by the authors in practice, or by the Judge from the bench.”
- Hon. Robert A. Pustilnik, co-author

This is truly a practice deskbook. Material is presented in terms of specific actions the attorney or client can take. The forms that accompany the text provide the basis for actual court filings and other communications needed to serve your clients.

This 2016 edition is updated with coverage through the 2015 session of the General Assembly, as well as case law and federal law.


New Multi-Book Discount. Buy ANY 2 books and save 20%, 3 books and save 30%, 4 or more and save 40%. Use coupon code BUYMORE.
Government Attorney? Receive a 30% discount on publications, and a 50% discount on most seminars.
New Virginia Lawyer? (less than three years) Receive a 25% discount on publications and most seminars.


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Table of Contents

CHAPTER LIST

1. Overview of a Collection Practice and The Collection Practice System

2. Receipt of a Claim

3. Financial Recordkeeping, Client Accounting, Escrow Accounts, and Fees

4. Fair Debt Collection Practices Act

5. Gathering Information

6. Improving the Client’s Position

7. Suit

8. Executions on Judgments

9. Attachments

10. Real Property Foreclosures

11. Memorandum of Lis Pendens

12. Mechanics’ Liens

13. Other Liens

14. Bankruptcy Considerations


CHAPTER 1: OVERVIEW OF A COLLECTION PRACTICE AND THE COLLECTION PRACTICE SYSTEM

1.1 INTRODUCTION
    1.101 Purpose of a Collection Practice System
    1.102 Attorney Time
    1.103 Expenses
    1.104 Non-Attorney Staff
    1.105 Debtor Index and File Numbers
    1.106 Tickler System

1.2 DEALING WITH CLIENTS
    1.201 Initial Meeting or Telephone Interview
    1.202 Attorney-Client Communication
    1.203 Settlements
    1.204 Obtaining Information from the Client
    1.205 Making Payment Arrangements with the Debtor

1.3 DEALING WITH DEBTORS
    1.301 Staff’s Ability to Handle Contacts with Debtors
    1.302 Conduct Toward the Debtor

1.4 EXPANSION OF A PRACTICE
    1.401 Use of Non-Attorney Staff
    1.402 Economy of Time

1.5 DEFENSIVE LAW PRACTICE
    1.501 Documentation
    1.502 Dealing with the Courts
    1.503 Ethical Considerations

1.6 DEVELOPING A COLLECTION SYSTEM
    1.601 Beginning a Collection Practice
    1.602 Use of Non-Attorney Staff
    1.603 Summary of a Collection System
    1.604 Filing System
    1.605 Index System
    1.606 Claim Acknowledgment
    1.607 Sending Demand
    1.608 Tickler System
    1.609 Time and Cost

1.7 LITIGATION AND EXECUTION SYSTEM
    1.701 Attorney Time
    1.702 Preparation by Non-Attorney Staff
    1.703 Applications for Warrants
    1.704 Motions for Judgment
    1.705 Bills of Particulars
    1.706 Recording Judgments
    1.707 Executions

1.8 INFORMATION-GATHERING SYSTEM

1.9 BOOKKEEPING AND REMITTING SYSTEM
    1.901 Maintaining an Escrow Account
    1.902 Clients for Whom Monthly Statements Are Kept
    1.903 Clients for Whom Monthly Statements Are Not Kept
    1.904 Rules for Escrow Accounts

CHAPTER 2: RECEIPT OF A CLAIM

2.1 PRELIMINARY CONSIDERATIONS
    2.101 Conflicts of Interest
    2.102 Statutes of Limitations
    2.103 Location or Venue
    2.104 Kind and Quality of Claim
    2.105 Amount of Claim
    2.106 Commercial Versus Retail Claim
    2.107 Nature of Claim
    2.108 Amount to Claim for Client
    2.109 Unreasonable Clients
    2.110 Fee Arrangements

2.2 OPENING A FILE
    2.201 In General
    2.202 File Covers

2.3 ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF CLAIMS
    2.301 In General
    2.302 Types of Acknowledgments
    2.303 Unusual Situations
    2.304 Rejected Claims
    2.305 Fair Debt Collection Practices Act Review

2.4 SENDING A DEMAND LETTER
    2.401 In General
    2.402 Commercial Demand and Follow-Up
    2.403 Retail Demand and Follow-Up
    2.404 Returned Demand Letters
    2.405 Special Notices

2.5 DEBTOR’S RESPONSE
    2.501 In General
    2.502 Debtor’s Direct Response
    2.503 Obtaining Note or Waiver of Statute of Limitations
    2.504 Debtor’s Complaints or Defenses

2.6 OBTAINING AUTHORIZATION TO SUE
    2.601 In General
    2.602 Retail Matters
    2.603 Commercial Matters
    2.604 Content of Reports to Client

APPENDIX 2-1: WAIVER OF STATUTE OF LIMITATIONS

APPENDIX 2-2: COMMERCIAL DEMAND LETTER

APPENDIX 2-3: RETAIL DEMAND LETTER

APPENDIX 2-4: ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF RETAIL CLAIM WITH RATE CHANGE

APPENDIX 2-5: ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF COMMERCIAL CLAIM WITH RATE CHANGE

APPENDIX 2-6: UNAUTHORIZED PRACTICE RULE 3—COLLECTION AGENCIES

APPENDIX 2-7: RETAIL CLAIM JACKET

APPENDIX 2-8: RETAIL CLAIM JACKET

APPENDIX 2-9: COMMERCIAL CLAIM JACKET

APPENDIX 2-10: ACKNOWLEDGMENT LETTER AND REPORT

APPENDIX 2-11: ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF FORWARDED RETAIL CLAIM WITH RATE CHANGE

APPENDIX 2-12: CLAIM ACKNOWLEDGMENT LETTER REQUESTING INFORMATION ABOUT CLAIM

APPENDIX 2-13: RETURN OF CLAIM LETTER

APPENDIX 2-14: LETTER CLOSING FILE BECAUSE OF INSUFFICIENT DOCUMENTATION

APPENDIX 2-15: EXAMPLE OF INFORMATION TO BE NOTED IN THE FILE

APPENDIX 2-16: INITIAL REPORT TO FORWARDER ON RETAIL CLAIM

APPENDIX 2-17: INITIAL REPORT TO FORWARDER ON COMMERCIAL CLAIM

APPENDIX 2-18: INITIAL REPORT TO FORWARDER ON COMMERCIAL CLAIM

APPENDIX 2-19: INITIAL REPORT TO FORWARDER ON CONTESTED COMMERCIAL CLAIM

APPENDIX 2-20: INFORMATION REQUEST TO STATE CORPORATION COMMISSION

APPENDIX 2-21: INFORMATION REQUEST TO BUSINESS LICENSE BUREAU

APPENDIX 2-22: INITIAL REPORT TO FORWARDER ON COMMERCIAL CLAIM CITING STATUTE OF LIMITATIONS

APPENDIX 2-23: LETTER CLOSING FILE AND RETURNING CLAIMS BECAUSE OF CLIENT’S LACK OF RESPONSE

CHAPTER 3: FINANCIAL RECORDKEEPING, CLIENT ACCOUNTING, ESCROW ACCOUNTS, AND FEES

3.1 LOCATION OF RECORDS

3.2 ADVANCEMENT OF COSTS

3.3 ESCROW RECORDS

3.4 MONTHLY STATEMENTS

3.5 TIMING OF REMITTANCES AND MONTHLY STATEMENTS

3.6 ATTORNEY FEES

3.7 SUIT FEES

APPENDIX 3-1: FILE COVER WITH FINANCIAL ENTRY

APPENDIX 3-2: REMITTANCE CHECK

APPENDIX 3-3: RETAIL CLIENT FINANCIAL SHEET

CHAPTER 4: FAIR DEBT COLLECTION PRACTICES ACT

4.1 IN GENERAL

4.2 RESEARCH MATERIALS AND PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATIONS

4.3 NATURE OF THE FAIR DEBT COLLECTION PRACTICES ACT
    4.301 Congressional Purpose
    4.302 Applicability to Attorneys
    4.303 Exception for Formal Pleadings
    4.304 Initial Communication
    4.305 Applicability Limited to “Consumer” Debt
    4.306 Applicability to Particular Types of Debts
    4.307 Applicability Limited to “Debt Collectors”
    4.308 Applicability to Subsequent Debt Collectors
    4.309 Applicability to Litigation
    4.310 Applicability to Attorneys

4.4 VIOLATIONS OF THE FDCPA
    4.401 Communications
    4.402 Harassment or Abuse
    4.403 False or Misleading Representations
    4.404 Unfair Practices
    4.405 Application of Payments
    4.406 Venue

4.5 REMEDIES
    4.501 Civil Liability
    4.502 Administrative Enforcement
    4.503 Equitable Relief
    4.504 Setoff
    4.505 Jurisdiction
    4.506 Standing
    4.507 Right to Jury Trial
    4.508 Statute of Limitations
.
4.6 DEFENSES
    4.601 “Bona Fide Error”
    4.602 “Good Faith Reliance”
    
4.7 BANKRUPTCY CASES
    4.701 Applicability of the FDCPA in Bankruptcy Cases
    4.702 Proofs of Claim
    4.703 Property of the Estate
    4.704 Standing of the Trustee or Debtor in Possession
    4.705 Jurisdiction
    4.706 Statute of Limitations
    4.707 Abandonment
    4.708 Effect of Closing the Case
    4.709 Post-Discharge Collection Efforts

APPENDIX 4-1: CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE

APPENDIX 4-2: FDCPA NOTICE

APPENDIX 4-3: COVER LETTER

APPENDIX 4-4: “SAFE HARBOR” LETTER

CHAPTER 5: GATHERING INFORMATION

5.1 INTRODUCTION

5.2 CLIENT’S RECORDS

5.3 OFFICE LOCATION

5.4 CONTACT WITH DEBTOR BEFORE SUIT IS FILED
    5.401 Written Correspondence
    5.402 Telephone Contact

5.5 CONTACT WITH DEBTOR AFTER SUIT IS FILED

5.6 INFORMATION FROM BANKS
    5.601 Debtor’s Check
    5.602 Direct Inquiries
    5.603 Locating a Business’ Bank

5.7 INFORMATION FROM THE DEPARTMENT OF MOTOR VEHICLES
    5.701 In Virginia
    5.702 In Other States

5.8 PUBLIC RECORDS

5.9 INFORMATION FROM MORTGAGE COMPANIES, LIENHOLDERS, AND OTHER CREDITORS

5.10 INFORMATION FROM CREDIT APPLICATIONS

5.11 INFORMATION FROM THE POST OFFICE

5.12 INFORMATION FROM EMPLOYER OR FORMER EMPLOYER

5.13 INVESTIGATORS

5.14 THE INTERNET, SOFTWARE, AND PRINT SOURCES

5.15 INFORMATION FROM MILITARY AUTHORITIES

5.16 INFORMATION FROM OTHER PEOPLE
    5.1601 Neighbors
    5.1602 Former or Estranged Spouse and Cosigners
    5.1603 Former Co-Workers
    5.1604 Sheriffs and Court Clerks

5.17 POST-JUDGMENT INTERROGATORIES
    5.1701 Statutory Authority
    5.1702 Statutory Procedure
    5.1703 Dealing with Debtors Who Do Not Appear
    5.1704 The Hearing
    5.1705 Payments or Arrangements Before Hearing
    5.1706 No-Service Returns
    5.1707 Effect of Bankruptcy on Debtor Interrogatories

APPENDIX 5-1: LETTER TO BANK REQUESTING PAYOFF OF LIEN ON VEHICLE

APPENDIX 5-2: DMV REQUEST FOR VEHICLE INFORMATION FORM

APPENDIX 5-3: LETTER TO DEBTOR AT NEW LOCATION IN ANOTHER STATE

APPENDIX 5-4: LETTER TO COMMISSIONER OF REVENUE

APPENDIX 5-5: LETTER TO POSTMASTER

APPENDIX 5-6: REQUEST FOR CHANGE OF ADDRESS OR BOXHOLDER INFORMATION

APPENDIX 5-7: LETTER TO SHERIFF REQUESTING SECOND SERVICE OF PROCESS

APPENDIX 5-8: LETTER TO REPORTED EMPLOYER OF DEBTOR ..... 209

APPENDIX 5-9: LETTER TO DEBTOR CONCERNING GARNISHMENT

APPENDIX 5-10: LETTER TO NONRESIDENT DEBTOR CONCERNING SUIT TO ENFORCE JUDGMENT

APPENDIX 5-11: SUMMONS TO ANSWER INTERROGATORIES (FORM DC-440)

APPENDIX 5-12: LETTER TO DEBTOR CONCERNING FAILURE TO APPEAR BEFORE THE COMMISSIONER

APPENDIX 5-13: CAPIAS

APPENDIX 5-14: LETTER TO SHERIFF REQUESTING THE ARREST OF DEFENDANT

APPENDIX 5-15: LETTER TO COMMISSIONER REQUESTING CANCELLATION OF HEARING

APPENDIX 5-16: LETTER TO COMMISSIONER REQUESTING CONTINUANCE

CHAPTER 6: IMPROVING THE CLIENT’S POSITION

6.1 INTRODUCTION

6.2 BEFORE THE CLAIM GOES TO THE ATTORNEY

6.3 DURING CONTACT WITH THE DEBTOR IN DISPUTED MATTERS

6.4 PAYMENTS BY DEBTOR TENDERED AS “PAYMENT IN FULL”

6.5 NOTE EVIDENCING AN OPEN ACCOUNT OR PAYMENT ON AN OPEN ACCOUNT

6.6 AFTER SUIT HAS BEEN FILED

6.7 OBTAINING JUDGMENT WHEN DEBTOR HAS ABSCONDED

6.8 TOLLING THE STATUTE OF LIMITATIONS
    6.801 Tolling by Filing Suit
    6.802 Other Tolling Provisions
    6.803 Actions Against Estates
    6.804 Dismissal with Prejudice; Dismissal Without Prejudice; Voluntary Dismissal of an Action Filed in Federal Court; Nonsuit

6.9 SANCTIONS

6.10 ASSIGNMENT OF PROCEEDS OF PERSONAL INJURY OR WRONGFUL DEATH CASES

6.11 OBTAINING A COSIGNER

6.12 ASSIGNMENT OF WAGES

6.13 MILITARY PERSONNEL AND FEDERAL EMPLOYEES

6.14 OBTAINING SECURITY FOR AN UNSECURED LOAN

6.15 BAD CHECKS
    6.1501 Criminal Sanctions
    6.1502 Civil Damages

6.16 LIABILITY OF INDIVIDUAL FOR ENTITY’S DEBTS

6.17 LIABILITY OF ENTITY FOR INDIVIDUAL’S DEBTS

6.18 LIABILITY OF DISSOLVED CORPORATION BY ESTOPPEL

6.19 SUSPENSION OF DRIVER’S LICENSE

6.20 RECOVERY OF CHILD SUPPORT OR SPOUSAL SUPPORT

6.21 RECOVERY OF CIVIL PENALTIES BY MEDICAL PROFESSIONALS

6.22 CIVIL PENALTIES FOR SHOPLIFTING AND EMPLOYEE THEFT

6.23 CIVIL PENALTIES FOR MAKING FALSE CLAIMS TO DEFRAUD THE COMMONWEALTH

6.24 CIVIL PENALTY FOR FAILURE TO PAY FOR GASOLINE

6.25 OTHER CIVIL PENALTIES OR STATUTORY AWARDS

6.26 EMPLOYER LIENS ON THIRD-PARTY ACTIONS IN WORKERS’ COMPENSATION AND UNINSURED MOTORIST CASES

6.27 RESTITUTION ORDERS

6.28 CURE OFFERS

6.29 DISSOLUTION OF LIMITED LIABILITY COMPANY OR LIMITED PARTNERSHIP

6.30 USING THE IRS (INDIRECTLY)

6.31 CONCLUSION

APPENDIX 6-1: BILL OF PARTICULARS INCORPORATING DEBTOR’S ADMISSION

APPENDIX 6-2: LETTER TO DEBTOR CONFIRMING PAYOUT PLAN

APPENDIX 6-3: PROMISSORY NOTE

APPENDIX 6-4: LETTER ACKNOWLEDGING RECEIPT OF PARTIAL PAYMENT

APPENDIX 6-5: SAMPLE BILL OF PARTICULARS

APPENDIX 6-6: CONFESSION OF JUDGMENT NOTE

APPENDIX 6-7: AFFIDAVIT FOR SERVICE OF PROCESS ON THE SECRETARY OF THE COMMONWEALTH (FORM DC-410)

APPENDIX 6-8: ASSIGNMENT OF PROCEEDS OF LITIGATION

APPENDIX 6-9: GUARANTY AGREEMENT

APPENDIX 6-10: GUARANTY AGREEMENT—ALTERNATIVE FORM

APPENDIX 6-11: WAGE ASSIGNMENT

APPENDIX 6-12: LETTER TO COMMANDING OFFICER OF DEBTOR

APPENDIX 6-13: LETTER TO PERSONNEL SUPERVISOR OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEE

APPENDIX 6-14: FOLLOW-UP LETTER TO PERSONNEL SUPERVISOR OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEE

APPENDIX 6-15: COURT-IMPOSED PAYMENT AGREEMENT

APPENDIX 6-16: DEBTOR’S PETITION FOR REINSTATEMENT OF LICENSE

APPENDIX 6-17: ORDER REINSTATING LICENSE

CHAPTER 7: SUIT

7.1 INTRODUCTION

7.2 CHOICE BETWEEN STATE COURT AND FEDERAL COURT
    7.201 In General
    7.202 Location of Court
    7.203 Prevention of Delay by Defendant
    7.204 Removal by Defendant to Federal Court

7.3 CHOICE BETWEEN CIRCUIT COURT AND GENERAL DISTRICT COURT
    7.301 In General
    7.302 General District Court
    7.303 Circuit Court

7.4 SUIT FOR MONEY JUDGMENT IN GENERAL DISTRICT COURT
    7.401 Forms
    7.402 Procedure
    7.403 Court Costs
    7.404 Local Rules
    7.405 Substitution of Counsel
    
7.5 VENUE IN GENERAL DISTRICT COURT
    7.501 Venue
    7.502 Preferred Venue
    7.503 Permissible Venue
    7.504 Forum Non Conveniens
    7.505 Commercial Transactions
    7.506 Practical Considerations
    7.507 Agreement as to Venue
    7.508 Multi-Party Actions

7.6 WARRANT IN DEBT IN GENERAL DISTRICT COURT
    7.601 In General
    7.602 Plaintiff
    7.603 Limitations on Pro Se Actions
    7.604 Naming the Defendant
    7.605 Defendant’s Address
    7.606 Amount Due
    7.607 Interest
    7.608 Basis of Claim
    7.609 Return Date

7.7 WARRANT IN DETINUE IN GENERAL DISTRICT COURT
    7.701 In General
    7.702 Venue
    7.703 Property Claimed
    7.704 Damages
    7.705 Attorney Fees
    7.706 Statute of Limitations
    7.707 Prejudgment Remedy of Detinue
    7.708 Use of Detinue to Try Title to Property or Determine Rights of Possession
    7.709 Form of Judgment and Election
    7.710 Execution
    7.711 Emergency Detinue

7.8 MOTION FOR JUDGMENT IN GENERAL DISTRICT COURT
    7.801 Requirements
    7.802 Advantages

7.9 CIVIL WARRANT OR MOTION FOR JUDGMENT UNDER SECTION 8.01-28

7.10 UNLAWFUL DETAINER ACTIONS
    7.1001 Unlawful Entry and Detainer
    7.1002 Tenant’s Personal Property

7.11 COURTROOM PRACTICE IN GENERAL DISTRICT COURT
    7.1101 In General
    7.1102 Obtaining Judgment in Uncontested Cases
    7.1103 Service of Process
    7.1104 Continuances
    7.1105 Dismissal of Paid Claims
    7.1106 Contested Cases
    7.1107 Judgments
    7.1108 Post-Judgment Remedies
    7.1109 Special Process Server
    7.1110 Duration of and Renewal of General District Court Judgments
    7.1111 Retention of General District Court Records

7.12 ACTIONS IN CIRCUIT COURT
    7.1201 Jurisdiction
    7.1202 Confession of Judgment

7.13 REMOVAL TO CIRCUIT COURT

7.14 APPEALS TO CIRCUIT COURT
    7.1401 In General
    7.1402 Bond
    7.1403 Trial de Novo
    7.1404 Practice Tips
    7.1405 Final Order
    7.1406 Withdrawal of Appeals

7.15 SUIT BY VERIFIED ACCOUNTS AND CONTRACTS

7.16 COUNTERCLAIMS

7.17 DISCOVERY

7.18 DEFAULT JUDGMENTS

7.19 DISMISSAL OF SUIT DUE TO INACTION OF THE PARTIES

7.20 EXECUTION ON JUDGMENTS

7.21 RECORDATION OF JUDGMENTS
    7.2101 Obtaining an Abstract of Judgment
    7.2102 Creating a Lien
    7.2103 Procedure for Recording Judgments
    7.2104 Enforcement of Judgment Liens
    7.2105 Judgments Against Nonresident Defendants
    7.2106 Validity of Judgment Against Subsequent Transferee
    7.2107 Other Reasons for Recording Judgments
    7.2108 Recording Foreign Judgments, Judgments of Other States, and Judgments of Federal Courts

7.22 RELEASE OF JUDGMENTS
    7.2201 Duty to Release Judgment
    7.2202 Procedure
    7.2203 Releasing Recorded Judgments
    7.2204 Release of Judgment by Judgment Debtor

7.23 CLOSED FILES

7.24 SMALL CLAIMS COURT

7.25 ALTERNATIVE DISPUTE RESOLUTION

APPENDIX 7-1: PROMISSORY NOTE

APPENDIX 7-2: GENERAL DISTRICT COURT CIVIL FEES ASSESSMENT

APPENDIX 7-3: WARRANT IN DEBT (FORM DC-412)

APPENDIX 7-4: WARRANT IN DEBT—SMALL CLAIMS DIVISION (FORM DC-402)

APPENDIX 7-5: WARRANT IN DEBT (ACTION BY INDIVIDUAL AGAINST INDIVIDUAL FOR A DEBT)

APPENDIX 7-6: WARRANT IN DEBT (ACTION BY CORPORATION AGAINST INDIVIDUAL AND GUARANTOR)

APPENDIX 7-7: WARRANT IN DEBT (ACTION BY FOREIGN CORPORATION AGAINST RESIDENT INDIVIDUAL)

APPENDIX 7-8: WARRANT IN DEBT (ACTION BY COMPANY IN REPRESENTATIVE CAPACITY AGAINST INDIVIDUAL WHERE BUSINESS IS NO LONGER OPERATING)

APPENDIX 7-9: WARRANT IN DEBT REQUESTING COMPOUND INTEREST

APPENDIX 7-10: WARRANT IN DEBT (ACTION BY PERSON IN REPRESENTATIVE CAPACITY AGAINST MULTIPLE DEFENDANTS CLAIMING INTEREST AT A RATE HIGHER THAN JUDGMENT RATE)

APPENDIX 7-11: WARRANT IN DEBT (ACTION BY MINOR AGAINST CORPORATION)

APPENDIX 7-12: WARRANT IN DEBT (ACTION BY SUCCESSOR CORPORATION AGAINST NONRESIDENT CORPORATION WITHOUT A REGISTERED AGENT)

APPENDIX 7-13: WARRANT IN DEBT (ACTION BY SUBROGEE FOR PROPERTY DAMAGE)

APPENDIX 7-14: WARRANT IN DEBT (ACTION BY PARTNERSHIP AGAINST NONRESIDENT INDIVIDUAL)

APPENDIX 7-15: WARRANT IN DEBT (ACTION BY PROFESSIONAL FOR SERVICES RENDERED TO MINOR CHILD)

APPENDIX 7-16: WARRANT IN DEBT (ACTION BY INDIVIDUAL TRADING UNDER FICTITIOUS NAME AGAINST INDIVIDUAL WITHOUT STREET ADDRESS)

APPENDIX 7-17: WARRANT IN DEBT (ACTION BY HEALTH CARE PROVIDER AGAINST PERSON IN REPRESENTATIVE CAPACITY)

APPENDIX 7-18: WARRANT IN DEBT (ACTION BY INDIVIDUAL AGAINST INDIVIDUAL WITH UNKNOWN LAST NAME)

APPENDIX 7-19: MOTION FOR JUDGMENT

APPENDIX 7-20: MOTION FOR JUDGMENT

APPENDIX 7-21: CERTIFICATE OF MAILING

APPENDIX 7-22: NOTICE OF COMMENCEMENT OF ACTION AND REQUEST FOR WAIVER OF SERVICE OF PROCESS AND ACCEPTANCE/WAIVER OF SERVICE OF PROCESS AND WAIVER OF FUTURE SERVICE OF PROCESS AND NOTICE

APPENDIX 7-23: BILL OF PARTICULARS—CONTRACT OR NOTE

APPENDIX 7-24: BILL OF PARTICULARS—DEFICIENCY ACTION

APPENDIX 7-25: BILL OF PARTICULARS—OPEN ACCOUNT

APPENDIX 7-26: NOTICE OF CHANGE OF ADDRESS (FORM DC-437)

APPENDIX 7-27: ABSTRACT OF JUDGMENT (FORM DC-465)

APPENDIX 7-28: SUMMONS FOR UNLAWFUL DETAINER (FORM DC-421)

APPENDIX 7-29: NOTICE OF HEARING TO ESTABLISH FINAL RENT AND DAMAGES (FORM DC-422)

APPENDIX 7-30: REQUEST FOR WRIT OF POSSESSION IN UNLAWFUL DETAINER PROCEEDINGS (FORM DC-469)

APPENDIX 7-31: PROMISSORY NOTE

APPENDIX 7-32: CONFESSION OF JUDGMENT

APPENDIX 7-33: LETTER TO CLERK OF COURT CONCERNING CONFESSION OF JUDGMENT

APPENDIX 7-34: LETTER TO CLERK OF COURT AUTHORIZING RELEASE OF JUDGMENT

APPENDIX 7-35: DEFAULT JUDGMENT ORDER

APPENDIX 7-36: DEFAULT JUDGMENT ORDER, SERVICE OF PROCESS BY POSTING

APPENDIX 7-37: DEFAULT JUDGMENT ORDER, ORE TENUS HEARING

APPENDIX 7-38: REQUEST FOR ABSTRACT OF JUDGMENT

APPENDIX 7-39: LETTER TO CLERK REQUESTING RECORDATION OF ABSTRACT OF JUDGMENT

APPENDIX 7-40: LETTER TO ASSESSOR OF REAL ESTATE REQUESTING DESCRIPTION OF PROPERTY

APPENDIX 7-41: RECORDATION OF JUDGMENT

APPENDIX 7-42: AFFIDAVIT OF NAME CHANGE BY DEFENDANT

APPENDIX 7-43: LETTER TO PURCHASER OF REAL ESTATE SUBJECT TO JUDGMENT LIEN

APPENDIX 7-44: LETTER TO DEBTOR ADVISING OF JUDGMENT LIEN

APPENDIX 7-45: LETTER TO CLERK OF DISTRICT COURT RELEASING JUDGMENT

APPENDIX 7-46: NOTICE OF SATISFACTION (FORM DC-458)

APPENDIX 7-47: LETTER TO CLERK OF CIRCUIT COURT RELEASING JUDGMENT

APPENDIX 7-48: AUTHORIZATION OF CLERK OF COURT TO RELEASE JUDGMENT

APPENDIX 7-49: AUTHORITY TO CLERK OF COURT TO RELEASE DOCKETED JUDGMENT

APPENDIX 7-50: CASE STATUS CARD

APPENDIX 7-51: CASE STATUS CARD

APPENDIX 7-52: CASE STATUS CARD

APPENDIX 7-53: SERVICE OTHER THAN BY VIRGINIA SHERIFF (FORMS DC-411 AND CC-1407)

APPENDIX 7-54: NOTICE FOR REVIVAL OF JUDGMENT

APPENDIX 7-55: ORDER TO SHOW CAUSE FOR REVIVAL OF JUDGMENT

APPENDIX 7-56: ORDER FOR REVIVAL OF JUDGMENT

APPENDIX 7-57: NOTICE AND MOTION FOR JUDGMENT

APPENDIX 7-58: AFFIDAVIT CONCERNING SERVICE OF PROCESS ON A CORPORATION

APPENDIX 7-59: AFFIDAVIT—DEFAULT JUDGMENT—SERVICEMEMBERS CIVIL RELIEF ACT (FORM DC-418)

APPENDIX 7-60: MOTION TO REHEAR/MOTION FOR NEW TRIAL (FORM DC-368)

APPENDIX 7-61: MOTION TO SET ASIDE DEFAULT JUDGMENT (FORM DC-434)

APPENDIX 7-62: BILL OF PARTICULARS (FORM DC-441)

APPENDIX 7-63: GROUNDS OF DEFENSE (FORM DC-442)

APPENDIX 7-64: MOTION AND NOTICE OF HEARING (FORM DC-371)

APPENDIX 7-65: MOTION FOR JUDGMENT TO BE MARKED SATISFIED (FORM DC-459)

APPENDIX 7-66: SUBPOENA DUCES TECUM (CIVIL)—ATTORNEY ISSUED (FORM DC-498)

APPENDIX 7-67: SUBPOENA FOR WITNESS (CIVIL)—ATTORNEY ISSUED (FORM DC-497)

APPENDIX 7-68: MOTION AND ORDER FOR VOLUNTARY NONSUIT (FORM DC-419)

APPENDIX 7-69: NOTICE OF MOTION FOR NONSUIT AS A MATTER OF RIGHT

APPENDIX 7-70: ORDER

APPENDIX 7-71: NOTICE OF HEARING ON MOTION TO SUFFER A SECOND OR SUBSEQUENT NONSUIT

APPENDIX 7-72: ORDER

APPENDIX 7-73: NOTICE OF APPEAL—CIVIL (FORM DC-475)

APPENDIX 7-74: CIVIL APPEAL BOND (FORM DC-460)

APPENDIX 7-75: WARRANT IN DETINUE (FORM DC-414)

APPENDIX 7-76: WRITS OF POSSESSION AND FIERI FACIAS IN DETINUE (FORM DC-468)

APPENDIX 7-77: MOTION AND NOTICE AND JUDGMENT FOR ARREARAGES (FORM DC-625)

APPENDIX 7-78: ITEMIZED LIST OF DAMAGES (FORM DC-443)

CHAPTER 8: EXECUTIONS ON JUDGMENTS

8.1 LEVY (EXECUTION ON PERSONAL PROPERTY)
    8.101 In General
    8.102 Issuance of Writ
    8.103 Effect of Lien and Levy
    8.104 Effect of Prior Lien
    8.105 Levy on Money
    8.106 Procedure
    8.107 Sheriff’s Reports
    8.108 Determining Whether to Proceed with Sale
    8.109 Using a Locksmith to Enter Premises
    8.110 Posting Bond
    8.111 Client’s Approval
    8.112 Steps Short of Sale
    8.113 Sheriff’s Sale
    8.114 Conclusion

8.2 EXECUTION ON PROPERTY NOT CAPABLE OF BEING LEVIED UPON
    8.201 In General
    8.202 Notice
    8.203 Practical Application
    8.204 Conclusion

8.3 GARNISHMENT
    8.301 In General
    8.302 Prerequisites to Filing
    8.303 Initiation of Garnishment
    8.304 Court in Which Garnishment May Be Filed
    8.305 Filling Out a Garnishment Form
    8.306 Calculating the Amount of the Garnishment
    8.307 Garnishment Answer
    8.308 Examination of Garnishee Defendant
    8.309 Judgment on the Garnishment
    8.310 Bank Account Garnishment
    8.311 The Exemption Hearing
    8.312 Liens of Other Creditors on Debtor’s Bank Account
    8.313 Other Garnishments
    8.314 Effect of Bankruptcy on a Pending Garnishment
    8.315 A Word to the Wise
    8.316 Reference

8.4 RELEASING GARNISHMENTS
    8.401 Procedure
    8.402 Conditional Release
    8.403 Reasons to Release a Garnishment
    8.404 Arrangements for Payment
    8.405 Releasing a Checking Account Garnishment
    8.406 Improving the Client’s Position
    8.407 Conclusion

8.5 JUDGMENT CREDITORS’ SUITS
    8.501 In General
    8.502 Liens of Homeowners’ Associations
    8.503 Partition of Jointly Owned Property
    8.504 Setting Aside Fraudulent Conveyances
    8.505 A Hypothetical Case
    8.506 Parties
    8.507 Complaint
    8.508 Procedure and Evidence
    8.509 Practical Considerations
    8.510 Effect of Bankruptcy
    8.511 Liability of Deceased Debtor’s Real Estate for Payment of Debts
    8.512 Conclusion

8.6 CHARGING ORDERS—EXECUTIONS AGAINST AN INTEREST IN A PARTNERSHIP OR LLC
    8.601 In General
    8.602 Procedure
    8.603 Practice Suggestions
    8.604 Conclusion

8.7 PARTITION OF PERSONAL PROPERTY

8.8 DEBTOR’S EXEMPTIONS
8.801 In General
8.802 “Poor Debtor’s” Exemption
8.803 Homestead Exemption
8.804 Other Exemptions
8.805 Exemption for Disabled Veterans
8.806 Minimizing Debtor Exemptions

APPENDIX 8-1: WRIT OF FIERI FACIAS (FORM DC-467)

APPENDIX 8-2: ORDER OF DEFAULT JUDGMENT ALLOWING IMMEDIATE EXECUTION

APPENDIX 8-3: LETTER TO CLERK REQUESTING NEW EXECUTION TO BE SENT TO SHERIFF

APPENDIX 8-4: LETTER TO CLERK REQUESTING NEW EXECUTION RETURNED TO LAW FIRM

APPENDIX 8-5: LETTER TO SHERIFF REQUESTING LEVY

APPENDIX 8-6: LETTER TO SHERIFF REQUESTING LEVY ON SPECIFIC VEHICLE

APPENDIX 8-7: LETTER TO SHERIFF REQUESTING LEVY ON VEHICLE AND ENCLOSING INDEMNIFYING BOND

APPENDIX 8-8: REPORT OF SHERIFF ADVISING DEBTOR PROPERTY WILL BE SOLD

APPENDIX 8-9: LETTER TO CREDITOR-CLIENT REQUESTING COSTS AND AUTHORIZATION TO PROCURE INDEMNIFYING BOND

APPENDIX 8-10: POWER OF ATTORNEY FOR INDEMNIFYING BOND

APPENDIX 8-11: LETTER TO SHERIFF REGARDING CONDITION AND VALUE OF PROPERTY

APPENDIX 8-12: LETTER TO SHERIFF REQUESTING AMOUNT OF BOND

APPENDIX 8-13: LETTER TO DEBTOR ADVISING THAT SHERIFF WILL BRING LOCKSMITH TO GAIN ENTRY TO MAKE LEVY

APPENDIX 8-14: NOTICE OF SHERIFF’S SALE

APPENDIX 8-15: NOTICE OF LIEN OF FIERI FACIAS

APPENDIX 8-16: LETTER TO CLERK REQUESTING ISSUANCE OF LIEN OF FIERI FACIAS

APPENDIX 8-17: LETTER TO SHERIFF REQUESTING SERVICE OF NOTICE OF FIERI FACIAS

APPENDIX 8-18: LETTER ADVISING WHY LIEN OF FIERI FACIAS WAS SERVED

APPENDIX 8-19: SUGGESTION FOR SUMMONS IN GARNISHMENT (FORM DC-450)

APPENDIX 8-20: GARNISHMENT SUMMONS (FORM DC-451)

APPENDIX 8-21: REQUEST FOR HEARING—GARNISHMENT EXEMPTION CLAIM (FORM DC-454)

APPENDIX 8-22: AFFIDAVIT CONCERNING DEPENDENT CHILDREN AND HOUSEHOLD INCOME (FORM DC-449)

APPENDIX 8-23: AFFIDAVIT TO SERVE GARNISHMENT ON REGISTERED AGENT

APPENDIX 8-24: AFFIDAVIT TO SERVE GARNISHMENT ON REGISTERED AGENT

APPENDIX 8-25: AFFIDAVIT TO SERVE GARNISHMENT ON REGISTERED AGENT

APPENDIX 8-26: GARNISHEE INFORMATION SHEET (FORM DC-455)

APPENDIX 8-27: GARNISHEE ANSWER (FORM DC-456)

APPENDIX 8-28: LETTER TO EMPLOYER REGARDING FAILURE TO ANSWER IN GARNISHMENT PROCEEDING

APPENDIX 8-29: SHOW CAUSE SUMMONS (FORM DC-481x)

APPENDIX 8-30: AFFIDAVIT REGARDING FICTITIOUS NAME

APPENDIX 8-31: NOTICE OF HEARING

APPENDIX 8-32: LETTER TO TENANTS NOTIFYING THEM OF GARNISHMENT OF RENT

APPENDIX 8-33: LETTER TO CLERK RELEASING GARNISHMENT

APPENDIX 8-34: LETTER TO GARNISHEE RELEASING GARNISHMENT

APPENDIX 8-35: GARNISHMENT DISPOSITION (FORM DC-453)

APPENDIX 8-36: ORDER DISMISSING GARNISHMENT—MONEY PAID TO ATTORNEY

APPENDIX 8-37: ORDER DISMISSING GARNISHMENT—EMPLOYER HOLDING MONEY

APPENDIX 8-38: ORDER DISMISSING GARNISHMENT—MONEY PAID TO COURT

APPENDIX 8-39: LETTER TO EMPLOYER AGREEING TO ACCEPT CHECK AND RELEASE GARNISHMENT

APPENDIX 8-40: LETTER TO BANK RELEASING GARNISHMENT  

APPENDIX 8-41: AGREEMENT WITH DEBTOR TO RELEASE GARNISHMENT

APPENDIX 8-42: WAGE ASSIGNMENT

APPENDIX 8-43: COMPLAINT IN JUDGMENT CREDITOR’S SUIT— PROPERTY UNENCUMBERED

APPENDIX 8-44: COMPLAINT IN JUDGMENT CREDITOR’S SUIT— PROPERTY TRANSFERRED SUBSEQUENT TO JUDGMENT

APPENDIX 8-45: COMPLAINT IN JUDGMENT CREDITOR’S SUIT— PROPERTY ENCUMBERED

APPENDIX 8-46: COMPLAINT IN PARTITION SUIT

APPENDIX 8-47: ANSWER OF DEFENDANT TRUSTEE—JUDGMENT CREDITOR’S SUIT

APPENDIX 8-48: ANSWER OF DEFENDANT—PARTITION SUIT

APPENDIX 8-49: CHANCERY DECREE OF REFERENCE—JUDGMENT CREDITOR’S SUIT

APPENDIX 8-50: DECREE CONFIRMING COMMISSIONER’S REPORT AND ORDERING SALE— JUDGMENT CREDITOR’S SUIT

APPENDIX 8-51: DECREE CONFIRMING COMMISSIONER’S REPORT AND ORDERING SALE—PARTITION SUIT

APPENDIX 8-52: REPORT OF SPECIAL COMMISSIONER

APPENDIX 8-53: REPORT OF SPECIAL COMMISSIONER

APPENDIX 8-54: DECREE OF CONFIRMATION

APPENDIX 8-55: DECREE OF CONFIRMATION

APPENDIX 8-56: SPECIAL COMMISSIONER’S DEED

APPENDIX 8-57: SPECIAL COMMISSIONER’S DEED

APPENDIX 8-58: PETITION FOR DISTRIBUTION

APPENDIX 8-59: PETITION FOR DISTRIBUTION

APPENDIX 8-60: ORDER OF DISTRIBUTION

APPENDIX 8-61: ORDER OF DISTRIBUTION

APPENDIX 8-62: LETTER TO DEBTOR ADVISING OF JUDGMENT CREDITOR’S SUIT

APPENDIX 8-63: LETTER TO DEBTOR ADVISING OF HEARING BEFORE COMMISSIONER IN CHANCERY

APPENDIX 8-64: LETTER TO DEBTOR CONFIRMING ARRANGEMENTS FOR PAYING JUDGMENT UPON DISMISSAL OF JUDGMENT CREDITOR’S SUIT

APPENDIX 8-65: MEMORANDUM OF LIS PENDENS AFFECTING REAL ESTATE SUIT PURSUANT TO SECTIONS 64.2-532 THROUGH 64.2-538 OF THE VIRGINIA CODE

APPENDIX 8-66: FINAL ORDER IN SUIT PURSUANT TO SECTIONS 64.2-532 THROUGH 64.2-538 OF THE VIRGINIA CODE

APPENDIX 8-67: HOMESTEAD DEED TO CLAIM PERSONAL PROPERTY PURSUANT TO SECTION 34-14 OF THE VIRGINIA CODE

APPENDIX 8-68: WAGE GARNISHMENT FACT SHEET

CHAPTER 9: ATTACHMENTS

9.1 INTRODUCTION

9.2 CLAIMS FOR WHICH AN ATTACHMENT MAY BE BROUGHT
    9.201 In General
    9.202 Jurisdiction
    9.203 Venue
    9.204 Grounds
    
9.3 COMMENCING THE ATTACHMENT ACTION

9.4 PLEADINGS AND ORDERS

9.5 SUBSEQUENT PROCEDURE

9.6 TRIAL

9.7 PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS

9.8 PROBLEM AREAS

APPENDIX 9-1: NOTICE OF LIS PENDENS OR ATTACHMENT

APPENDIX 9-2: PETITION FOR ATTACHMENT—PERSONAL PROPERTY

APPENDIX 9-3: PETITION FOR ATTACHMENT—SPECIFIC PERSONAL PROPERTY AND REAL ESTATE

APPENDIX 9-4: ATTACHMENT TO BE SERVED BY THE SHERIFF

APPENDIX 9-5: FINAL ORDER

APPENDIX 9-6: FINAL ORDER

APPENDIX 9-7: ATTACHMENT PETITION (FORM DC-445)

APPENDIX 9-8: ATTACHMENT SUMMONS (FORM DC-446)

APPENDIX 9-9: PLAINTIFF’S BOND FOR LEVY OR SEIZURE (FORM DC-447)

CHAPTER 10: REAL PROPERTY FORECLOSURES

10.1 INTRODUCTION

10.2 PRELIMINARY MATTERS
    10.201 In General
    10.202 Qualification of Trustees
    10.203 Separation of Title
    10.204 Equity of Redemption

10.3 LOAN DOCUMENTS
    10.301 Note
    10.302 Deed of Trust
    10.303 Title Insurance
    10.304 Account History
    10.305 Authorization to Foreclose

10.4 PRIORITY OF LIENS
    10.401 Scope of Title Examination
    10.402 Real Estate Tax Lien
    10.403 Cloud on Title
    10.404 Determination by Court
    10.405 Mechanics’ Liens
    10.406 Lis Pendens

10.5 REQUIRED NOTICES
    10.501 Notices Required by the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act
    10.502 Lost Note Notice
    10.503 Notices of Acceleration and Foreclosure
    10.504 Advertisement
    10.505 Notice to the Internal Revenue Service
    10.506 Notice to Other Interested Parties
    10.507 Post-Sale Notice Required for Residential Properties
    
10.6 SUBSTITUTION OF TRUSTEES

10.7 RECEIVERS

10.8 CONDUCT OF FORECLOSURE SALE
    10.801 In General
    10.802 Time
    10.803 Place
    10.804 Manner
    10.805 Terms
    10.806 Individual and Bulk Offerings
    10.807 Personal Property
    10.808 One Price Written Bid
    10.809 Right of Noteholder or Trustee to Bid
    10.810 Valuation
    10.811 Deposit
    10.812 Completion of Sale
    10.813 Recess and Postponement of Sale
    10.814 Enforcement of Sale
    10.815 Closing
    10.816 Distribution of Sale Proceeds
    10.817 Trustee’s Fees and Expenses
    10.818 Release of Deed of Trust

10.9 REPORT TO COMMISSIONER OF ACCOUNTS
    10.901 Statutory Requirement
    10.902 Effect of Failure to File
    10.903 Contents of Report
    10.904 Disposition of Documents
    10.905 Approval Process; Exceptions
    10.906 Effect of Confirmation
    10.907 Surcharge and Falsification
    10.908 Collateral Attacks
    
10.10 POST-SALE REMEDIES
    10.1001 Deficiency Actions
    10.1002 Obtaining Possession
    10.1003 Purchaser’s Default

10.11 FEDERAL LIENS AND REDEMPTION RIGHTS
    10.1101 Creation of Federal Tax Lien
    10.1102 Priority
    10.1103 Notice
    10.1104 Consent

10.12 MECHANICS’ LIENS, JUDGMENT LIENS, AND TAX LIENS
    10.1201 Mechanics’ Liens
    10.1202 Judgment Liens
    10.1203 Tax Liens

10.13 DEED IN LIEU OF FORECLOSURE

10.14 BANKRUPTCY CONSIDERATIONS
    10.1401 Automatic Stay
    10.1402 Reaffirmation
    10.1403 Cure of Default
    10.1404 Equity of Redemption

10.15 ETHICAL ISSUES
    10.1501 Professional Corporation as Trustee
    10.1502 Corporate Trustee
    10.1503 Employee of the Noteholder as Trustee
    10.1504 Fiduciary Responsibility of the Trustee
    10.1505 Trustee Bidding at Sale
    10.1506 Compliance with Deed of Trust Terms
    10.1507 Conflicts of Interest

10.16 COMMISSION AND EXPENSES
    10.1601 Trustee’s Commission
    10.1602 Lesser and Greater Charges
    10.1603 Expenses

10.17 THE SERVICEMEMBERS CIVIL RELIEF ACT
    10.1701 In General
    10.1702 Applicability
    10.1703 Foreclosure-Related Protections Afforded by the SCRA
    10.1704 Methods of Protection

APPENDIX 10-1: LETTER TO CLIENT REGARDING RECEIPT OF FILE

APPENDIX 10-2: APPOINTMENT OF SUBSTITUTE TRUSTEE

APPENDIX 10-3: LETTER TO DEBTOR ADVISING OF FORECLOSURE

APPENDIX 10-4: NOTICE OF TRUSTEE’S SALE OF PROPERTY

APPENDIX 10-5: LETTER TO NEWSPAPER ADVERTISING FORECLOSURE

APPENDIX 10-6: BIDDING INSTRUCTIONS

APPENDIX 10-7: LIST OF BIDDERS ATTENDING SALE

APPENDIX 10-8: TRUSTEE’S MEMORANDUM OF SALE

APPENDIX 10-9: SUBSTITUTE TRUSTEE’S DEED

APPENDIX 10-10: SUBSTITUTE TRUSTEE’S REPORT

APPENDIX 10-11: LETTER TO INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE REGARDING LIEN

APPENDIX 10-12: NOTICE OF NONJUDICIAL SALE OF PROPERTY

APPENDIX 10-13: LETTER TO COMMISSIONER OF ACCOUNTS REGARDING REPORT

APPENDIX 10-14: PARTIAL REPORT OF TITLE

APPENDIX 10-15: NOTICE TO QUIT PREMISES

CHAPTER 11: MEMORANDUM OF LIS PENDENS

11.1 INTRODUCTION

11.2 PURCHASER PENDENTE LITE

11.3 FILING A MEMORANDUM OF LIS PENDENS

11.4 RELEASE OF A LIS PENDENS

11.5 USE OF LIS PENDENS IN COLLECTION MATTERS

11.6 IMPROPER USE OF LIS PENDENS

11.7 CONCLUSION

APPENDIX 11-1: MEMORANDUM OF LIS PENDENS AFFECTING REAL ESTATE—PARTITION SUIT

APPENDIX 11-2: MEMORANDUM OF LIS PENDENS AFFECTING REAL ESTATE—FRAUDULENT CONVEYANCE

CHAPTER 12: MECHANICS’ LIENS

12.1 IN GENERAL
    12.101 Statutory Creation
    12.102 Statutory Construction

12.2 WHO MAY CLAIM THE LIEN
    12.201 Identifying a Mechanic’s Lien Claimant
    12.202 Statement Declaring Intention to Claim the Benefit of a Lien Required
    12.203 Laborers and Suppliers
    12.204 Architects, Engineers, and Surveyors
    12.205 General Contractors and Subcontractors
    
12.3 PROPERTY SUBJECT TO THE LIEN
    12.301 In General
    12.302 Public Property
    12.303 Multiple Contracts, Lots, Units, or Buildings
    12.304 Utility and Paving Contractors
    12.305 Leased Property
    12.306 Condominiums
    12.307 Time-Share Property
    
12.4 PERFECTING THE LIEN
    12.401 The 90-Day Rule
    12.402 “Completed or Otherwise Terminated”
    12.403 Replacement Materials; Open Accounts
    12.404 Certification of Mailing

12.5 MECHANICS’ LIEN AGENTS
    12.501 In General
    12.502 Designating the Mechanics’ Lien Agent
    12.503 Posting the Building Permit
    12.504 Sufficiency of the Building Permit
    12.505 Notice Requirements
    12.506 Evidence of Receipt
    12.507 Inaccurate Description of the Property
    12.508 Time Period for Notice
    12.509 Notice After the 30-Day Period
    12.510 Determining Whether a Proper Building Permit Has Been Issued
    12.511 Amendment of Building Permit
    12.512 Exceptions to the Requirement to Notify the Mechanics’ Lien Agent

12.6 AFFIDAVIT VERIFYING PAYMENT FOR LABOR AND MATERIALS
    12.601 Purchaser to Be Provided Affidavit or Statement at Settlement
    12.602 Penalty for Failure to Provide

12.7 THE 150-DAY RULE
    12.701 Statutory Basis of Rule
    12.702 Cases Construing the Rule
    
12.8 STATUTORY FORMS FOR THE MEMORANDUM OF LIEN
    12.801 The Contractor’s Memorandum
    12.802 The Subcontractor’s Memorandum
    12.803 Statement Declaring Intention to Claim the Benefit of a Lien Required
    
12.9 DEFENSES
    12.901 Owner’s Priority
    12.902 Limitation on the Amount Claimed by Subcontractors and Sub-Subcontractors
    12.903 Licensure of Claimant

12.10 PERSONAL LIABILITY OF OWNER OR GENERAL CONTRACTOR
    12.1001 Remedy Created by Section 43-11 of the Virginia Code
    12.1002 Creation of Personal Liability of Owner and General Contractor
    12.1003 Priority of the Section 43-11 Claim
    12.1004 Owner’s Right to Setoff for Work Not Completed by General Contractor
    12.1005 Limitations on Owner’s or General Contractor’s Liability

12.11 ENFORCEMENT OF THE LIEN
    12.1101 Complaint
    12.1102 Intervening Petition by Other Lienholders
    12.1103 Parties
    12.1104 When the Suit Must Be Brought
    12.1105 Automatic Stay in Bankruptcy
    12.1106 Scope of Jurisdiction
    12.1107 Sale of the Property
    12.1108 Challenging the Validity of Lien
    12.1109 Court-Ordered Release
    12.1110 Diverting Funds

12.12 PRIORITY OF LIENS
    12.1201 In General
    12.1202 Priority over Deeds of Trust
    12.1203 Priority over Security Interest in Accounts Receivable
    12.1204 Priority Among Mechanics’ Liens
    12.1205 Removal of Materials Affixed to the Structure
    12.1206 Federal Liens
    
12.13 ALTERNATIVES TO MECHANICS’ LIENS
    12.1301 Civil Suit
    12.1302 Statutory Alternatives
    12.1303 Threat of Filing
    12.1304 Contract Provisions

12.14 MISCELLANEOUS CONSIDERATIONS
    12.1401 Assignment
    12.1402 Waiver
    12.1403 Slander of Title
    12.1404 Forfeiture
    12.1405 Release or Discharge
    12.1406 Attorney Fees

12.15 PRACTICAL EFFECTS OF FILING A LIEN
    12.1501 Effect on the Owner
    12.1502 Effect on the Claimant’s Business
    12.1503 Effect on the General Contractor
    12.1504 Effect on the Construction Lender
    12.1505 Effect on the Title Agency

APPENDIX 12-1: MEMORANDUM FOR MECHANIC’S LIEN CLAIMED BY GENERAL CONTRACTOR UNDER SECTION 43-4 OF THE VIRGINIA CODE

APPENDIX 12-2: MEMORANDUM FOR MECHANIC’S LIEN CLAIMED BY SUBCONTRACTOR UNDER SECTION 43-7 OF THE VIRGINIA CODE

APPENDIX 12-3: MEMORANDUM FOR MECHANIC’S LIEN CLAIMED BY SUB-SUBCONTRACTOR UNDER SECTION 43-9 OF THE VIRGINIA CODE

APPENDIX 12-4: COMPLAINT TO ASSERT CLAIM AGAINST BOND ON STATE BUILDING OR PROJECT

APPENDIX 12-5: DISCLOSURE STATEMENT FOR SITE DEVELOPMENT IMPROVEMENTS

APPENDIX 12-6: NOTICE TO MECHANICS’ LIEN AGENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 43-4.01 OF THE VIRGINIA CODE

APPENDIX 12-7: OWNERS’ AFFIDAVIT AS TO MECHANICS’ LIENS AND POSSESSION (WITH “GAP” COVERAGE)

APPENDIX 12-8: COMPLAINT TO ENFORCE MECHANIC’S LIEN

APPENDIX 12-9: STATEMENT OF ACCOUNT

APPENDIX 12-10: PETITION TO BOND OFF LIEN UNDER SECTION 43-71 OF THE VIRGINIA CODE

APPENDIX 12-11: BOND TO BOND OFF LIEN UNDER SECTION 43-71 OF THE VIRGINIA CODE

APPENDIX 12-12: DECREE TO BOND OFF LIEN UNDER SECTION 43-71 OF THE VIRGINIA CODE

APPENDIX 12-13: ATTORNEY CHECKLIST FOR MECHANIC’S LIEN CASE

CHAPTER 13: OTHER LIENS

13.1 INTRODUCTION

13.2 INNKEEPERS’ LIENS

13.3 LIVERY STABLE OR MARINA KEEPERS’ LIENS

13.4 MECHANICS’ LIEN FOR REPAIRS

13.5 ENFORCEMENT OF LIENS

13.6 REPRESENTING SECURED CREDITORS

13.7 REPRESENTING MECHANICS AND STOREKEEPERS

13.8 RIGHTS OF THIRD PARTIES

13.9 CONCLUSION

APPENDIX 13-1: SUMMONS—LIEN OF MECHANIC FOR REPAIRS (FORM DC-463)

APPENDIX 13-2: COMPLAINT

CHAPTER 14: BANKRUPTCY CONSIDERATIONS

14.1 INTRODUCTION

14.2 CHAPTER 7
    14.201 Overview of Chapter 7
    14.202 Creditor Strategies in Chapter 7 Cases

14.3 CHAPTER 11
    14.301 Overview of Chapter 11
    14.302 Effect on Secured Claims of Confirmation of a Chapter 11 Plan
    14.303 Chapter 11 Creditor Strategies

14.4 CHAPTER 13
    14.401 Overview of Chapter 13
    14.402 Secured Non-Priority Creditors
    14.403 Claims Secured by Debtor’s Residence
    14.404 Effect of Confirmation on a Deed of Trust Lien
    14.405 Chapter 13 Creditor Strategies
    14.406 Overview of the Automatic Stay
    14.407 The Bankruptcy Estate: Property Interests Subject to the Automatic Stay
    14.408 Property Exempt from the Automatic Stay
    14.409 Acts Exempt from the Automatic Stay
    14.410 The Co-Debtor Stay of 11 U.S.C. § 1301
    14.411 Violations of the Automatic Stay
    14.412 Duration of the Stay

14.5 RELIEF FROM THE AUTOMATIC STAY
    14.501 The Statute
    14.502 Bankruptcy Rule 4001
    14.503 No Automatic Stay on Appeal
    14.504 Local Rules
    14.505 Grounds for Relief from the Automatic Stay
    14.506 Motion for Relief
    14.507 Ex Parte Relief
    14.508 Notice
    14.509 Certificates
    14.510 Experts
    14.511 Non-expert Opinion
    14.512 Trial
    14.513 Scope of Relief
    
14.6 OTHER CREDITORS’ ISSUES IN BANKRUPTCY
    14.601 Fraudulent Conveyance Attacks
    14.602 Creditors’ Interest in Rents
    14.603 Lien Avoidance
    14.604 Reaffirmation
    14.605 Exemptions

APPENDIX 14-1: MOTION FOR RELIEF FROM STAY (CHAPTER 7)  

APPENDIX 14-2: MOTION FOR RELIEF FROM STAY (CHAPTER 13)

APPENDIX 14-3: MOTION FOR RELIEF FROM STAY (CHAPTER 11)

APPENDIX 14-4: PRE-HEARING ORDER

APPENDIX 14-5: MOVANT’S CERTIFICATION REQUIRED WITH RESPECT TO MOTION FOR RELIEF FROM STAY

APPENDIX 14-6: NOTICE OF MOTION FOR RELIEF FROM STAY

APPENDIX 14-7: NOTICE OF MOTION

APPENDIX 14-8: NOTICE OF MOTION (OR OBJECTION)

APPENDIX 14-9: ORDER (CHAPTER 7)

APPENDIX 14-10: ORDER (CHAPTER 13)

APPENDIX 14-11: REAFFIRMATION DISCLOSURE STATEMENT

APPENDIX 14-12: REAFFIRMATION AGREEMENT

APPENDIX 14-13: CERTIFICATION BY DEBTOR’S ATTORNEY

APPENDIX 14-14: DEBTOR’S STATEMENT IN SUPPORT OF REAFFIRMATION AGREEMENT

APPENDIX 14-15: MOTION FOR COURT APPROVAL OF REAFFIRMATION AGREEMENT

APPENDIX 14-16: ORDER APPROVING REAFFIRMATION AGREEMENT

TABLE OF AUTHORITIES

INDEX


Authors

Authors

Hon. Robert A. Pustilnik, Richmond General District Court (Ret.) (Expand/Collapse Bio)

Judge Robert A. Pustilnik served as judge of the Richmond General District Court, Civil Division, prior to his retirement in 2013. He had previously been a partner in a very active collection practice from 1969 until April 2002. The prior editions of this book were written while he was in that practice, and the book in no way reflects his views as a judge. Judge Pustilnik has been a regular speaker for Virginia CLE, the Richmond Bar Association, and other professional groups. He was a founding member of the National Association of Retail Collection Attorneys and one of the original members of the Virginia Creditors' Bar Association. While in private practice, he served as pro bono counsel for Richmond Legal Aid. Judge Pustilnik retired from the bench in January 2013 but continues to sit as a substitute judge.

Steven L. Higgs, Steven L. Higgs, P.C. / Roanoke (Expand/Collapse Bio)

Steven L. Higgs, author of Chapters 4, 10, and 14, is the principal of Steven L. Higgs, P.C., in Roanoke. He is certified in Creditors' Rights and in Consumer Bankruptcy Law by the American Board of Certification. His areas of practice include representing creditors in bankruptcy cases, creditors' rights, civil litigation, and commercial real estate. Mr. Higgs earned a B.A. from Washington and Lee University in 1980 and a J.D. in 1983 from the T.C. Williams School of Law, University of Richmond. He is a frequent speaker for Virginia CLE and is a contributing author of four Virginia Lawyers Practice Deskbooks: Bankruptcy Practice in Virginia (3d ed. 2012), Debt Collection for Virginia Lawyers—A Systematic Approach (6th ed. 2015), Enforcement of Liens and Judgments in Virginia (7th ed. 2015), and The Virginia Lawyer—A Deskbook for Practitioners (5th ed. 2015). Mr. Higgs is the author or co-author of more than 100 articles, seminar outlines, and book chapters on bankruptcy law, creditors' rights law, legal ethics, and real estate foreclosures. He is a past president of the Roanoke Bar Association and a member of the American Bar Association, the Virginia State Bar, and the American Bankruptcy Institute. He is a Fellow of the American Bar Association, the Virginia Law Foundation, the Roanoke Law Foundation, the Litigation Counsel of America, and the National Conference of Bar Presidents.

James L. Windsor, Kaufman & Canoles, P.C. / Virginia Beach (Expand/Collapse Bio)

James L. Windsor, author of Chapter 12, is the Managing Director of the Virginia Beach office of Kaufman & Canoles, P.C. and is the Chairman of the firm's Real Estate Claims, Title Insurance and Mortgage Default Solutions Group. Mr. Windsor is an AV Preeminent-rated lawyer with over 30 years of experience and expertise in counseling and litigation involving title insurance, real property, construction, mechanics' liens, bond claims, mortgage lending, creditors' rights, and commercial and banking law. He earned a B.S. degree, cum laude, from James Madison University and a J.D. from the T.C. Williams School of Law at the University of Richmond. Mr. Windsor is a member of the Virginia State Bar, the American Bar Association, the Virginia Beach Bar Association, and the Virginia Land Title Association. Mr. Windsor lectures frequently before construction and real estate professionals, lenders, lawyers, and others involved in construction and real estate law. He has written a book, a law review article, and other articles on topics of interest to the construction and real estate industry. Mr. Windsor was selected by peers and recognized by Virginia Business Magazine as a member of "Virginia's Legal Elite" in 2003, 2004, 2007-2014 in the area of Construction Law. He was also listed in Virginia Super Lawyers for 2006, 2010-2013, and 2015 in the area of Real Estate.

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